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Catalano M.G.,University of Turin | Marano F.,University of Turin | Rinella L.,University of Turin | de Girolamo L.,Orthopaedic Biotechnologies Laboratory Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi Milan Italy | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a promising cell type for bone tissue engineering, given their potential to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. Interactions among biochemical and mechanical signals result in bone formation and repair. In this process stem cells have a crucial role. Extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) are acoustic waves capable of enhancing bone regeneration, suggesting that ESWs may induce some signals for mesenchymal progenitor maturation. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of ESW treatment on the differentiation of hASCs into osteoblast-like cells and to better clarify the mechanisms involved. The hASCs were treated with ESWs and osteogenic medium, and the effects in terms of gene expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were then evaluated. Moreover, to investigate the mechanisms of ESW action, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and small 'mothers against' decapentaplegic (Smad) phosphorylation, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) expression were assessed. The ESW treatment increased Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP and BMP2 expression, as well as ALP activity and calcium deposits with respect to untreated cells. Moreover ESWs induced ROS formation, and both ERK and Smad phosphorylation. The present study shows the effects of ESWs on osteogenic differentiation in an in vitro model using hASCs and defines the mechanisms involved in this process. The observations suggest that the combination of autologous hASCs and ESW treatment may improve bone tissue repair in tissue engineering procedures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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