Anthropological Survey of India

Kolkata, India

Anthropological Survey of India

Kolkata, India
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Sanyal J.,Anthropological Survey of India | Sarkar B.,Anthropological Survey of India | Banerjee T.K.,National Neurosciences Center | Mukherjee S.C.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Neurological Research | Year: 2011

Objectives: Mutations in the DJ-1 gene have been described in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) of European ancestry, Ashkenazi Jews, and Afro-Caribbean patients. Up to date, there is a lack of information about the prevalence of DJ-1 mutations among Indian PD patients. Materials and methods: In this study, we examined for DJ-1 mutations in Eastern Indian PD patients. Exons (no. 2-7) and intron boundaries of the DJ-1 gene were screened in 300 individuals (PD, 150; controls, 150) by direct sequencing. Results: A total of six intronic variants (IVS4-30T>G, IVS4+45G>A, IVS4+46G>A, IVS4-98G>A, IVS5+31G>A and IVS5+69G>C) were detected including one novel intronic change (IVS5+69G>C). Clinical features of the two patients exhibiting IVS5+69G>C (novel change) were compared and both were found to have early onset PD. IVS4+30T>G, IVS4+45G>A, and IVS4+46G>A were found to be present equally both in the patient and control cohorts. We did not find any DJ-1 mutations in our study. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, unlike Parkin, pathogenic DJ-1 mutations seem to be restricted in certain populations and are unlikely to be of clinical importance in the eastern part of India. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2011.

Sanyal J.,Anthropological Survey of India | Sarkar B.,Anthropological Survey of India | Ojha S.,National Neurosciences Center | Banerjee T.K.,National Neurosciences Center | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Background: Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2; PARK8) encoding dardarin, implicated in patients with autosomal dominant and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) among different ethnic groups (Ashkenazi Jews, North African Arabs, Basques) might be of some help in diagnostic screening and genetic counseling. Aim of the Study: We investigated the seven common mutations spanning exons 31, 35, and 41 reported in the LRRK2 gene among Eastern Indian patients with PD. Methods: Mutations R1441G, R1441C, R1441H, G2019S, Y1699C, I2020T, and I2012T were screened in 320 individuals (PD, 150 and controls, 170) by direct sequencing. Results: We did not observe any of these abovementioned mutations in our studied individuals. Conclusion: We conclude that these mutations are rare causes of PD in the Eastern Indian population and, therefore, of little help for genetic counseling and diagnostic purposes. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

PubMed | Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, National Neurosciences Center, University of Delhi and Anthropological Survey of India
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of human genetics | Year: 2015

Little information is available regarding the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease (PD) among the Bengalee population in West Bengal, India. This study was undertaken to determine the contribution of Parkin variants in well-defined ethnically identical Bengalee population of India and further to describe the clinical spectrum associated with these mutations. A total of 150 unrelated PD patients and 150 controls were recruited for the study. The entire cohort was screened for mutations in all the 12 exons of the gene along with flanking splice junctions by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Eleven nucleotide variants including two novel changes were detected. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parkin protein expression of the novel mutation, Val186Ile (found in heterozygous condition in one patient only) was almost 2.7 folds lower than the controls and other PD patients. Molecular characterization of polymorphisms Ser167Asn and Val380Leu depicted that homozygous Ser167 and Val380 are significantly associated with the disease. We did not find any linkage disequilibrium among the SNPs, the low r(2) for every pair of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated that these SNPs cannot be tagged by each other. Another novel intronic change, IVS8+48C>T was present in almost equally in PD patients and controls. Among the ethnically defined Bengalee population of West Bengal, occurrence of Parkin mutation is 4% (6/150) of the PD patient pool supported with decreased folds of expression of CSF PARKIN protein. Parkin polymorphisms, Ser167 and Val380 are risk factors for the progression of the disease, and their frequency is greatly influenced by ethnic origin.

Sahani R.,Anthropological Survey of India | Sahani R.,Panjab University
HOMO- Journal of Comparative Human Biology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of forced settlement among the foraging Onges, which induced them to change their subsistence from full time foragers to settled consumer. Anthropometric study along with dietary investigation was considered before and afterwards they were forcibly settled. The anthropometric variables and indices show gradual increase among the Onges males but not so much in females. High prevalence of overweight and obesity is also reported. Comparison with other Andaman Islanders indicates that the group which was under the developmental schemes (forced to settle), is showing more mean values of anthropometric variables with prevalence of overweight and obesity than the group, which was not under the influence of developmental programme. Their dietary pattern and physical activity changed to a great extent. The protein content of the diets reduced significantly and the fat along with carbohydrates increased to a substantial amount. The contribution of protein to calories has been reduced substantially and now it is only around 10%, whereas in the past it was above 30%. Caloric intakes increased more than two times, while the physical activity level reduced to about half time. Decreased mobility and altered food habits are the probable reason for the gradual increase of body dimensions and prevalent overweight and obesity, which are the outcomes of forced settlement. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

Sanyal J.,Anthropological Survey of India | Chakraborty D.P.,Bankura Medical College and Hospital | Sarkar B.,Anthropological Survey of India | Banerjee T.K.,National Neuroscience Center | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

Background: While the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown, evidence suggests certain environmental factors, such as well water drinking, herbicides, pesticides exposure and neurotoxins, may trigger the chain of oxidative reactions culminating in the death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra to cause Parkinsonism. To investigate the possible impact of environmental risk factors for idiopathic PD, a case-control study was performed in the Eastern India. Methods: During the period from January 1st, 2006 and December 10th, 2009, 175 PD patients (140 men, 35 women) and 350 non-Parkinson age-sex matched controls were included in the study. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed an administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on demographic data, pesticides, herbicides family history, occupation, dietary and smoking habits. Results: The multivariate analysis revealed that family history of PD, pesticide exposure, exposure to toxins other than pesticides and herbicides, rural living and previous history of depression were associated with increased risk of PD, whereas, smoking appeared to be a protective factor. Well water drinking for at least five years, though a significant risk factor on univariate analysis (OR=4.5, 95% CI=2.1-9.9), could not be proved significant in multivariate analysis. Head trauma, vegetarian dietary habit, occupation involving physical exertion and exposure to domestic pets were not as significant risk factors. Conclusion: Results of our study support the hypothesis of multifactorial etiology of PD with environmental factors acting on a genetically susceptible host.

Robbins Schug G.,Appalachian State University | Gray K.,University College London | Mushrif-Tripathy V.,Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute | Sankhyan A.R.,Anthropological Survey of India
International Journal of Paleopathology | Year: 2012

Thousands of settlements stippled the third millennium B.C. landscape of Pakistan and northwest India. These communities maintained an extensive exchange network that spanned West and South Asia. They shared remarkably consistent symbolic and ideological systems despite a vast territory, including an undeciphered script, standardized weights, measures, sanitation and subsistence systems, and settlement planning. The city of Harappa (3300-1300. B.C.) sits at the center of this Indus River Valley Civilization. The relatively large skeletal collection from Harappa offers an opportunity to examine biocultural aspects of urban life and its decline in South Asian prehistory. This paper compares evidence for cranial trauma among burial populations at Harappa through time to assess the hypothesis that Indus state formation occurred as a peaceful heterarchy. The prevalence and patterning of cranial injuries, combined with striking differences in mortuary treatment and demography among the three burial areas indicate interpersonal violence in Harappan society was structured along lines of gender and community membership. The results support a relationship at Harappa among urbanization, access to resources, social differentiation, and risk of interpersonal violence. Further, the results contradict the dehumanizing, unrealistic myth of the Indus Civilization as an exceptionally peaceful prehistoric urban civilization. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Nanda J.,International Institute for Population Sciences | Adak D.K.,Anthropological Survey of India | Bharati P.,Indian Statistical Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the contraceptive practices among adolescent married women of Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods: We used the data of District Level Household Survey-Reproductive Child Health (DLHS-RCH), Round-II which was conducted in two phases (phase-I during 2002-2003 and phase-II during 2003-2004) in Tamil Nadu. The data consist of 25 522 ever-married women. Results: About 92 percent of the subjects are not currently using any of the contraceptive methods. In terms of social characteristics of married women, who were currently using or not using any one of the family planning methods, caste is found to be highly significant (P <0.000). In economic characteristics per cent of using contraception is considerably higher in the women with medium standard of living. Difference between number of children ever born, gravida and using of contraception methods is highly significant (P <0.000). Conclusions: Study is indicative of implementation of new programme, which may increase awareness about family planning programme in Tamil Nadu state. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Sahani R.,Anthropological Survey of India | Chakrabarty S.,Indian Statistical Institute | Bharati P.,Indian Statistical Institute
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nicobarese adults from 1960s to 1999 using WHO recommendations for the classification of overweight and obesity. Methods: The sample includes 774 individuals (424 men and 350 women) during 1960s and 484 individuals (259 men and 225 women) during 1999, aged 20-64 years from Nicobar Islands, India. Height (cm), weight (kg) and sitting height (cm) were measured and BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, respectively. Results: There was significant increase of height, weight and BMI among both the men and women of 20-39, and 40 and above years age groups. However, the higher magnitude of increment was observed in 20-39 years. The prevalence of overweight increased from 5.42% to 22.01% among men and from 4% to 21.78% among women, while obese individual was absent during 1960s and the prevalence of obesity increased to 2.70% in men and 8.89% in women. The magnitude of increment was higher among women compared to men. Conclusion: The results indicate remarkable increase in the prevalence of both overweight and obesity among Nicobarese adult in Nicobar Islands. © 2009 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity.

Nanda J.,Aga Khan Health Service | Adak D.K.,Anthropological Survey of India | Bharati P.,Indian Statistical Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: To provide an approximation of infant and child mortality rate for all the districts of Orissa using CEB (Children Ever Born) and CS (Children Survival) data of Census of India, 2001. And to find out the correlations of IMR and CMR with selected monitoring indicators. Methods: Trussell method has been used in estimating infant and child mortality rate. For a better understanding, the districts were classified into three groups on the basis of estimated infant mortality rate viz. i) infant mortality rate lower than national average, ii) infant mortality rate between state and national average and iii) infant mortality rate more than state average. Results: Study reveals that most of the districts of Orissa are experiencing higher IMR and CMR as compared to estimated IMR and CMR of state average. Only one district of Orissa (Mayurbhanj) has IMR and CMR lower than national average in comparison with other districts of Orissa. On the other hand, 17 districts have an infant mortality between the state and national average, 12 districts have an infant mortality higher than the state average. Conclusion: The ranking of districts helps to identify the backward and most backward districts in reproductive and child health programmes and to intensify the intervention strategies to reduce the infant and child mortality in the state of Orissa. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Mandal C.R.,Anthropological Survey of India | Adak D.K.,Anthropological Survey of India | Biswas S.S,West Bengal State University | Bharati P.,Indian Statistical Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the nutritional status of the males and females in two subgroups of the Bhotia tribe (Marcha and Tolcha) inhabiting in three different altitudes in Uttaranchal, India. Methods: Data were collected from the Tolcha and Marcha, two sub-groups of the Bhotia, inhabiting in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal. Bhotia adults of both sexes were considered. Field investigation was conducted in three ecological zones (high, middle and low altitude) of the district during April-August, in the years 2002-2004. Anthropometric measurements were obtained in accordance with the techniques recommended by Weiner and Lourie (1981). The variables like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and blood pressure were studied in relation to BMI. Results: Relatively higher value of mean BMI is recorded among the females than that of the males, which is true for different altitudes, in both subgroups. The BMI also indicates an inverse relationship with altitude, except for the Tolcha males in high altitude. Lowest mean BMI is recorded in middle altitude among the Tolcha subgroup. Chronic energy deficient (CED) individuals are much more than twice the number among the males of both the subgroups inhabiting in different altitudes. Interestingly, the percentage of CED individuals increases with the altitude. Conclusions: Regression analysis indicates that height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference are dependent on body mass index in the studied populations. Probable reason for poor nutrition status among the Tolcha and Marcha of high altitude might be due to the fact that the Tolcha and Marcha of high altitude consume lesser amount of proteins, fat, milk and milk products in general than their counterpart inhabit in lower and middle altitude. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

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