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Saint-Pierre-du-Chemin, France

Karila L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Roux P.,Aix - Marseille University | Rolland B.,Lille University Hospital Center | Benyamina A.,University Paris - Sud | And 3 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Padilla N.,Aix - Marseille University | Maraninchi M.,Aix - Marseille University | Beliard S.,Aix - Marseille University | Berthet B.,AP HM | And 11 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Objective - The dyslipidemia of obesity and other insulin-resistant states is characterized by the elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) of both hepatic (apoB-100-containing very low-density lipoprotein) and intestinal (apoB-48-containing chylomicrons) origin. Bariatric surgery is a well-established and effective modality for the treatment of obesity and is associated with improvements in several metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, including a reduction in plasma triglycerides. Here, we have investigated the effect of bariatric surgery on TRL metabolism.Approach and Results - Twenty-two nondiabetic, obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery: sleeve gastrectomy (n=12) or gastric bypass (n=10) were studied. Each subject underwent 1 lipoprotein turnover study 1 month before surgery followed by a second study, 6 months after surgery, using established stable isotope enrichment methodology, in constant fed state. TRL-apoB-100 concentration was significantly reduced after sleeve gastrectomy, explained by a decrease (P<0.05) in TRL-apoB-100 production rate and an increase (P<0.05) in TRL-apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate. TRLapoB- 48 concentration was also significantly reduced after sleeve gastrectomy, explained by reduction in TRL-apoB-48 production rate (P<0.05). For gastric bypass, although TRL-apoB-100 concentration declined after surgery (P<0.01), without a significant decline in TRL-apoB-48, there was no significant change in either TRL-apoB-100 or TRL-apoB-48 production rate or fractional catabolic rate. The reduction in TRL-apoB-100 concentration was significantly associated with a reduction in plasma apoC-III in the pooled group of patients undergoing bariatric surgery.Conclusions - This is the first human lipoprotein kinetic study to explore the mechanism of improvement of TRL metabolism after bariatric surgery. These effects may contribute to the decrease of cardiovascular mortality after surgery. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Bingenheimer K.,AP HM | Temprado J.J.,Aix - Marseille University | Harnagea M.,Aix - Marseille University | Bricot N.,Aix - Marseille University | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters

We investigated the effects of lightly touching fixed and mobile supports on gait parameters and center of mass oscillations in visually restricted young adults. Fourteen healthy male and female adults of mean. = 23.6 years (SD. = 1.6 years). Twelve walking conditions were completed on the GAITRite measurement system, resulting from crossing 3 conditions of visual restriction (no restriction, partial restriction, blindfolded) and 4 conditions of haptic supplementation (no supplementation, with a cane used as "light touch", with a cane sliding on the ground, while touching a soft elastic handrail). Gait speed, stance time, step length and the basis of support were measured. Accelerations of center of mass were also recorded through an accelerometer and the displacements of center of mass were analyzed. Results showed that visual restriction decreased in gait speed, reduced step length, while it increased the base of support and the amplitude of CoM displacements. In the full restriction condition, haptic supplementation provided by the use of the classic cane improved normalized stance time (%). In addition, in the no vision condition, both the classic cane and the soft handrail increased step length and reduced medio-lateral oscillations of the CoM. These results suggest that in visually restricted healthy adults, lightly touching a fixed (soft handrail) or a mobile (classic cane) support contributes to adaptation of gait parameters and postural control during locomotion. © 2015. Source

Vieux R.,University of Lorraine | Vieux R.,Nancy University Hospital Center | Desandes R.,University of Lorraine | Boubred F.,AP HM | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Nephrology

We carried out a study aiming to determine the renal effect of ibuprofen treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very preterm infants during the first month of life. Infants aged 27-31 weeks gestation were enrolled from October 2004 to August 2006. They were assigned to two different groups according to ibuprofen exposure during care of their PDA status assessed by echocardiography. Infants of both groups were matched based on gestational age, Clinical Risk Index for Babies score, birth weight and inclusion center. Renal function was evaluated at baseline and weekly for 1 month. One hundred and forty-eight infants were enrolled. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly decreased in the ibuprofen group after treatment withdrawal (GFR on day 7, ibuprofen versus no ibuprofen: 12.8±6.2 vs. 18.1±12.1 ml/min/ 1.73 m2 P<0.001). Adjusted analysis proved this decrease to be sustained during the first month of life. Tubular function was also impaired during the first month in ibuprofen-treated infants. Ibuprofen administered for PDA is associated with a decreased GFR during the first month of life. Renal function of infants receiving ibuprofen should be carefully monitored and drugs that are eliminated by glomerular filtration handled cautiously during this period. © IPNA 2009. Source

Rossi P.,AP HM | Rossi P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Tauzin L.,Center Hospitalier Territorial Of La Nouvelle Caldonie | Marchand E.,AP HM | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Adolescent Health

Purpose Recent studies show that low birth weight infants are at a risk of increased arterial blood pressure (BP) in adulthood. This study aimed to distinguish the influence of low birth weight either as a result of fetal growth restriction or preterm birth on arterial properties in adolescents. Methods The effect of low birth weight on BP and arterial stiffness was examined among 90 adolescents aged 14 years who were either born at term with an appropriate birth weight for gestational age (controls, n = 41); born preterm with an appropriate birth weight for gestational age (n = 25); or born at term and small for gestational age (SGA) (n = 24). The pulse wave velocity between the carotid and radial arteries was measured to assess arterial stiffness. Results As compared with control subjects, adolescents born with low birth weight as a result of preterm birth were found to have increased systolic BP and carotidradial pulse wave velocity (117 ± 11 mm Hg vs. 123 ± 11 mm Hg, p = .04 and 7.0 ± .9 m/s vs. 7.7 ± 1.0 m/s, p = .01, respectively), whereas those who were born at term and SGA exhibited values similar to the controls (114 ± 15 mm Hg and 6.8 ± .9 m/s). Conclusion Preterm birth, rather than being SGA at term, increases BP and arterial stiffness in adolescents. © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Source

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