Antigen Express Inc.
Antigen Express Inc.
Erskine C.L.,Rochester College |
Krco C.J.,Rochester College |
Hedin K.E.,Rochester College |
Borson N.D.,Rochester College |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2011
CD4 Th cells are critical to the development of coordinated immune responses to infections and tumors. Th cells are activated through interactions of the TCR with MHC class II complexed with peptide. T cell activation is dependent on the density of MHC peptide complexes as well as the duration of interaction of the TCR with APCs. In this study, we sought to determine whether MHC class II peptides could be modified with amino acid sequences that facilitated uptake and presentation with the goal of improving Th cell activation in vitro and in vivo. A model epitope derived from the murine folate receptor α, a self- and tumor Ag, was modified at its carboxyl terminus with the invariant chain-derived Ii-Key peptide and at its N terminus with a peptide that enhances uptake of Ag by APC. Modification of a peptide resulted in enhanced generation of high-avidity murine folate receptor a T cells that persisted in vivo and homed to sites of Ag deposition. The nesting approach was epitope and species independent and specifically excluded expansion of CD4 regulatory T cells. The resulting Th cells were therapeutic, enhanced in vivo helper activity and had an increased ability to resist tolerizing immune microenvironments. In addition to improved immunoadjuvants, this epitope modification strategy may be useful for enhancing ex vivo and in vivo generation of Th cells for preventing and treating diseases. Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Wambre E.,Stallergenes SA |
Bonvalet M.,Stallergenes SA |
Bodo V.B.,Stallergenes SA |
Maillere B.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center |
And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Allergy | Year: 2011
Summary: Background A better understanding of allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses is needed to help improving immunological therapies.Objective To compare CD4+ T cell responses against seasonal (Bet v 1) and perennial (Der p 1, Der p 2) allergens.Methods Major histocompatibility complex class II peptide tetramers were engineered to monitor allergen-specific T cell responses. After in vitro expansion, tetramer+ cells were tested for surface markers using cytofluorometry. Cytokine gene expression and production were assessed using quantitative PCR and cytokine surface capture assays, respectively.Results Tetramer+ cells were detected in 19 patients allergic to house dust mites (HDM), seven allergic to birch pollen, 13 allergic to both and nine non-allergics with either an HLA-DRB1*0101, *0301, *1501 or an HLA-DPB1*0401 background. High-avidity T cells are elicited against the immunodominant Bet v 1141-155 epitope, whereas broader low-avidity T cell responses are induced against Der p 116-30,110-124,171-185 and Der p 226-40,107-121 epitopes. Responses against Bet v 1 involve effector (CDL62 low, CCR7 low) or central (CD62L+, CCR7+) memory cells in allergic and non-allergic individuals, respectively, whereas central memory cells are mostly detected against mite allergens. In non-allergics, both mite and Bet v 1-specific T cells produce IFN-γ and IL-10. In contrast to Bet v 1-driven Th2 responses, mite allergens induce highly polymorphic responses in allergics, including Th1, Th2/Th17 or mixed Th1/Th2 profiles. Mite-specific T cell frequencies in the blood remain in the range of 1-6 × 10-4 CD4+ T cells throughout the year.Conclusion Different memory CD4+ T cell responses are elicited in the context of chronic vs. seasonal stimulation with the allergen(s). The heterogeneity in the patterns of CD4+ T cell responses observed in patients allergic to HDMs should be taken into account for specific immunotherapy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vadacca M.,Biomedical University of Rome |
Valorani M.G.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Valorani M.G.,Livio Patrizi Foundation |
Von Hofe E.,Antigen Express Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2011
In order to determine whether the Ii-Key technology can enhance the presentation of specific epitopes associated with type 1 diabetes, we have designed and synthesized a series of Ii-Key/proinsulin and GAD epitope hybrid peptides. Peptides of proinsulin and GAD shown to be recognized by CD4+ T cells of type 1 diabetes patients have been selected from the literature and modified with Ii-Key. A total of 23 Caucasian type 1 diabetes subjects and 17 normal subjects as controls were included in the study. Reactive T cells were identified using an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. We selected 5 proinsulin and 5 GAD epitopes. Regarding the activity of the proinsulin Ii-Key hybrids, 3 out of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated a positive response to one or more Ii-Key hybrid peptides compared to no responders in the control subjects. Two out of 8 patients demonstrated a positive response to one or more Ii-Key/GAD65 hybrids. Proinsulin Ii-Key hybrids and peptides were recognized only by DR3/DR4 0302+ve diabetic patients. Control subjects showed no detectable response to stimulation with Ii-Key hybrids or peptides, neither for proinsulin nor GAD65. We have now shown that the use of Ii-Key-modified MHC class II epitopes, derived from proteins associated with insulin-secreting cells, can detect the presence of specifically activated CD4+ T helper cells with greater sensitivity than unmodified epitopes in the standard ELISPOT assay. The use of these technologies may be of use in identifying patients at the earliest stages of type 1 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
Perez S.A.,St Savas Cancer Hospital |
Von Hofe E.,Antigen Express Inc. |
Kallinteris N.L.,Antigen Express Inc. |
Gritzapis A.D.,St Savas Cancer Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010
The use of synthetic peptides as vaccines aimed at the induction of therapeutic CD8-positive T-cell responses against tumor cells initially experienced great enthusiasm, mostly because of advances in vaccine technology, including design, synthesis, and delivery. However, despite impressive results in animal models, the application of such vaccines in humans has met with only limited success. The therapeutic activity of vaccine-stimulated, tumor-specific, CD8-positive T cells can be hampered through the physical burden of the tumor, tolerance mechanisms, and local factors within the tumor microenvironment. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that combining a peptide-based therapeutic vaccination with conventional chemotherapy can uncover the full potential of the antitumor immune response, increasing the success of immunotherapy. In addition, therapeutic vaccination in the preventive setting has been extremely effective in eliciting antitumor responses in preclinical tumor models and has demonstrated good promise clinically in patients with minimal residual disease. The rationale behind preventive vaccination is that patients with minimal tumor burden still have a fully competent immune system capable of developing robust antitumor responses. Finally, therapeutic CD8-positive T-cell peptide vaccines have been improved by coimmunization with T-helper epitopes expressed on long peptides. © 2010 American Cancer Society.
Perez S.A.,Saint Savas Cancer Hospital |
Kallinteris N.L.,Antigen Express Inc. |
Bisias S.,Saint Savas Cancer Hospital |
Tzonis P.K.,Saint Savas Cancer Hospital |
And 6 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010
Purpose: Active immunotherapy is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for prostate cancer. We conducted the first phase I trial of an Ii-Key/HER-2/neu(776-790) hybrid peptide vaccine (AE37) with recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvant in patients with HER-2/neu+ prostate cancer. The primary end points of the study were to evaluate toxicity and monitor patients' immune responses to the vaccine. Experimental Design: Thirty-two HER-2/neu+, castrate-sensitive, and castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients were enrolled. Of these, 29 patients completed all six vaccination cycles with AE37. Immunologic responses in the total patient population were monitored by delayed-type hypersensitivity and IFN-γ ELISPOT and intracellular staining. Regulatory T-cell (Treg) frequency and plasma HER-2/neu and transforming growth factor-â levels were also determined. Immunologic responses were also analyzed among groups of patients with different clinical characteristics. Local/systemic toxicities were monitored throughout the study. Results: Toxicities beyond grade 2 were not observed. Seventy-five percent of patients developed augmented immunity to the AE37 vaccine and 65% to the unmodified AE36 peptide as detected in the IFN-γ-based ELISPOT assay. Intracellular IFN-γ analyses revealed that AE37 elicited both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Eighty percent of the patients developed a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to AE36. Additionally, significant decreases could be detected in circulating Treg frequencies, plasma HER-2/neu, and serum transforming growth factor-β levels. Patients with less extensive disease developed better immunologic responses on vaccination. Conclusion: AE37 vaccine is safe and can induce HER-2/neu-specific cellular immune responses in patients with castrate-sensitive and castrate-resistant prostate cancer, thus emphasizing the potential of AE37 to target HER-2/neu for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. ©2010 AACR.
Xu M.,Antigen Express Inc. |
Kallinteris N.L.,Antigen Express Inc. |
von Hofe E.,Antigen Express Inc.
Vaccine | Year: 2012
Active immunotherapy is becoming a reality in the treatment of malignancies. Peptide-based vaccines represent a simple, safe, and economic basis for cancer immunotherapeutics development. However, therapeutic efficacy has been disappointing. Some of the reasons for this, such as selection of patients with advanced disease and ignorance of the delayed activity of many immunotherapeutic vaccines, have hampered the entire field of cancer immunotherapy over the last decade. Another reason for this may be that most peptide regimens historically have focused on activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, having little or only indirect CD4+ T helper (Th) cell activation. We review here evidence for the importance of specific CD4+ Th activation in cancer immunotherapy and the use of Ii-Key technology to accomplish this. Ii-Key (LRMK), a portion of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), facilitates the direct charging of peptide epitopes onto MHC class II molecules. Directly linking Ii-Key to MHC class II peptide epitopes greatly enhances their potency in activating CD4+ T-cells. The Ii-Key hybrid AE37, generated by linking LRMK to the known HER2 MHC class II epitope HER2 (aa 776-790), has been shown to generate robust, long lasting HER2-specific immune responses both in patients with breast and prostate cancer. Interim data from a phase II study of AE37 in breast cancer patients suggest a possible improvement in clinical outcome. The Ii-Key hybrid technology is compared to other methods for enhancing the potency of peptide immunotherapy for cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Antigen Express Inc. | Date: 2014-10-23
Provided are methods and compositions for treating cancer in humans, the cancer being characterized by expression of Her-2/neu. The methods involve vaccinating a patient with an Ii-Key/MHC class II hybrid construct and thereby stimulating an immune response to the native Her-2/neu protein. The construct may be in the form of an Ii-Key hybrid peptide or a nucleic acid encoding an Ii-Key hybrid peptide. Methods are described wherein the cancer being treated is breast cancer. Also claimed is a pharmaceutical composition comprising an Ii-Key/MHC class II hybrid construct with and without an adjuvant. The adjuvant can include GM-CSF. The Ii-Key hybrid construct includes the LRMK [SEQ ID NO: 2] residues of Ii-Key protein and an MHC Class II epitope of a protein or portion thereof which is used in the vaccine or a DNA encoding the same hybrid peptide.
Antigen Express Inc. | Date: 2010-07-26
Disclosed is a nucleic acid molecule comprising a first expressible sequence encoding a protein of interest or polypeptide of interest which contains an MHC Class II-presented epitope, or said encoded protein or peptide. In addition, the nucleic acid molecule comprises a second expressible nucleic acid sequence encoding an antigen presentation enhancing hybrid polypeptide, or said encoded protein or peptide. The antigen presentation enhancing hybrid polypeptide includes the following elements: i) an N-terminal element consisting essentially of 4-16 residues of the mammalian Ii-Key peptide LRMKLPKPPKPVSKMR (SEQ ID NO: 1) and non-N-terminal deletion modifications thereof that retain antigen presentation enhancing activity; ii) a C-terminal element comprising an MHC Class II-presented epitope in the form of a polypeptide or peptidomimetic structure which binds to the antigenic peptide binding site of an MHC class II molecule, the MHC Class II-presented epitope being contained in the protein of interest of step a); and iii) an intervening peptidyl structure linking the N-terminal and C-terminal elements of the hybrid, the peptidyl structure having a length of about 20 amino acids or less.
PubMed | Antigen Express Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2012
Active immunotherapy is becoming a reality in the treatment of malignancies. Peptide-based vaccines represent a simple, safe, and economic basis for cancer immunotherapeutics development. However, therapeutic efficacy has been disappointing. Some of the reasons for this, such as selection of patients with advanced disease and ignorance of the delayed activity of many immunotherapeutic vaccines, have hampered the entire field of cancer immunotherapy over the last decade. Another reason for this may be that most peptide regimens historically have focused on activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, having little or only indirect CD4+ T helper (Th) cell activation. We review here evidence for the importance of specific CD4+ Th activation in cancer immunotherapy and the use of Ii-Key technology to accomplish this. Ii-Key (LRMK), a portion of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), facilitates the direct charging of peptide epitopes onto MHC class II molecules. Directly linking Ii-Key to MHC class II peptide epitopes greatly enhances their potency in activating CD4+ T-cells. The Ii-Key hybrid AE37, generated by linking LRMK to the known HER2 MHC class II epitope HER2 (aa 776-790), has been shown to generate robust, long lasting HER2-specific immune responses both in patients with breast and prostate cancer. Interim data from a phase II study of AE37 in breast cancer patients suggest a possible improvement in clinical outcome. The Ii-Key hybrid technology is compared to other methods for enhancing the potency of peptide immunotherapy for cancer.