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Brno, Czech Republic

Laznickova-Galetova M.,University of Western Bohemia | Laznickova-Galetova M.,Anthropos Institute | Laznickova-Galetova M.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

This paper discusses the phenomenon of mammoth ivory necklaces from Dolní Věstonice I (Moravia, Czech Republic). The ivory artefacts were described by the excavator K. Absolon in 1937 as necklaces, and this primary interpretation is still in use today. In this case, mammoth ivory was worked into repeating standardised forms of various size, which are almost absent elsewhere in the Upper Palaeolithic. The seven artefacts were here examined for their state of conservation, manufacturing technology, decorating style and supposed functional purpose. Partial reconstruction of the chaîne opératoire can enable integration of these artefacts into the style of mammoth ivory processing at this Gravettian site, and help to define the status of this raw material. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Germonpre M.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Laznickova-Galetova M.,University of West Bohemia | Laznickova-Galetova M.,Anthropos Institute | Losey R.J.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Efforts to identify Paleolithic dogs or incipient dogs have been based mainly on examination of complete or nearly complete crania. Complete skulls are, however, very rare in the archaeological record. Because canid mandible are far more frequently found in Pleistocene assemblages, the objective of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to differentiate these jaws by metric and osteomorphological methods in two morphotypes: Paleolithic dogs and Pleistocene wolves. This paper is mainly based on the very rich canid assemblage from the Gravettian Předmostí site in the Czech Republic, but also includes a few mandible from several other European Paleolithic sites. This study provides additional evidence of the existence at Předmostí of the two canid morphotypes. The metric data indicate that the mandible of the Paleolithic dogs are shorter than those from Pleistocene wolves in all tested measurements of length, and the carnassial crown length is shorter in Paleolithic dogs compared with the length of this tooth in Pleistocene wolves. Furthermore, in eight of nine indexes, the Paleolithic dogs differ significantly from the Pleistocene wolves. The mandible of Paleolithic dogs differ also in non-metric features from the Pleistocene wolves: they present a high frequency of crowded premolars and backwards-oriented apex of the coronoid. This paper furthermore confirms that Paleolithic dogs occur at two late Upper Paleolithic sites (Eliseevichi, Verholenskaya) where previous studies had indicated their presence. In addition, we document the presence of Paleolithic dogs at another Gravettian site, Kostenki-8. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Nerudova Z.,Anthropos Institute
Quaternary International | Year: 2013

The Krumlov Forest (SW of Brno, South Moravia) is an area noted for a number of mainly surface Palaeolithic sites dating back from the Lower to Late Palaeolithic. There are also many isolated or undatable finds falling generally within the Old Stone Age. The structure of Palaeolithic occupation within the studied area was investigated considering the character of particular sites (e.g. Moravský Krumlov IV, Vedrovice V), and their distribution with regard to landscape geomorphology. The data were processed using a statistic programme, and visualised by the help of ArcGIS. The analyses indicate that the region was divided into western and eastern parts. In the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic, independent settlement units can be distinguished associated with watercourses, whereas the Upper Palaeolithic occupation was concentrated mainly on the eastern promontories of the Krumlov Forest where many stations overlap in space, and a number exhibit evidence of repeated settlement activity. A completely different structure is present on the eastern slopes of the Drahany Uplands, especially when compared to the character of the Szeletian sites. © 2011. Source

Stefaniak K.,Wroclaw University | Pawlowska K.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Ratajczak U.,Wroclaw University | Roblickova M.,Anthropos Institute | And 2 more authors.
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2014

The paper deals with remains of the elks Cervalces latifrons, Cervalces sp. and Alces alces from Middle and Late Pleistocene sites in Poland. A form of the genus Cervalces occurred in Poland from the early (Kozi Grzbiet, MIS 19–17) to the late Middle Pleistocene (Biśnik Cave, MIS 6 or MIS 5e). The genus Alces appeared in Poland in the Eemian Interglacial (Dziadowa Skała Cave). Compared to the other cervids, elk remains from Poland are very few, but they mark important faunal changes. Kozi Grzbiet and Sitkówka are virtually the only Polish localities from the lower part of the Middle Pleistocene with the remains of large mammals, and the only records of Cervalces latifrons. The specimens from Biśnik Cave are among the last records of the occurrence of Cervalces in Europe. During the Last Glacial Maximum, elks were absent. Though the elks were the least abundant cervids, they were present at sites from milder climatic regimes (interglacials and interstadials) till the Holocene. Elk remains of that period are single teeth and postcranial skeletal bones from the beginning of glaciation in the deposits of Łokietka Cave (MIS 5a–d), Interplenivistulian (MIS 3): caves Biśnik and Obłazowa) and Borsuka Cave (MIS 3–2). In the Late Vistulian (MIS 1, Allerød and Younger Dryas), the elk recolonized the area occupied by Poland. © 2014, Geological Society of Poland. All right reserved. Source

Kolar J.,Masaryk University | Kolar J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Jarosova I.,Anthropos Institute | Dreslerova G.,Masaryk University | And 2 more authors.
Archeologicke Rozhledy | Year: 2012

In this paper we focused on the reconstruction of dietary behaviour and food culture in the population of the Corded Ware culture in Central Moravia. The data comes from sites at Ivanovice na Hané 3/2, Ivanovice na Hané 4 and Hoštice 4. The main aim of this study is to get data about diet and symbolic meals indicated in graves in the form of animal bones, and to compare our results with the common idea of sexual dimorphism in the societies of the Corded Ware culture. Buccal dental microwear analysis was performed in order to reconstruct the diet and the results were compared to the physical health of the whole population. The results indicate a mixed abrasive diet with a high ratio of meat intake. In any case, individual dietary behaviour varied and was most probably determined not just by nutritional needs, but also by rules, taboos and restrictions. Source

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