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San Fedele Superiore, Italy

Frasca L.,M C 901 | Frasca L.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | Stonier S.W.,M C 901 | Overwijk W.W.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Schluns K.S.,M C 901
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2010

This study tested the hypothesis that individual myeloid subsets have a differential ability to maintain memory CD8 T cells via IL-15. Although DCs support IL-15-mediated homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells in vivo, whether various DC subsets and other myeloid cells similarly mediate homeostasis is unknown. Therefore, we studied the ability of different myeloid cells to maintain memory CD8 T cells in vitro. Using an in vitro cocoulture system that recapitulated known roles of DCs and IL-15 on memory CD8 T cells, all in vitro-derived or ex vivo-isolated DCs maintained CD8 T cells better than rIL-15 alone, and FLT-3L-DCs are the most efficient compared with GM-DCs, BM-derived macrophages, or freshly isolated DCs. Although FLT-3L-DCs were the least effective at inducing CD8 T cell proliferation, FLT-3L-DCs promoted better CD8 T cell survival and increased Bcl-2 and MCL-2 expression in CD8 T cells. T cell maintenance correlated only partially with DC expression of IL-15Rα and IL-15, suggesting that DCs provided additional support signals. Indeed, in the absence of IL-15 signals, CD70/CD27 further supported CD8 T cell maintenance. IFN-α enhanced CD70 expression by DCs, resulting in increased proliferation of CD8 T cells. Overall, this study supports our hypothesis by demonstrating that specific DC subtypes had a greater capacity to support memory CD8 T cell maintenance and did so through different mechanisms. Furthermore, this study shows that IL-15 trans-presentation can work in conjunction with other signals, such as CD70/CD27 interactions, to mediate CD8 T cell homeostasis efficiently. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Ausiello C.M.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | Cassone A.,University of Perugia
mBio | Year: 2014

The resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in countries with high vaccination coverage is alarming and invites reconsideration of the use of current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, which have largely replaced the old, reactogenic, wholecell pertussis (wP) vaccine. Some drawbacks of these vaccines in terms of limited antigenic composition and early waning of antibody levels could be anticipated by the results of in-trial or postlicensure human investigations of B- and T-cell responses in aP versus wP vaccine recipients or unvaccinated, infected children. Recent data in experimental models, including primates, suggest that generation of vaccines capable of a potent, though regulated, stimulation of innate immunity driving effective, persistent adaptive immune responses against Bordetella pertussis infection should be privileged. Adjuvants that skew Th1/Th17 responses or new wP (detoxified or attenuated) vaccines should be explored. Nonetheless, the high merits of the current aP vaccines in persuading people to resume vaccination against pertussis should not be forgotten. © 2014 Ausiello and Cassone.

Fedele G.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | Sanseverino I.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | D'Agostino K.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | Schiavoni I.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2015

BPZE1 is a live attenuated pertussis vaccine that successfully completed a phase 1 safety trial. This article describes the induction of unconventional suppressor T cells-producing ADO by MDDCs exposed to BPZE1 (BPZE1-DC) through distinct ectoenzymatic pathways that limit the damaging effect of inflammation. BPZE1-DC induces CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes to express 2 sets of ectoenzymes generating ADO: 1 set is part of the conventional CD39/CD73 pathway, which uses ATP as substrate, whereas the other is part of the CD38/CD203a/CD73 pathway and metabolizes NAD+. The contribution of the ADO-generating ectoen-zymes in the regulatory response was shown by: 1) selective inhibition of the enzymatic activities of CD39, CD73, and CD38; 2) the ability of suppressor T cells to convert exogenously added ATP and NAD+ to ADO; and 3) a positive correlation between ectoenzyme expres-sion, ADO levels, and suppression abilities. Thus, T lymphocytes activated by BPZE1-DC shift to a sup-pressor stage, through the expression of ectoenzyme networks, and are able to convert extracellular nucleo-tides into ADO, which may explain the potent anti-inflammatory properties of BPZE1 observed in several murine models. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Carollo M.,Anti Infectious Immunity Unit | Pandolfi E.,Epidemiology Unit | Tozzi A.E.,Epidemiology Unit | Buisman A.-M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts in understanding the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of humoral and B-cell memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated the specific immune responses in the two groups of children, 5 years after primary vaccination by measuring the persistence of IgG and antibody secreting cells (ASC) specific for vaccine antigens. Part of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. A similar level of antigen-specific IgG and ASC was found in Infanrix and Hexavac vaccinated children. The mean IgG levels were significantly higher in children that received the pre-school boost as compared with children that did not receive the boost dose. A longer persistence after the pre-school boost of IgG-Pertussis Toxin (PT) and IgG-pertactin levels was observed in Infanrix primed children, but it was not statistically significant. More than 80% of children presented a positive ASC B memory response. Around 50% of children still presented protective IgG-PT levels which are reduced to 36% in no-boosted children. The pre-school booster dose restores the percentage of protected children above 50%. In conclusion our data underline the importance of giving a booster dose 5 years after primary vaccination and suggest the need for a new vaccine able to induce a long lasting protective response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Rosado M.M.,Research Center Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu | Scarsella M.,Research Center Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu | Pandolfi E.,Epidemiology Unit | Cascioli S.,Research Center Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2011

The immunogenicity of a vaccine is conventionally measured through the level of serum Abs early after immunization, but to ensure protection specific Abs should be maintained long after primary vaccination. For hepatitis B, protective levels often decline over time, but breakthrough infections do not seem to occur. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether, after hepatitis B vaccination, B-cell memory persists even when serum Abs decline. We compared the frequency of anti-hepatitis-specific memory B cells that remain in the blood of 99 children five years after priming with Infanrix®-hexa (GlaxoSmithKline) (n=34) or with Hexavac® (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) (n=65). These two vaccines differ in their ability to generate protective levels of IgG. Children with serum Abs under the protective level, <10mIU/mL, received a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and memory B cells and serum Abs were measured 2wk later. We found that specific memory B cells had a similar frequency in all children independently of primary vaccine. Booster injection resulted in the increase of memory B cell frequencies (from 11.3 in 106 cells to 28.2 in 106 cells, p<0.01) and serum Abs (geometric mean concentration, GMC from 2.9 to 284mIU/mL), demonstrating that circulating memory B cells effectively respond to Ag challenge even when specific Abs fall under the protective threshold. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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