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Nakada T.,Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital
Pediatric Cardiology | Year: 2014

This retrospective study aimed to investigate the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs (ADs) on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. In total, 182 pediatric patients who received IVIG therapy for Kawasaki disease between 1999 and 2013 at the Department of Pediatrics, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups: an S group, including 111 patients who received single IVIG therapy with delayed administration of ADs, and a T group, including 71 patients who received concomitant AIDs with IVIG. During the study, the only ADs administered were aspirin (A: 30 mg/kg/day) or flurbiprofen (F: 3-5 mg/kg/day). Steroids were not administered to any patient. The regimen of the S group was partially used after 2004 and was used to all patients after 2009. The following clinical findings were significantly different between the S and T groups: disease onset before 2003 (0 vs. 59 %, P < 0.001) and after 2009 (70 vs. 0 %, P < 0.001), use of 2-g/kg/day IVIG therapy (100 vs. 93 %, P = 0.034), ADs type (A/F: 62/49 vs. 17/54, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of coronary artery lesions (CAL) up to (1/111 vs. 11/71, P < 0.001) and after 30 days of illness (0/111 vs. 4/71, P = 0.022). Logistic regression analysis revealed that IVIG therapy only (S group; P = 0.009) and 2-g/kg/day IVIG therapy (P = 0.015) were significant factors for CAL suppression. The findings revealed a possible negative impact of ADs on initial IVIG therapy in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. Initial single IVIG therapy with delayed administration of ADs may be useful to suppress CAL caused by Kawasaki disease. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Tomiyama M.,Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital
International Review of Neurobiology | Year: 2014

First, the recent progress in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia was described. Serotonin neurons play an important role in conversion from levodopa to dopamine and in the release of converted dopamine into the striatum in the Parkinsonian state. Since serotonin neurons lack buffering effects on synaptic dopamine concentration, the synaptic dopamine markedly fluctuates depending on the fluctuating levodopa concentration in the serum after taking levodopa. The resultant pulsatile stimulation makes the striatal direct-pathway neurons get potential that releases excessive GABA into the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. When levodopa is administered, the stored GABA is released, the output nuclei become hypoactive, and then dyskinesias emerge. Second, effects of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists on dyskinesia were described. It has been demonstrated that the expression of adenosine A2A receptors is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with dyskinesias, suggesting that blockade of A2A receptors is beneficial for dyskinesias. Preclinical studies have shown that A2A receptor antagonists reduce liability of dyskinesias in PD models. Clinical trials have demonstrated that A2A antagonists increase functional ON-time (ON without troublesome dyskinesia) in PD patients suffering from wearing-off phenomenon, although they may increase dyskinesia in patients with advanced PD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hara S.,Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital
Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi | Year: 2010

To evaluate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for secondary macular edema of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). We treated 91 patients (91 eyes) with IVB injections (1.25 mg/0.05 ml), including 27 eyes which received two injections. Visual acuity and central retinal thickness (CRT) were measured at 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after injection. The mean visual acuity and CRT improved from 0.25 (610.8 microm) at baseline to 0.47 (238.4 microm) 4 weeks after injection and 0.45 (368.7 microm) after 12 weeks. Twenty seven eyes among the total of 91 eyes had a second injection due to recurrence or worsened metamorphopsia. In these cases, mean visual acuity and CRT improved from 0.33 (483.7 microm) at baseline to 0.44 (234.3 microm) 4 weeks after injection and 0.42 (296.8 microm) after 12 weeks. Comparing the efficacy by the number of treatments, visual acuity and CRT improved more significantly in a first time treatment group. IVB injection is generally effective, but recurrence occurred in 26/47 eyes based on CRT. The second injection is effective, however, its effect is weak when compared with the first injection. Source

Satoh J.,Iwate Medical University | Yagihashi S.,Hirosaki University | Baba M.,Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital | Suzuki M.,Pfizer | And 3 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2011

Aims To evaluate the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of pregabalin in treating neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Japanese patients.Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre 14 week clinical trial was conducted. Japanese patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (n = 317) were randomized to receive placebo or pregabalin at 300 or 600 mg/day. The primary efficacy measure was a change of mean pain score from baseline to end-point from patients' daily pain diaries.Results Significant reductions in pain were observed in patients treated with pregabalin at 300 and 600 mg/day vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Improvements in weekly pain scores were observed as early as week 1 and were sustained throughout the study period (300 and 600 mg/day difference from placebo at study end-point, -0.63 and -0.74, respectively). Pregabalin produced significant improvements in weekly sleep interference scores, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey scale, and the Patient and Clinical Global Impression of Change. Patient impressions of numbness, pain and paraesthesia were also significantly improved. Regarding treatment responders, 29.1 and 35.6% of patients treated with 300 and 600 mg/day, respectively, reported ≥50% improvement in mean pain scores (vs. 21.5% for placebo). Pregabalin was well tolerated; somnolence (26%), dizziness (24%), peripheral oedema (13%) and weight gain (11%) were the most common adverse events and generally were reported as mild to moderate.Conclusions Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain and improving sleep disturbances due to pain, and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with painful DPN. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK. Source

Kubo K.,Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2012

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) presents with chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as low-grade fever, liver dysfunction, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Immunological methods are useful for the diagnosis of viral infections. However, CAEBV patients do not necessarily have high titers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies. Hosts that are immunocompromised after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations sometimes suffer from systemic EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) and EBV-positive lymphoma. Patients with EBV-associated diseases are often diagnosed by analyses of bone marrow. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause serious pneumonia or retinitis in immunocompromised hosts. In order to noninvasively understand the clinical status of patients with EBV-associated diseases, we conducted real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in their peripheral blood in order to quantify EBV and CMV DNA levels, which reflect viral activity. Here, we describe a 30-year-old Japanese female patient with CAEBV. The patient had repeated fever, fatigue, and liver dysfunction. The histopathological results of liver biopsies were positive for EBV-encoded RNA-1. Acute hepatitis was associated with the EBV infection. The whole-blood EBV DNA levels were high and above 1.0 × 107 copies/mL. After immunosuppressive and antiviral therapies, EBV DNA levels lowered. However, she had to receive bone marrow transplantation because of her EBV-HLH. As the number of lymphocytes increased in the post-transplantation period, EBV DNA levels gradually increased again. The simultaneous detection of CMV DNA was more sensitive than the CMV antigenemia test that is often used to diagnose CMV infections. Unfortunately, the patient died due to a fungal infection. Observing EBV DNA levels closely with real-time quantitative PCR methods is helpful for evaluating the changes in the clinical course. © 2012 Tohoku University Medical Press. Source

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