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Drobeniuc J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Meng J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Meng J.,Nanjing Southeast University | Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Six immunoassays for detecting immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis E virus were evaluated. Serum samples representing acute infection by each of the 4 viral genotypes as well as nonacute hepatitis E virus infection constituted the test panels. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities as well as interassay agreement varied widely. Analytical sensitivity limits also were determined and were found to be particularly disparate. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Nemes C.,Veterinary Diagnostic | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Kapusinszky B.,Blood Systems Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2012

Members of the family Picornaviridae are important pathogens of humans and animals, although compared with the thousands of known bird species (>10 000), only a few (n = 11) picornaviruses have been identified from avian sources. This study reports the metagenomic detection and complete genome characterization of a novel turkey picornavirus from faecal samples collected from eight turkey farms in Hungary. Using RT-PCR, both healthy (two of three) and affected (seven of eight) commercial turkeys with enteric and/or stunting syndrome were shown to be shedding viruses in seven (88 %) of the eight farms. The viral genome sequence (turkey/M176/2011/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ691613) shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity (96 %) to the partial P3 genome region of a picornavirus reported recently in turkey and chickens from the USA and probably belongs to the same species. In the P1 and P2 regions, turkey/M176/2011/HUN is related most closely to, but distinct from, the kobuviruses and turdivirus 1. Complete genome analysis revealed the presence of characteristic picornaviral amino acid motifs, a potential type II-like 5′ UTR internal ribosome entry site (first identified among avian-origin picornaviruses) and a conserved, 48 nt long 'barbell-like' structure found at the 3′ UTR of turkey/M176/2011/HUN and members of the picornavirus genera Avihepatovirus and Kobuvirus. The general presence of turkey picornavirus - a novel picornavirus species - in faecal samples from healthy and affected turkeys in Hungary and in the USA suggests the worldwide occurrence and endemic circulation of this virus in turkey farms. Further studies are needed to investigate the aetiological role and pathogenic potential of this picornavirus in food animals. © 2012 SGM.


Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Reuter G.,Blood Systems Research Institute | Reuter G.,University of California at San Francisco | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

The complete genome sequence of a novel +ssRNA virus, provisionally named fisavirus 1 (strain HAL1/fisa-ssRNAV, KM434233), identified from a freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio), was determined using viral metagenomics and RT-PCR. The 8712-nt-long genome of HAL1/fisa-ssRNAV shares the same genome organization (i.e., a potential single ORF and N-terminal Hel-Pro-Pol replication domains followed by the structural proteins) and distant phylogenetic relationship to the currently unclassified posaviruses, which suggests that these viruses could belong to different genera in a novel family of the order Picornavirales. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Reuter G.,University of California at San Francisco | Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Delwart E.,University of California at San Francisco | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Recently, a novel group of unclassified single-stranded (ss) circular small DNA viruses (called stool-associated circular virus; SCV) were identified in fecal samples of three mammalian species, namely, chimpanzee (ChiSCV), pig (PoSCV) and cattle (BoSCV). In this study, a novel genomic relative of stool-associated circular virus (TuSCV, KF880727) was detected in faeces of an avian species, namely, domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The complete TuSCV genome is 2479 nt long and has two open reading frames (ORF), which are bidirectionally transcribed and separated by intergenic regions. The ORF1 (replicase) and ORF2 (capsid) proteins have 77 % and 48 % aa sequence identity to different porcine-origin SCVs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Kecskemeti S.,Central Agricultural Office | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Porcine kobuvirus was first identified in early 2007 in Hungary. Originally thought to be confined to the intestine, almost 2 years later the virus was found in the blood of clinically healthy pigs on the same farm. Porcine kobuvirus may be widely distributed on pig farms worldwide.


Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Kiss T.,Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society | Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

The genus Kobuvirus (Picornaviridae) consists of three species, Aichivirus A (e.g., Aichi virus, which infects humans), Aichivirus B and Aichivirus C. Kobuvirus have not been detected in non-mammal species including birds. In this study, a novel kobuvirus was identified in 3 (17 %) out of 18 faecal samples collected from European rollers (Coracias garrulus) in Hungary. The complete genome sequence of strain SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN (KJ934637), which was determined using a novel 5′/3′ RACE method (dsRNA-RACE) involving a double-stranded (ds)RNA intermediate, has a type-V IRES at the 5′ end and a cis-acting element (CRE) in the 3C gene and encodes L and 2AH-box/NC proteins, but it does not contain the sequence forming a “barbell-like” secondary RNA structure in the 3′UTR. SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN has 72 %, 73 %, and 81 % amino acid sequence identity to the P1, P2, and P3 protein, respectively, of Aichi virus. Evolutionary analysis showed that SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN shares a common ancestor with other kobuviruses but belongs to a more ancient lineage in the species Aichivirus A. Investigation of the known kobuviruses in different animals and discovery of novel kobuviruses in potential host species helps to clarify the evolutionary connection and zoonotic potential of kobuviruses. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2011

Kobuviruses are members of the large and growing family Picornaviridae. Until now, two official, Aichi virus and Bovine kobuvirus, and one candidate kobuvirus species, 'porcine kobuvirus', have been identified in human, cattle and swine, respectively. In addition, kobu-like viruses were detected very recently in the bat. Aichi virus could be one of the causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans, and kobuviruses probably also cause diarrhoea in cattle and swine. Although Aichi virus has been detected relatively infrequently (0-3%) in human diarrhoea, high seroprevalence, up to 80-95% at the age of 30-40, was found indicating the general nature of infection in different human populations. In the previous years, much new information has accumulated relating to kobuviruses and their host species. This review summarises the current knowledge on kobuviruses including taxonomy, biology and viral characteristics, and covers all aspects of infection including epidemiology, clinical picture, host species diversity, laboratory diagnosis and it gives a summary about possible future perspectives. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Picornaviridae is one of the most diverse families of viruses infecting vertebrate species. In contrast to the relative small number of mammal species compared to other vertebrates, the abundance of mammal-infecting picornaviruses was significantly overrepresented among the presently known picornaviruses. Therefore most of the current knowledge about the genome diversity/organization patterns and common genome features were based on the analysis of mammal-infecting picornaviruses. Beside the well known reservoir role of birds in case of several emerging viral pathogens, little is known about the diversity of picornaviruses circulating among birds, although in the last decade the number of known avian picornavirus species with complete genome was increased from one to at least 15. However, little is known about the geographic distribution, host spectrum or pathogenic potential of the recently described picornaviruses of birds. Despite the low number of known avian picornaviruses, the phylogenetic and genome organization diversity of these viruses were remarkable. Beside the common L-4-3-4 and 4-3-4 genome layouts unusual genome patterns (3-4-4; 3-5-4, 3-6-4; 3-8-4) with variable, multicistronic 2A genome regions were found among avian picornaviruses. The phylogenetic and genomic analysis revealed the presence of several conserved structures at the untranslated regions among phylogenetically distant avian and non-avian picornaviruses as well as at least five different avian picornavirus phylogenetic clusters located in every main picornavirus lineage with characteristic genome layouts which suggests the complex evolution history of these viruses. Based on the remarkable genetic diversity of the few known avian picornaviruses, the emergence of further divergent picornaviruses causing challenges in the current taxonomy and also in the understanding of the evolution and genome organization of picornaviruses will be strongly expected. In this review we would like to summarize the current knowledge about the taxonomy, pathogenic potential, phylogenetic/genomic diversity and evolutional relationship of avian picornaviruses. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Simmonds P.,University of Edinburgh | Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond "Lo{double acute}rinte halastó" located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. © 2011 Boros et al.


Boros A.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Pankovics P.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service | Reuter G.,ANTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs is very deficient.In this study, we identified a novel PEV from fecal samples of clinically healthy pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in Hungary by RT-PCR using human enterovirus generic primer pairs for 5′UTR region, with subsequent partial VP1 and complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Among 45 fecal and blood sample pairs collected at the same farm from domestic pigs divided into three age groups (10 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months of age, N= 15 each group) six (40%) of the 15 fecal samples of 10-day-old pigs were enterovirus-positive. PEV was not detected in serum samples. Sequence- and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of swine/K23/2008/HUN (HQ702854) show relationship to PEV strains but it is separated from the PEV9 and 10, especially in structural regions. Swine/K23/2008/HUN has average of 77 and 75% amino acid identity in the P1 region, and only 61% in VP1 region to PEV9 and 10, respectively. The partial VP1 sequences of the Hungarian PEV strains show 99% nucleotide identity compared to each other.PEVs could be capable of at least local endemic spread among newborn piglets and cause no clinical symptoms or viraemia. Sequence data indicates that the Hungarian PEV strain belongs to a novel PEV. To clarify the taxonomic confusion related to PEV - as a consequence of recent extensive taxonomic changes among porcine enteric picornaviruses - we propose that PEV9 and PEV10 should be reclassified as PEV1 and PEV2. In this classification swine/K23/2008/HUN represents PEV3. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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