Anthony Nolan Research Institute

London, United Kingdom

Anthony Nolan Research Institute

London, United Kingdom
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Saudemont A.,University College London | Saudemont A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Madrigal J.A.,University College London | Madrigal J.A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2017

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is being increasingly used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for transplantation. UCB transplantation (UCBT) has some advantages such as less stringent HLA-matching requirements, fast availability of the graft and reduced incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease. However, UCBT is also associated with a higher incidence of infection, graft failure, slow engraftment and slow immune reconstitution. UCB is mainly used as a source of HSC; however, it is also rich in immune cells that could be used to treat some of the main complications post-UCBT as well as other diseases, thus implicating the use of UCB for immunotherapy. Here, we aim to describe some of the therapies currently developed that use UCB as a cell source, focusing in particular on regulatory T cells and natural killer cells. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sarvaria A.,University College London | Sarvaria A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Madrigal J.A.,University College London | Saudemont A.,University College London
Cellular and Molecular Immunology | Year: 2017

The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well described. A significant contribution of immune regulatory cells, including regulatory T cells, to tumor progression has been widely reported. An emerging body of evidence has recently recognized a role for B cells in modulating the immune response to tumors and lymphoid malignancies. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a newly designated subset of B cells that have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses involved in inflammation, autoimmunity and, more recently, cancer. Bregs can suppress diverse cell subtypes, including T cells, through the secretion of anti-inflammatory mediators, such as IL-10, and can facilitate the conversion of T cells to regulatory T cells, thus attenuating anti-tumor immune responses. Similar B-cell subpopulations have been reported to be recruited to the tumor but to acquire their immunosuppressive properties within the tumor bed and thereby attenuate anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite a pivotal role for Bregs in promoting inflammation and carcinogenesis, the phenotypic diversity of the cell surface markers that are unique to Bregs remains unclear in mice and humans. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of Bregs and review our current knowledge of Bregs and their inhibition of anti-tumor immune responses in murine tumor models and cancer patients. © 2017 CSI and USTC All rights reserved.

Knight A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Knight A.,University College London | Madrigal A.J.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Grace S.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a serious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but the role of γδ T cells is undefined. We have studied the immune reconstitution of Vδ2negative (Vδ2neg) γδ T cells, including Vδ1 and Vδ3 subsets and Vδ2positive (Vδ2pos) γδ T cells in 40 patients during the first 24 months after stem cell transplantation. Significant long-term expansions of Vδ2neg but not Vδ2pos γδ T cells were observed during CMV reactivation early after transplantation, suggesting direct involvement of γδ T cells in anti-CMV immune responses. Similarly, significantly higher numbers of Vδ2neg γδ T cells were detected in CMV-seropositive healthy persons compared with seronegative donors; the absolute numbers of Vδ2pos cells were not significantly different. The expansion of Vδ2neg γδ T cells appeared to be CMV-related because it was absent in CMV-negative/Epstein-Barr virus-positive patients. Tcell receptor-δ chain determining region 3 spectratyping of Vδ2neg γδ T cells in healthy subjects and patients showed restricted clonality. Polyclonal Vδ2neg cell lines generated from CMV-seropositive healthy donors and from a recipient of a graft from a CMV-positive donor lysed CMV-infected targets in all cases. Our study shows new evidence for role of γδ T cells in the immune response to CMV reactivation in transplantation recipients. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

Robinson J.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Robinson J.,University College London | Halliwell J.A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Hayhurst J.D.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) was developed to provide a centralized system for the study of polymorphism in genes of the immune system. Through the IPD project we have established a central platform for the curation and publication of locusspecific databases involved either directly or related to the function of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in a number of different species.We have collaborated with specialist groups or nomenclature committees that curate the individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. IPD consists of five core databases, with the IMGT/HLA Database as the primary database. Through the work of the various nomenclature committees, the HLA Informatics Group and in collaboration with the European Bioinformatics Institute we are able to provide public access to this data through the website The IPD project continues to develop with new tools being added to address scientific developments, such as Next Generation Sequencing, and to address user feedback and requests. Regular updates to the website ensure that new and confirmatory sequences are dispersed to the immunogenetics community, and the wider research and clinical communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

Pyo C.-W.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Guethlein L.A.,Stanford University | Vu Q.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Wang R.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The fast evolving human KIR gene family encodes variable lymphocyte receptors specific for polymorphic HLA class I determinants. Nucleotide sequences for 24 representative human KIR haplotypes were determined. With three previously defined haplotypes, this gave a set of 12 group A and 15 group B haplotypes for assessment of KIR variation. The seven gene-content haplotypes are all combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. 2DL5, 2DS5 and 2DS3 can be present in centromeric and telomeric locations. With one exception, haplotypes having identical gene content differed in their combinations of KIR alleles. Sequence diversity varied between haplotype groups and between centromeric and telomeric halves of the KIR locus. The most variable A haplotype genes are in the telomeric half, whereas the most variable genes characterizing B haplotypes are in the centromeric half. Of the highly polymorphic genes, only the 3DL3 framework gene exhibits a similar diversity when carried by A and B haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates, point to the centromeric gene-content motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes having emerged ~6 million years ago, contemporaneously with the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In contrast, the telomeric motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes emerged more recently, ~1.7 million years ago, before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Thus the centromeric and telomeric motifs that typify A and B haplotypes have likely been present throughout human evolution. The results suggest the common ancestor of A and B haplotypes combined a B-like centromeric region with an Alike telomeric region. © 2010 Pyo et al.

Pulsipher M.A.,University of Utah | Chitphakdithai P.,Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research | Logan B.R.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Navarro W.H.,Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

We compared serious early and late events experienced by 2726 bone marrow (BM) and 6768 peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors who underwent collection of PBSC or BM between 2004 and 2009 as part of a prospective study through the National Marrow Donor Program. Standardized FDA definitions for serious adverse events (SAEs) were used, and all events were reviewed by an independent physician panel. BM donors had an increased risk for SAEs (2.38%for BMvs 0.56%for PBSC; odds ratio [OR], 4.13; P < .001), andwomen were twice as likely to experience an SAE (OR for men, 0.50; P 5 .005). Restricting the analysis to life-threatening, unexpected, or chronic/disabling events, BM donors maintained an increased risk for SAEs (0.99% for BM vs 0.31% for PBSC; OR, 3.20; P < .001). Notably, the incidence of cancer, autoimmune illness, and thrombosis after donation was similar in BMvs PBSC donors. In addition, cancer incidence in PBSC donorswas less than that reported in the general population (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Programdatabase). In conclusion, SAEs after donation are rare butmore often occurred in BM donors and women. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk for cancer, autoimmune illness, and stroke in donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during this period of observation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Alnabhan R.,University College London | Alnabhan R.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Madrigal A.,University College London | Madrigal A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2015

Background aims: Natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in the clearance of infection and transformed cells. Cord blood (CB) is currently used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation and is a potential source of NK cells for immunotherapy. We previously showed that CB NK cells are immature and less cytotoxic as compared with peripheral blood (PB) NK cells. We aimed to identify which cytokines, among interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 and their combinations, could fully activate CB NK cells as compared with PB NK cells. Methods: We performed a comprehensive analysis of phenotype and functionality of cytokine-activated NK cells. Results: Our results show that the lower responsiveness of CB NK cells to IL-2 is associated with lower levels of expression of IL-2 receptors and decreased phosphorylation of STAT5 as compared with PB NK cells. Activation of CB NK cells with IL-15+18 led to the most robust proliferative response and higher interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, whereas activation with IL-15+2 promoted enhanced cytotoxicity. PB NK cells responded significantly better to IL-2 than to CB NK cells but were also fully activated with other cytokine treatments including IL-15, IL-15+2 or IL-15+18. It was also possible to use cytokines to generate memory-like NK cells, with sustained ability to produce interferon-γ, from both CB and PB. Conclusions: CB NK cells are fully functional on activation with IL-15+2 or IL-15+18 rather than IL-2 alone as observed for PB NK cells. These cytokines should be considered in the future to activate CB NK cells for therapeutic purposes. © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy.

Querol S.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Gomez S.G.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Pagliuca A.,King's College | Torrabadella M.,Barcelona Cord Blood Bank | Madrigal J.A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute
Bone Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2010

Growing inventories of cord blood units have facilitated access to umbilical cord cell transplantation for many patients lacking conventional stem cell donors. They are in principle off-the-shelf, fit-for-use, as well as safe and effective therapy products. Cellular enumeration is used as a surrogate of graft potency, and users rely on the rigorous assessment carried out in banks to avoid poor engraftment after thawing (loss of cells or poor function), when the patient's situation is critical. However, in practice, when units are selected, initially on the basis of HLA matching and cell dose assessment, their absolute quality remains uncertain. Unfortunately, quality-related issues (particularly related to viability) are not uncommon in cord blood transplantation. The reasons for potency failures are diverse, but a lack of thorough validation during critical steps of the process and of appropriate use of quality-control tools for timely detection of problematic units are significant contributors. Moreover, incongruence between different sets of standards and regulations, and lack of common quality systems between banks result in a highly heterogeneous international inventory. Therefore, this complicates the matter for the end user of the product. To ameliorate this situation, it is essential to improve quality at each of the critical manufacturing steps wherein potency can be threatened, thereby creating homogeneous inventories of units with excellent quality and quantity. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Shaw B.E.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Shaw B.E.,Royal Marsden Hospital | Arguello R.,Institute Ciencia y Medicina Genomica | Garcia-Sepulveda C.A.,Institute Ciencia y Medicina Genomica | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

Summary One of the major factors that have contributed to improving the outcomes of Stem Cell Transplantation is progress made in the field of human leucocyte antigen(s) (HLA). This is evident not only in developing techniques for rapid and accurate tissue typing, but also in the greatly improved understanding of the HLA system and the impact of HLA matching on transplant complications. It is now accepted that high-resolution HLA matching for transplant recipients and unrelated donors is associated with the best clinical outcomes. The most important HLA determinants are the six 'classical' polymorphic HLA loci: HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DQB1, -DPB1. For several years, based on the outcome of numerous studies, a 10/10 matched donor (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) was considered the ideal. The impact of HLA-DPB1 has been less clear, in view of reduced likelihood of patient/donor matching for this locus. More recently, several large studies have questioned the importance of HLA-DQB1 matching on outcome. Based on the findings of recent studies, the current gold standard unrelated donor is believed to be one matched for 8/8 alleles at high resolution i.e. matched for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, however, in certain circumstances, mismatches may be tolerated and/or permissive. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Luevano M.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Luevano M.,University College London | Madrigal A.,Anthony Nolan Research Institute | Madrigal A.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2012

Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and are key effectors in the immune response against cancer and infection. Recent studies have contributed to the knowledge of events controlling NK cell fate. The use of knockout mice has enabled the discovery of key transcription factors (TFs) essential for NK cell development and function. Yet, unwrapping the downstream targets of these TFs and their influence on NK cells remains a challenge. In this review, we discuss the latest TFs described to be involved in the regulation of NK cell development and maturation. © 2012 Luevano, Madrigal and Saudemont.

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