Lansing, MI, United States
Lansing, MI, United States
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Aly S.S.,University of California at Davis | Anderson R.J.,Animal Health Branch | Whitlock R.H.,University of Pennsylvania | Fyock T.L.,University of Pennsylvania | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation | Year: 2012

Diagnostic strategies to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) super-shedder cows in dairy herds have been minimally studied. The objective of the current study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of strategies for identification of MAP super-shedders on a California dairy herd of 3,577 cows housed in free-stall pens. Eleven strategies that included serum or milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture of environmental samples, pooled or individual cow fecal samples, or combinations thereof were compared. Nineteen super-shedders (0.5%) were identified by qPCR and confirmed by culture as cows shedding ≥10,000 colony forming units (CFU)/g feces (median of 30,000 CFU/g feces). A stratified random sample of the study herd based on qPCR results of fecal pools was the most sensitive (74%) strategy and had the highest cost ($5,398/super-shedder). The reference strategy with the lowest cost ($1,230/super-shedder) and sensitivity (47%) included qPCR testing of fecal samples from ELISA-positive lactating (milk) and nonlactating (serum) cows housed in pens with the highest MAP bioburden. The most cost-effective alternative to the reference was to perform qPCR testing of fecal samples from ELISA-positive cows (milk and serum for milking and dry cows, respectively) for a sensitivity of 68% and cost of $2,226/super-shedder. In conclusion, diagnostic strategies varied in their cost-effectiveness depending on the tests, specimen type, and labor costs. Initial qPCR testing of environmental samples from free-stall pens to target cows in pens with the highest MAP bioburden for further testing can improve the cost-effectiveness of strategies for super-shedder identification. © 2012 The Author(s).

Erskine R.J.,Michigan State University | Bartlett P.C.,Michigan State University | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems | Render C.L.,Michigan State University | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Medicine International | Year: 2012

Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥ 4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP) was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,P<0.0001). The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV. © 2012 Ronald J. Erskine et al.

Wadhwa A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Bannantine J.P.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems | Stein T.L.,Antel BioSystems | And 3 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

Johne's disease (JD) or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is one of the most economically important diseases of dairy cattle. Control of JD could be achieved by good herd management practices, and diagnosis; however, this approach has been hampered by the low sensitivity of currently available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In our previous study, we developed a sensitive serum ELISA test, ethanol-vortex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EVELISA), using ethanol extract of MAP. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the EVELISA can be used for detection of anti-MAP antibodies in milk samples. In this study, we tested and optimized concentrations of antigen, milk, and secondary antibody for better differentiation of milk samples of cattle with MAP infections from those of cattle in JD-free herds. We evaluated five environmental mycobacteria as absorbents of cross-reactive antibodies in milk and found that the mycobacteria had no significant effect on EVELISA results. Using the optimized conditions, a total of 57 milk samples from Holstein dairy cattle (37 animals found positive on the fecal polymerase chain reaction test and 20 animals from JD-free herds) were tested for anti-MAP antibody in milk by using the EVELISA method. The average of ELISA values in the JD-positive milk samples (mean±SD=0.355±0.455) was significantly higher than that in the JD-negative milk samples (mean±SD=0.071±0.011). These results warrant further studies for evaluation and validation of the EVELISA for milk testing of cattle for JD. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Alejandro Paz Portela N.,Antel BioSystems | Rodriguez Diaz B.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
IEEE Latin America Transactions | Year: 2013

There is no doubt nowadays that Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the dominant technology in the area of mobile wireless access. The objective of this work is to analyze and compare the performance and spectral efficiency of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and mobile Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). Both technologies (based in OFDM) are the dominant options to provide mobile broadband access today, and in the near future. © 2003-2012 IEEE.

Erskine R.J.,Michigan State University | Bartlett P.C.,Michigan State University | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems | Render C.L.,Michigan State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to determine the herd-level effect of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on dairy production, culling, and cow longevity. During routine herd testing, Dairy Herd Improvement Association technicians collected milk samples from about 40 cows from each of 104 randomly selected Michigan dairy herds averaging ≥120 milking cows and 11,686. kg of milk/yr. Milk samples were analyzed for the presence of anti-BLV antibodies by ELISA, and herd- and lactation-specific estimates of BLV prevalence were computed to determine which were the most predictive of herd milk production, culling rate, and cow longevity (proportion of cows in their third or greater lactation). On this basis, the herd BLV index (an unweighted mean BLV prevalence rate for lactation number 1, 2, 3, and ≥4) was selected as the measure of BLV prevalence that was the most highly associated with BLV economic impact. Step-down multivariate analysis was used to determine the extent to which any of 19 herd-level management variables may have confounded the association of BLV index and measures of herd economic impact (milk production and cow longevity). The BLV index was not associated with the 12-mo culling rate, but was negatively associated in the final multivariable model with the proportion of cows that were ≥third lactation, and was negatively associated with herd milk production. In summary, increased prevalence of BLV within Michigan dairy herds was found to be associated with decreased herd milk production and decreased cow longevity. Our results provide evidence that BLV infection is associated with herd-level economic impacts in high-performing dairy herds. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Wilson D.J.,Utah State University | Rood K.,Utah State University | Biswas P.,Antel BioSystems | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The objectives of this study were to estimate the dairy herd-level prevalence of Johne's disease (JD) in Utah and nearby areas of the intermountain west and to estimate the sensitivity of a single bulk-tank milk test for JD detection. Two milk samples from all bulk tanks on the study farms were collected 1 mo apart. Samples were frozen and shipped to a laboratory for JD testing. An ELISA to measure total IgG antibody specific against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, the etiological agent that causes JD, and a quantitative real-time PCR to detect M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis DNA were used; both tests were designed for bulk milk. Of the dairy farms in the study area, 170/246 (69%) participated. Positive JD results were found in bulk milk from 67/170 (39%) of dairy farms in Utah and adjacent areas. There were 138 JD-positive bulk-tank results from 241 bulk-tank samples from the 67 positive herds. The sensitivity of the bulk milk testing for detection of JD was 138/241(57%). From the 103 JD-negative farms, 235 bulk-tank samples tested negative for JD. The probability of false-negative results on a single bulk-milk sample was (1 - 0.57)=0.43. For farms with 1 bulk tank, 2 samples collected 1 mo apart, with both samples testing negative (by both ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR) for JD, the true-negative probability was [1 - (0.43)2]=(1 - 0.18)=82%. For farms with at least 2 bulk tanks, at least 4 samples tested, with all results negative for JD, the true-negative probability was at least 97%. Results support other estimates that prevalence of JD has increased over the last 15 to 20 yr. However, the prevalence detected was 3 times that from a recent report where 13% of dairy herds in the western US were positive. The increase in JD suggests that current control programs, at least as applied, are not effective. Bulk milk testing is a practical way to screen dairy herds for presence of JD. Studies are needed regarding the use of individual cow milk tests for accuracy, practicality, and effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of JD in dairy herds. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Bartlett P.C.,Michigan State University | Sordillo L.M.,Michigan State University | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems | Norby B.,Michigan State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2014

The subclinical impact of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) on the sustainability of the US dairy industry is only now being fully recognized. Findings of recent longitudinal studies conducted in Michigan dairy herds were consistent with the results of previous studies in showing that within-herd prevalence of BLV-infected cattle was negatively associated with milk production and cow longevity. Risk factors relating to routes of hematogenous transmission such as the use of shared hypodermic needles, shared reproductive examination sleeves, and natural breeding were associated with BLV within-herd prevalence. Few US dairy producers know the prevalence of BLV-infected cattle in their herds or are aware of the insidious economic impact of BLV or the options for BLV control. As an increasing number of countries eradicate BLV from their cattle populations, restrictions on the movement of US cattle and cattle products will likely increase. Veterinarians should be aware of recent developments for screening serum and milk samples for antibodies against BLV and the results of research regarding the economic impact of BLV so they can advise their dairy clients of available alternatives for monitoring and controlling BLV infection.

Delgado Caruso M.,Antel BioSystems | Rodriguez Diaz B.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
IEEE Latin America Transactions | Year: 2016

Different studies about the use of radio spectrum have shown the existence of underutilized bands, like the ones destined to television broadcasting. This provides an interesting opportunity considering the exponential growth in wireless communications and applications, which results in an important demand for higher bandwidth to achieve an adequate performance. To operate in bands that are already licensed, it is necessary to ensure that this operation does not cause any interference to the primary user, and always gives priority to it. In this context the IEEE has been defining a standard with functionalities of Cognitive Radio that allows operation in licensed bands opportunistically, and without causing interference. From there comes the IEEE 802.22 standard, which has a set of features and procedures to measure, monitor and manage the radio spectrum, essential to ensure the protection of primary users transmissions. Some pilot projects have demonstrated the potential of this standard to provide broadband services comparable to classical ADSL services, especially in remote or rural areas inaccessible to deploy fixed networks. One of the great challenges to install such systems commercially, is to achieve the permissions for the operation and to have a defined regulation for these systems, decisions that are in the hands of the telecommunications services regulators in each country. This paper presents an overview of these issues with the intention of promoting a more efficient use of the spectrum. © 2016 IEEE.

Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.35K | Year: 2010

Bovine tuberculosis is a well-known zoonotic disease which affects cattle world-wide. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), is a slow-growing bacteria, for which cattle are a host and significant reservoir. Consumption of raw milk and milk products has been associated with tuberculosis in humans. M. bovis accounts for up to 10% of human tuberculosis (TB) cases in developing countries and is increasing in cattle in the U.S. and U.K. Consequently, many developed nations have embarked on campaigns to eradicate M. bovis from cattle populations, or at least to control the spread of infection. The success of these eradication and control programs has been mixed and largely hindered by the presence of numerous wildlife reservoirs such as white-tailed deer, badger, and opossum. Raw milk from herds infected with M. bovis is a significant threat to national food safety and upon diagnosis, the herds are either depopulated or quarantined, which leads to major economic losses. Current ante-mortem tests for detecting the presence of bTB involve the use of costly and invasive techniques such as tuberculin skin testing and/or whole blood testing for gamma interferon production. The cost and disruption associated with these testing procedures are the major obstacles to the implementation of routine, industry-wide surveillance programs. The overall goal of this project is to develop a simple diagnostic test, using real-time PCR, to detect M. bovis organism in bulk milk. Using bulk milk samples as a test matrix will allow easier implementation of a national bTB surveillance program for the protection of the U.S. dairy industry. Specifically, research in Phase I will design and develop reagents for a real-time PCR assay to identify M. bovis DNA isolated from milk samples. The majority of the work will be devoted to resolving the potential challenges of isolating mycobacteria and its DNA when employing milk as test matrix. The newly designed assay will be used to determine shedding levels of M. bovis in milk from naturally-infected cows. Based on measured shedding levels and the analytical sensitivity of the new assay, collection and processing procedures will be developed for bulk tank testing. Finally, bulk milk samples from infected and bTB-free dairy herds will be tested to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay for M. bovis. In Phase II, the milk-based, real-time PCR assay for M. bovis will be further validated in large scale field trails, and the test performance evaluated and presented to the United States Animal Health Association for recognition as an "official" test for herd-level screening for bTB. Early detection by an ongoing surveillance program can lead to the implementation of intervention strategies that will prevent severe economic losses resulting from spread of M. bovis infection. Such a test will directly benefit dairy producers and will be a very attractive tool for milk marketing and processing cooperatives to ensure safety of the nation's milk supply.

Antel BioSystems | Date: 2012-07-17

Metal meshes and sieves, namely, wire mesh, wedge wires, for sieving, filtering and similar purposes. Water softening devices, namely, water softening filtration units; water treatment devices and water treatment equipment, namely, water filtration units, reverse osmosis filtration units; waste treatment equipment, namely, waste water purification units; water filters used in houses; water filters for industrial equipment; filters for drinking water; water filters for cooling water, water filters for cooling towers full flow and side stream filtration, water filters for nozzle protection, filters for sea water filtration, filters for well water, filters for surface water, filters for ballast water filtration, filters for irrigation water filtration, water filters for pressurized irrigation system.

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