Paramaribo, Suriname

Anton de Kom University is the only university in Suriname. It is located in the capital, Paramaribo, and named for Anton de Kom, an anti-colonialist activist who was killed by the Nazis while in exile in the Netherlands. Wikipedia.

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Vreden S.G.S.,Foundation for Scientific Research Suriname | Jitan J.K.,Ministry of Health | Bansie R.D.,Academic Hospital Paramaribo | Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

The emerging resistance to artemisinin derivatives that has been reported in South-East Asia led us to assess the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine as the first line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Suriname. This drug assessment was performed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization in 2011. The decreasing number of malaria cases in Suriname, which are currently limited to migrating populations and gold miners, precludes any conclusions on artemether efficacy because adequate numbers of patients with 28-day follow-up data are difficult to obtain. Therefore, a comparison of day 3 parasitaemia in a 2011 study and in a 2005/2006 study was used to detect the emergence of resistance to artemether. The prevalence of day 3 parasitaemia was assessed in a study in 2011 and was compared to that in a study in 2005/2006. The same protocol was used in both studies and artemether-lumefantrine was the study drug. Of 48 evaluable patients in 2011, 15 (31%) still had parasitaemia on day 3 compared to one (2%) out of 45 evaluable patients in 2005/2006. Overall, 11 evaluable patients in the 2011 study who were followed up until day 28 had negative slides and similar findings were obtained in all 38 evaluable patients in the 2005/2006 study. The significantly increased incidence of parasite persistence on day 3 may be an indication of emerging resistance to artemether.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Institute for Biomedical science | Vreden S.G.,Academic Hospital Paramaribo
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods. The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results: All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion: All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene. © 2012 Adhin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute For Biomedical Science | Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Amplification of the pfmdr1 gene is associated with clinical failures and reduced in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to both mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine in South-East Asia. Several African countries have reported the absence or very low prevalence of increased copy number, whilst South American reports are limited to Peru without and Venezuela with increased pfmdr1 multiplication. The relative pfmdr1 copy numbers were assessed in 68 isolates from Suriname collected from different endemic villages (2005) and from mining areas (2009). 11% of the isolates harbour multiple copies of the pfmdr1 gene. Isolates originating from mining areas do not yet display a higher tendency for increased copy number and no significant differences could be registered within a time span of 4 years, but the mere presence of increased copy number warrants caution and should be considered as an early warning sign for emerging drug resistance in Suriname and South America. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute For Biomedical Science | Bretas G.,Pan American Health Organization Ecuador
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Adhin M.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Labadie-Bracho M.,Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute for Biomedical science | Vreden S.,Academic Hospital Paramaribo
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2014

Background: At present, malaria cases in Suriname occur predominantly in migrants and people living and/or working in areas with gold mining operations. A molecular survey was performed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates originating from persons from gold mining areas to assess the extent and role of mining areas as reservoirs of malaria resistance in Suriname. Methods: The status of 14 putative resistance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pfdhfr, pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfATP6 genes was assessed for 28 samples from gold miners diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria using polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and the results were compared with earlier data from nonmining villagers. Results: Isolates from miners showed a high degree of homogeneity, with a fixed pfdhfr Ile51/Asn108, pfmdr1 Phe184/Asp1042/Tyr1246, and pfcrt Thr76 mutant genotype, while an exclusively wild-type genotype was observed for pfmdr1 Asn86 and pfdhfr Ala16, Cys59, and Ile164, and for the pfATP6 positions Leu263/Ala623/Ser769. Small variations were observed for pfmdr1 S1034C. No statistically significant difference could be detected in allele frequencies between mining and nonmining villagers. Conclusion: Despite the increased risk of malaria infection in individuals working/living in gold mining areas, we did not detect an increase in mutation frequency at the 14 analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mining areas in Suriname cannot yet be considered as reservoirs for malaria resistance. © 2014 Adhin et al.

Lachman D.A.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

With the aim to achieve a sustainable future, the field of transition studies has recently received increasing attention. Transition thinking and transition management have even been provided with a prominent spot in strategies and policies of a growing number of countries. However, though various approaches to study transitions (in particular, sustainability transitions) have been discussed and used in the past, an overview of these - with their advantages and disadvantages - has not been provided yet. Furthermore, linkages between these approaches have also not been provided in a single overview.This article fills that gap in literature on transitions. It starts with the emergence of the "transition" concept and follows it to the notion of "sustainability transitions". Next, the article reviews approaches to study transitions. Thereafter, the paper provides some general criticism as well as strengths and contributions from transition research approaches to provide an impetus towards further research in this field. This paper discusses concepts, and pros and cons of, and ideas behind, approaches to study transitions. An single overview of approaches to study transitions is provided. General critique on all approaches consists of bias towards technology, developed world and producers and path dependency. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lachman D.A.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper formulates energy strategies for Suriname. A conceptual model, identifying relationships in the energy sector, is conceived. One of the striking characteristics is that various relationships inhibit significant uncertainty; our contemporary age is characterized by more complex becoming relations, decreasing predictability and increasing chaos. Simple extrapolation of past events is therefore futile, since deviations from anticipated outcomes have significant impacts. The Scenario Planning methodology has been used to deal with this uncertainty. The most uncertain high-impact driving forces that shape the future of the energy sector in Suriname have been identified and are used to create energy scenarios to 2050. Next, robust strategies have been formulated which primarily focus on institutionalization, renewable resources, cost-reflecting tariffs, decentralization of energy supply, and energy efficiency and savings. Leading indicators have been identified that identify towards which scenario the present develops, and hence which set of strategies need to be applied. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Twelve small (<7.5 cm TL) specimens of the pipefish Pseudophallus cf. brasiliensis were collected at three localities in the Corantijn River,. Suriname, at distance >155 km from the river mouth, i.e., in fresh water. Of these, nine were from Sand Landing, a sheltered beach immediately downstream of a bend in the river, characterized by medium to low current velocity, mixed bottom substrate, and presence of a meadow of dwarf Amazonian sword plant H. tenellum. Newborn and adult pipefishes exhibited benthic behaviour, and may find food and shelter against currents and predators among H. tenellum leaves. Sex-role reversion was suggested by the sex-ratio of the Sand Landing specimens and by a difference in colour pattern between the sexes with females showing a vivid, striped colour pattern and males having a brownish colour: P. cf. brasiliensis may live in a sex-role reversed harem structure with territorial females competing for males that brood their eggs. Pregnant males were collected under low, high, and intermediate water level conditions, suggesting year-round reproduction. In captivity, three males released approximately 20 newborn each. Males showed no intraspecific aggressive behaviour and accepted Artemia nauplii as food. In Corantijn River, P. cf. brasiliensis occurred in low densities. Taking into account the relatively large pipefish catch per unit effort at Sand Landing as compared to CPUE at other sampling locations, the Sand Landing site is hypothesized to host a source population, an aspect that highlights the need to protect that site.

van der Stelt T.P.,Technical University of Delft | Nannan N.R.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname | Colonna P.,Technical University of Delft
Fluid Phase Equilibria | Year: 2012

The Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state with the Stryjek-Vera modification (PRSV) is widely adopted in scientific studies and engineering. However, it is affected by a discontinuity in all the properties, which is caused by a discontinuity of the α-function. Aside of being non-physical, this discontinuity causes robustness and accuracy issues in numerical simulations. The discontinuity in thermodynamic properties is eliminated here without affecting the overall accuracy of the model. In addition, the functional form of α(T) is optimized in such a way that it is not required to change the values of the fluid-dependent parameters stored in the many available databases. The performance of the improved equation of state (iPRSV) is assessed by comparing calculated properties with those obtained with the original PRSV equation of state, the Gasem et al. equation of state (PRG), which is also continuous in temperature, a reference multiparameter equation of state, and experimental data. It is shown that the accuracy of the new model approaches the accuracy of the original equation of state and that it performs better than the PRG equation of state. The modified PRSV equation of state solves the issue of the artificial discontinuity in the calculation of properties relevant to scientific and industrial applications, at the cost of a small decrease in overall accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Monsels D.A.,Anton De Kom University of Suriname
Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2016

Bauxite, the raw material of aluminum, has been one of the economically vital natural resources for Suriname. Mining operations started about a century ago, and subsequent development of a refinery industry and hydro-electric power made Suriname one of the foremost bauxite and alumina producers worldwide for a long period of time. This paper presents a concise survey of the main geological attributes of its bauxite deposits and examines significant aspects in the development of mining in the country where alumina dominated the export revenues until a decade ago. The lateritic bauxite deposits are spread across the northern part of the country and developed on various parent rocks during Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary times. Bauxites in the coastal lowlands formed on Cenozoic sedimentary deposits, whereas plateau bauxites originated on various crystalline rocks in inland regions of the Precambrian Guiana Shield. The composition of parent rocks and timing of bauxitisation point to a genetic correspondence with West African bauxites and a strong control of paleoclimatic conditions on the distribution and properties of bauxite in both regions. The more accessible bauxite deposits in the coastal lowlands are almost mined out, whereas the plateau bauxites have been extensively explored but have not been brought into production to date. For economic and environmental reasons, the future of the bauxite industry in Suriname is currently uncertain. Copyright © Netherlands Journal of Geosciences Foundation 2016

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