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Firenze, Italy

Dolezalova P.,Charles University | Price-Kuehne F.E.,University College London | Ozen S.,Hacettepe University | Benseler S.M.,University of Toronto | And 13 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Background Rare chronic childhood vasculitides lack a reliable disease activity assessment tool. With emerging new treatment modalities such a tool has become increasingly essential for both clinical practice and therapeutic trials to reproducibly quantify change in disease state. Objective To develop and validate a paediatric vasculitis activity assessment tool based on modification of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVASv.3). Methods A paediatric vasculitis registry was reviewed to identify clinical features missing in the BVASv.3. A modified nominal group technique was used to develop a working version of the Paediatric Vasculitis Activity Score (PVAS). Prospective validation provided tool reliability, reproducibility and responsiveness to change. Training of assessors was done according to the BVAS principles. Results BVAS items were redefined (n=22) and eight paediatric items added in Cutaneous (n=4), Cardiovascular (n=3) and Abdominal (n=1) sections. The final PVAS has 64 active items in nine categories. The principles of new/worse and persistently active disease were retained as were the overall score and weighting of categories. The median PVAS in 63 children with systemic vasculitis was 4/63 (0-38/63). There was a high interobserver agreement for the overall as well as for subsystem scores (linear-weighted-? =0.87). PVAS correlated with physician's global assessment ( p<0.01); treatment decision (p=<0.01) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ( p=0.01). In response to treatment, 15/19 patients assessed demonstrated a significant fall in PVAS (p=0.002), with good agreement among assessors for this change. Conclusions The PVAS validity in children with systemic vasculitis was demonstrated. Like the BVAS, we anticipate that the PVAS will provide a robust tool to objectively define disease activity for clinical trials and future research. Source

Cimaz R.,AOU Meyer | Von Scheven A.,CHUV | Hofer M.,CHUV
Swiss Medical Weekly

Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA), sometimes called Still's disease, is a systemic inflammatory disease classified within the spectrum of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is an orphan disease with often a chronic course and a major impact on the affected children and their families. This disorder is unique in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis and response to conventional immunosuppressants. The objectives of this review are to describe SoJIA and emphasise the recent advances in the pathogenesis and treatment, which have transformed the care and the prognosis of this potentially life-threatening paediatric condition. Source

Hampson L.V.,Lancaster University | Whitehead J.,Lancaster University | Eleftheriou D.,University College London | Tudur-Smith C.,University of Liverpool | And 18 more authors.

Objectives: Definitive sample sizes for clinical trials in rare diseases are usually infeasible. Bayesian methodology can be used to maximise what is learnt from clinical trials in these circumstances. We elicited expert prior opinion for a future Bayesian randomised controlled trial for a rare inflammatory paediatric disease, polyarteritis nodosa (MYPAN, Mycophenolate mofetil for polyarteritis nodosa). Methods: A Bayesian prior elicitation meeting was convened. Opinion was sought on the probability that a patient in the MYPAN trial treated with cyclophosphamide would achieve disease remission within 6-months, and on the relative efficacies of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide. Expert opinion was combined with previously unseen data from a recently completed randomised controlled trial in ANCA associated vasculitis. Results: A pan-European group of fifteen experts participated in the elicitation meeting. Consensus expert prior opinion was that the most likely rates of disease remission within 6 months on cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil were 74% and 71%, respectively. This prior opinion will now be taken forward and will be modified to formulate a Bayesian posterior opinion once the MYPAN trial data from 40 patients randomised 1:1 to either CYC or MMF become available. Conclusions: We suggest that the methodological template we propose could be applied to trial design for other rare diseases. © 2015 Hampson et al. Source

Indolfi P.,The Second University of Naples | Spreafico F.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori | Collini P.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori | Cecchetto G.,University of Padua | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

BACKGROUND: Because of the rare occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) among children very little is known about this malignancy in pediatric age. We aimed adding knowledge on the clinical characteristics and outcome of metastatic (m) RCC in children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The series included 14 stage 4 RCC patients with a median age at diagnosis of 155.5 months, observed at the Italian Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Association (AIEOP) centers from January 1973 to November 2010. We were able to reevaluate histopatology of 11 out of the 14 patients and perform immunostaining for TFE3 in 9 out of the 11 patients. RESULTS: Of the 14 patients under study, 5 (3 girls) had a translocation morphology TFE+ RCC, 2 were reassigned as papillary type 1 or 2, respectively, 2 tumor specimens with primary clear cell histology had confirmed the initial histologic diagnosis, and 2-whose biopsy specimen was insufficient-had the diagnosis of RCC not further specified with subtyping. In the remaining 3 cases, the initial diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was left. Overall, 6 patients received chemotherapy, 9 immunotherapy, and 2 adjuvant antiangiogenic therapy. Overall, 11 patients (78.5%) never achieved complete remission and died from progressive disease 1 to 16 months after diagnosis (median overall survival 5.5 mo). Three patients, 2 of whom received adjuvant antiangiogenic therapy, relapsed to lung at 3, 6, and 8 months after diagnosis, and died 18, 32, and 33 months after diagnosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their possibly different biology, childhood and adult mRCC seems to be sharing comparable outcomes. Because of the very low incidence of mRCC (about 20%) in children and adolescents, an international pediatric cooperation to address biological studies and assess the novel targeted approaches is needed. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Garcia Segarra N.,University of Lausanne | Mittaz L.,University of Lausanne | Campos-Xavier A.B.,University of Lausanne | Bartels C.F.,Case Western Reserve University | And 24 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a genetic, non-inflammatory arthropathy caused by recessive loss of function mutations in WISP3 (Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein 3; MIM 603400), encoding for a signaling protein. The disease is clinically silent at birth and in infancy. It manifests between the age of 3 and 6 years with joint pain and progressive joint stiffness. Affected children are referred to pediatric rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons; however, signs of inflammation are absent and anti-inflammatory treatment is of little help. Bony enlargement at the interphalangeal joints progresses leading to camptodactyly. Spine involvement develops in late childhood and adolescence leading to short trunk with thoracolumbar kyphosis. Adult height is usually below the 3rd percentile. Radiographic signs are relatively mild. Platyspondyly develops in late childhood and can be the first clue to the diagnosis. Enlargement of the phalangeal metaphyses develops subtly and is usually recognizable by 10 years. The femoral heads are large and the acetabulum forms a distinct "lip" overriding the femoral head. There is a progressive narrowing of all articular spaces as articular cartilage is lost. Medical management of PPRD remains symptomatic and relies on pain medication. Hip joint replacement surgery in early adulthood is effective in reducing pain and maintaining mobility and can be recommended. Subsequent knee joint replacement is a further option. Mutation analysis of WISP3 allowed the confirmation of the diagnosis in 63 out of 64 typical cases in our series. Intronic mutations in WISP3 leading to splicing aberrations can be detected only in cDNA from fibroblasts and therefore a skin biopsy is indicated when genomic analysis fails to reveal mutations in individuals with otherwise typical signs and symptoms. In spite of the first symptoms appearing in early childhood, the diagnosis of PPRD is most often made only in the second decade and affected children often receive unnecessary anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatments. Increasing awareness of PPRD appears to be essential to allow for a timely diagnosis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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