Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine

Aix-en-Provence, France

Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine

Aix-en-Provence, France
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Vialet A.,French Natural History Museum | Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Alcicek M.C.,Pamukkale University | de Lumley M.-A.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine
Anthropologie | Year: 2014

In 2002, a fragmentary skullcap was discovered in Denizli basin, in the locality of Kocabaş, in the southwest of Turkey (Kappelman et al., 2008). The skullcap was ascribed to Homo erectus on the basis of morphological and metric similarities with the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C (Vialet et al., 2012). An in-depth morphological and metric analysis (2D and 3D) was carried out on a new 3D reconstruction of the fossil, made up of the frontal bone and parietal fragments. The results confirm that the morphology of the frontal bone, the conformation and the dimensions of the Kocabaş specimen, clearly differentiate it from Homo habilis. Homo georgicus, on one hand, and Homo heidelbergensis-Neanderthal, on the other. It displays similar metric characteristics to African (KNM-ER3733, OH9, Daka-Bouri) and Asian (skulls from Zhoukoudian L-C, Nankin1, Sangiran 17) Homo erectus, a marked post-orbital constriction, a supraorbital torus bordered posteriorly by a supratoral sulcus and showing, on its inferior border, a supraorbital notch and tuber, temporal lines in a medium high position delimiting an infratemporal frontal zone with a clear bulge. However, the proportions of the short and large Kocabaş frontal bone (without the supraorbital torus) differentiate it from Asian Homo erectus, which present a longer squama frontalis. This feature is also present on African Homo erectus. Consequently, the Turkish fossil appears to be intermediary between the Homo erectus from Africa and Asia, both from an anatomic and geographic point of view. In the light of the new dates advanced for this fossil, at least 1.1. Ma (Lebatard et al., 2014a, b; Khatib et al., 2014; Boulbes et al., 2014), it contributes, along with OH9, to bridging a palaeoanthropological gap between KNM-ER3733 (1.78. Ma) and the Chinese fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C, Sangiran 17 (earlier than 0.78. Ma) and Nankin 1 (approximately 0.63. Ma). This study, which mainly concerns the frontal bone, implies that Homo erectus is a species with a vast geochronological distribution and marked morphometric variability. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Vialet A.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Jianing H.,Beihang University | Xiaobo F.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | And 5 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2010

Recent applications of 3D virtual imaging techniques in human palaeontology have increased the possibilities and the accuracy of anthropological analysis. Two examples are given for the reconsideration of fossils discovered more than 20 years ago, thanks to this new technology. The Lower and Middle Pleistocene skulls from Yunxian and Nankin in China, which were damaged in the process of fossilization, have been virtually reconstructed. A detailed reinvestigation has been conducted by considering those reconstructed skulls and their unpublished characters (i.e., inner anatomical features inaccessible until now). The results of this analysis provide new information about the early hominids of China and contribute to the discussion of variability in Homo erectus. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

Vialet A.,Institute Of Paleontologie Humaine | Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Cihat Alcicek M.,Pamukkale University
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2012

Few human fossils are known in Turkey and no Homo erectus has been discovered until now. In this respect, the newly discovered partial skull from Kocabaş is very important: (1) to assess the pattern of the first settlements throughout the Old World; and (2) to document the extension of the species H. erectus to the west of continental Asia. Using CT data and 3D imaging techniques, this specimen was reconstructed and a more detailed analysis was done, including the inner anatomical features. The preliminary results of this study highlight that the fossil hominid from Kocabaş is close to the H. erectus species regarding the following cranial patterns: presence of a clear post-orbital constriction, strong development of the frontal brow-ridge with a depressed supratoral area in the lateral part, as well as endocranial patterns such as the development and orientation of the middle meningeal artery and the presence of a frontal bec. The Kocabaş skull is morphologically very close to the fossils from Zhoukoudian L-C. The partial Kocabaş skull is the oldest H. erectus known in Turkey and the only one from this species to have settled so far west in Asia. © 2011.

Lebatard A.-E.,Aix - Marseille University | Alcicek M.C.,Pamukkale University | Rochette P.,Aix - Marseille University | Khatib S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

Since its discovery within a travertine quarry, the fragmentary cranium of the only known Turkish Homo erectus, the Kocabaş hominid, has led to conflicting biochronological estimations. First estimated to be ~500ka old, the partial skull presents a combination of archaic and evolved features that puts it as an intermediate specimen between the Dmanisi fossils (Homo georgicus) and the Chinese Zhoukoudian skulls (Homo erectus) respectively dated to 1.8 to ~0.8Ma. Here we present a multidisciplinary study combining sedimentological, paleontological and paleoanthropological observations together with cosmogenic nuclide concentration and paleomagnetic measurements to provide an absolute chronological framework for the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit where the Kocabaş hominid and fauna were discovered. The 26Al/10Be burial ages determined on pebbles from conglomeratic levels framing the Upper fossiliferous Travertine unit, which exhibits an inverse polarity, constrains its deposition to before the Cobb Mountain sub-chron, that is between 1.22 and ~1.5Ma. The alternative match of the normal polarity recorded above the travertine with the Jaramillo subchron (lower limit 1.07 Ma) may also be marginally compatible with cosmogenic nuclides interpretation, thus the proposed minimum age of 1.1 Ma for the end of massive travertine deposition. The actual age of the fossils is likely to be in the 1.1-1.3 Ma range. This absolute date is in close agreement with the paleoanthropological conclusions based on morphometric comparisons implying that Kocabaş hominid belongs to the Homo erectus s.l. group that includes Chinese and African fossils, and is different from Middle and Upper Pleistocene specimens. Furthermore, this date is confirmed by the large mammal assemblage, typical of the late Villafranchian. Because it attests to the antiquity of human occupation of the Anatolian Peninsula and one of the waves of settlements out of Africa, this work challenges the current knowledge of the Homo erectus dispersal over Eurasia. © 2014 The Authors.

Guipert G.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | de Lumley M.-A.,French Natural History Museum | Tuffreau A.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Mafart B.,Antenne Of Linstitut Of Paleontologie Humaine | Mafart B.,French Natural History Museum
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2011

Among the Middle Pleistocene human remains discovered in Biache-Saint-Vaast (Pas-de-Calais, France), three cranial fragments were attributed to the same individual: Biache-Saint-Vaast 2 (BSV2). Three-dimensional virtual imaging methods have been used to assemble the various bones and to study the endocranial cavities. The fact that these remains showed most of the classical Neanderthal characteristics as well as several plesiomorphic characteristics suggests the existence of a phyletic relationship with the early European Neanderthals. Parmi les restes humains découverts à Biache-Saint-Vaast (département du Pas-de-Calais, France) et datés du Pléistocène moyen tardif, trois fragments crâniens ont pu être attribués à un même individu: Biache-Saint-Vaast 2 (BSV2). L'imagerie numérique tridimensionnelle a été utilisée pour articuler et étudier virtuellement les différents ossements. L'observation, sur ces restes, d'une majorité de caractères observés chez les Néandertaliens classiques associés à plusieurs caractères plésiomorphes est en faveur d'une appartenance phylétique aux premiers Néandertaliens d'Europe. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

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