Orso G.,Pediatrics AORN Santobono Pausilipon |
Mandato C.,Pediatrics AORN Santobono Pausilipon |
Veropalumbo C.,University of Naples Federico II |
Cecchi N.,Pediatrics AORN Santobono Pausilipon |
And 3 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2016
Parenteral nutrition constitutes a life-saving therapeutic tool in patients unable to ingest/absorb oral or enteral delivered nutrients. Liver function tests abnormalities are a common therapy-related complication, thus configuring the so-called Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) or cholestasis (PNAC). Although the damage is frequently mild, and resolves after discontinuation of parenteral nutrition, in some cases it progresses into cirrhotic changes, especially in neonates and infants.We present a literature review focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms-driven prevention and therapies for the cases where parenteral nutrition cannot be discontinued.Ursodeoxycholic acid has been proposed in patients with cholestatic hepatopathy, but its efficacy needs to be better established. Little evidence is available on efficacy of anti-oxidants, antibiotics, probiotics and anti TNFα. Lipid emulsions based on fish oil with a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 appear effective both in decreasing intrahepatic inflammation and in improving biliary flow. Most recent promising variations such as soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion [third generation lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid)] are under investigation.In conclusion, we remark the emergence of a number of novel pathomechanisms underlying the severe liver impairment damage (PNALD and PNAC) in patients treated with parenteral nutrition. Only few traditional and innovative therapeutic strategies have hitherto been shown promising. © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.