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Paramaribo, Suriname

Anton de Kom University is the only university in Suriname. It is located in the capital, Paramaribo, and named for Anton de Kom, an anti-colonialist activist who was killed by the Nazis while in exile in the Netherlands. Wikipedia.

Lachman D.A.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

With the aim to achieve a sustainable future, the field of transition studies has recently received increasing attention. Transition thinking and transition management have even been provided with a prominent spot in strategies and policies of a growing number of countries. However, though various approaches to study transitions (in particular, sustainability transitions) have been discussed and used in the past, an overview of these - with their advantages and disadvantages - has not been provided yet. Furthermore, linkages between these approaches have also not been provided in a single overview.This article fills that gap in literature on transitions. It starts with the emergence of the "transition" concept and follows it to the notion of "sustainability transitions". Next, the article reviews approaches to study transitions. Thereafter, the paper provides some general criticism as well as strengths and contributions from transition research approaches to provide an impetus towards further research in this field. This paper discusses concepts, and pros and cons of, and ideas behind, approaches to study transitions. An single overview of approaches to study transitions is provided. General critique on all approaches consists of bias towards technology, developed world and producers and path dependency. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute For Biomedical Science | Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Amplification of the pfmdr1 gene is associated with clinical failures and reduced in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to both mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine in South-East Asia. Several African countries have reported the absence or very low prevalence of increased copy number, whilst South American reports are limited to Peru without and Venezuela with increased pfmdr1 multiplication. The relative pfmdr1 copy numbers were assessed in 68 isolates from Suriname collected from different endemic villages (2005) and from mining areas (2009). 11% of the isolates harbour multiple copies of the pfmdr1 gene. Isolates originating from mining areas do not yet display a higher tendency for increased copy number and no significant differences could be registered within a time span of 4 years, but the mere presence of increased copy number warrants caution and should be considered as an early warning sign for emerging drug resistance in Suriname and South America. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute For Biomedical Science
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Institute for Biomedical science | Vreden S.G.,Academic Hospital Paramaribo
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods. The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results: All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion: All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene. © 2012 Adhin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute For Biomedical Science | Vreden S.,Academic Hospital Paramaribo
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2014

Background: At present, malaria cases in Suriname occur predominantly in migrants and people living and/or working in areas with gold mining operations. A molecular survey was performed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates originating from persons from gold mining areas to assess the extent and role of mining areas as reservoirs of malaria resistance in Suriname. Methods: The status of 14 putative resistance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pfdhfr, pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfATP6 genes was assessed for 28 samples from gold miners diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria using polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and the results were compared with earlier data from nonmining villagers. Results: Isolates from miners showed a high degree of homogeneity, with a fixed pfdhfr Ile51/Asn108, pfmdr1 Phe184/Asp1042/Tyr1246, and pfcrt Thr76 mutant genotype, while an exclusively wild-type genotype was observed for pfmdr1 Asn86 and pfdhfr Ala16, Cys59, and Ile164, and for the pfATP6 positions Leu263/Ala623/Ser769. Small variations were observed for pfmdr1 S1034C. No statistically significant difference could be detected in allele frequencies between mining and nonmining villagers. Conclusion: Despite the increased risk of malaria infection in individuals working/living in gold mining areas, we did not detect an increase in mutation frequency at the 14 analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mining areas in Suriname cannot yet be considered as reservoirs for malaria resistance. © 2014 Adhin et al.

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