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Sridhara Murthi K.R.,Antrix Corporation | Bhaskaranarayana A.,Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO | Madhusudana H.N.,Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2010

Over past four decades Indian space programme has systematically acquired capabilities in space technologies and implemented its programmes with a high level of focus on societal applications. It is developed into a multi-dimensional programme where its strategy is directed towards diverse stake holders and actors such as government, users and beneficiaries including general public, industrial suppliers as well as customers, academia and other space agencies/international organisations. Over the next five years, the Indian space programme has charted an ambitious set of policies and programmes that aim to enhance impacts on society. The major task is to enlarge and diversify the services delivered to a large section of population affected by income, connectivity and digital divides. While efficacy of application of space based systems have been proven in several fields such as tele-education, water resources management, improving productivity of land and out reaching quality health services and others, the crux of the problem is to evolve sustainable and scalable delivery mechanisms on a very large scale and extending over large geographical areas. Essentially the problem shifts from being predominately a technology problem to one of a composite of economic, cultural and social problems. Tackling such problems would need renewal of policies relating to commercial as well as public service systems. Major programmatic initiatives are planned in the next five years involving new and upgraded technologies to expand services from space to fill the gaps and to improve economic efficiency. Thrust is also given to science and exploration mission beyond Chandrayaan-1 and some initial steps for the participation in human space flight. This paper discusses the policy and strategy perspectives of the programmes planned by Indian Space Research Organisation over next five years. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Nizalapur V.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | Madugundu R.,Antrix Corporation | Jha C.S.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

In the present work, the potential of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric coherence in land cover classification is studied over forested areas of Bilaspur, Chattisgarh, India using Environmental Satellite - Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT-ASAR) C-band data. Single look complex (SLC) interferometric pair ASAR data of 24th September 2006 (SLC-1) and 29th October 2006 (SLC-2) covering the study area were acquired and processed to generate backscatter and interferometric coherence images. A false colored composite of coherence, backscatter difference, and mean backscatter was generated and subjected to maximum likelihood classification to delineate major land cover classes of the study area viz., water, barren, agriculture, moist deciduous forest, and sal mixed forests. Accuracy assessment of the classified map is carried out using kappa statistics. Results of the study suggested potential use of ENVISAT-ASAR C-band data in land cover classification of the study area with an overall classification accuracy of 82.5%, average producer's accuracy of 83.69%, and average user's accuracy of 81%. The present study gives a unique scope of SAR data application in land cover classification over the tropical deciduous forest systems of India, which is still waiting for its indigenous SAR system. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Radhakrishnan D.,Antrix Corporation | Chandramouli J.,PSLV | Jayakumar B.,PSLV | Kunhikrishnan P.,PSLV | Hegde V.S.,Antrix Corporation
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

Towards achieving self-reliance in accessing space, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) initiated the development of rocket systems. In the process, it has evolved four generations of launch vehicles viz., SLV-3, ASLV, PSLV and GSLV. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), the workhorse of ISRO's space transportation system, has had a string of successful missions, with a track record of 26 successive successful flights, till date. With the capability to perform low inclination LEO missions, SSO, Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), sub-GTO missions, PSLV has time and again demonstrated its versatility of the navigation, guidance and control system, propulsion system, onboard computer systems software and most importantly the robust vehicle design. PSLV has three variants (i) PSLV-Core alone (PSLV-CA) without the use of six solid strap-on motors and (ii) PSLV- with the use of six solid strap-on boosters and (iii) PSLV high-end version (PSLV-XL) using six extended solid strap-on boosters. The capability of PSLV for these configurations varies from 1000 - 1750 kg into 600 km SSO. Over the years, in addition to launching national satellites, PSLV has successfully launched 40 satellites belonging to international customers, on commercial basis, into various orbits ranging from planar to SSO. In order to utilize the spare capacity, whenever available, various satellite accommodation options have been evolved. These include provision for carrying up to two micro satellites on the vehicle equipment bay, or two satellites of mass around 500-600 kg using the Dual Launch Adaptor (DLA), or a possible mix of micro mini satellites either inside or on top of DLA. The multiple satellite mounting configurations and their safe separations in orbit have all been demonstrated. This paper highlights, in brief, the success story of PSLV towards carrying out international customer satellite missions. In addition, the paper also covers details on the interfaces, envelopes, environmental levels and the possible future launch opportunities. Copyright © 2014 by the International Astronautical Federation. Source

Sridhara Murthi K.R.,Antrix Corporation | Shoba T.S.,Antrix Corporation
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2010

Indian space programme, whose objectives involve acceleration of economic and social development through applications of space technology, has been engaged in the development of state-of-the-art satellite systems, launch vehicles and equipment necessary for applications. Even during the early phase of evolution of this Programme, deliberate policies have been adopted by the national space agency, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), to promote spin-off benefit from the technologies developed for the use of space projects. Consistently adhering to this policy, ISRO has transferred over 280 technologies till date, spanning a wide spectrum of disciplines. This has resulted in a fruitful two-way cooperation between a number of SMEs and the ISRO. In order to make the technology transfer process effective, ISRO has adopted a variety of functional and organizational policies that included awareness building measures, licensee selection methods, innovative contract systems, diverse transfer processes, post licencing services and feedback mechanisms. Besides analyzing these policies and their evolution, the paper discusses various models adopted for technology transfer and their impact on assessment. It also touches upon relevant issues relating to creating interface between public funded R&D and the private commercial enterprises. It suggests few models in which international cooperation could be pursued in this field. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Radhakrishnan D.,Antrix Corporation | Mohan M.,GSLV | Umamaheswaran R.,GSLV | Sivan K.,LPSC ISRO | Hegde V.S.,Antrix Corporation
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

Over the last four decades, the Indian satellite launch vehicles have made significant progress, by successfully taking up the developmental as well as operational flights of four generation of launchers viz. SLV-3, ASLV, PSLV and GSLV. Today, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) has been effectively meeting the national satellite launch requirements in addition to commercially supporting the international customer satellite launches, in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) segment. On the other hand, the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle [GSLV) has been hitherto catering to the national communication satellite launch needs in Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). GSLV, with the capability to launch 2 t satellite is a three-stage vehicle employing solid, liquid and cryogenic propulsion modules for its stages. Keeping pedigree of already developed stages and thereby achieving higher reliability, and in order to reduce the overall developmental cost and schedule, the PSLV modules have been maximally utilized for the first two stages of GSLV. While for the initial flights of GSLV, the cryogenic stages procured from Russia and the total avionics system for cryogenic stage realised by ISRO were utilized; the recent successful flight of GSLV, during January 2014, had the fully indigenously developed and qualified cryogenic upper stage, from India. This paper describes in detail the vehicle configuration, performance capability, launcher environment, satellite mounting options/ envelope, launch complex and launch services related requirements. Copyright © 2014 by the International Astronautical Federation. Source

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