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Oberacher H.,Innsbruck Medical University | Erb R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Plattner S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Chervet J.-P.,Antec
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Oxidation reactions play a major role in the modification of nucleobases in DNA and RNA. Enzymatic oxidation reactions are involved in the control of epigenetic signaling as part of DNA-demethylation pathways. Oxidative stress gives rise to non-enzymatic oxidation. Many different oxidative DNA modifications have been identified. The cellular responses to such oxidative damage involve several processes, such as DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Persistent DNA damage may result in genomic instability, which is considered to play a role in the development of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, aging and cancer. Due to the involvement of nucleic-acid oxidation in many biological processes, understanding the underlying mechanisms is of the utmost importance. Herein, we demonstrate the vast potential of electrochemistry coupled to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a tool for studying the oxidative stability of nucleic-acid species and identifying important oxidation products. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Plattner S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Erb R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Chervet J.-P.,Antec | Oberacher H.,Innsbruck Medical University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Electrospray ionization (ESI) involves the dispersion of a liquid containing analytes of interest into a fine aerosol by applying a high potential difference to the sample solution with respect to a counter electrode. Thus, from the electrochemical point of view, the ESI source represents a two-electrode controlled-current electrochemical flow cell. The electroactive compounds part of the solvent sprayed may be altered by occurring electrolysis (oxidation in positive ion mode and reduction in negative ion mode). These reactions can be troublesome in the context of unknown identification and quantification. In the search for a simple, inexpensive, and efficient way to suppress electrochemical oxidation in positive ESI, the usability of ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, and glutathione for homogenous redox buffering was tested. Performance of the antioxidants was assessed by analyzing pharmaceutical compounds covering a broad range of functional groups prone to oxidation. Different emitter setups were applied for continuous infusion, flow injection, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments. Best performance was obtained with ascorbic acid. In comparison to hydroquinone and glutathione, ascorbic acid offered superior antioxidant activity, a relatively inert oxidation product, and hardly any negative effect on the ionization efficiency of analytes. Furthermore, ascorbic acid suppressed the formation of sodiated forms and was able to induce charge state reduction. Only in the very special case of analyzing a compound isobaric to ascorbic acid, interference with the low-abundant [ascorbic acid+H]+ signal may become a point of attention. © 2012 The Author(s).

Martinez T.,CIEMAT | Abramian P.,CIEMAT | Calero J.,CIEMAT | Garcia-Tabares L.,CIEMAT | And 9 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2014

The procurement of 103 superconducting magnet packages is part of the Spanish in-kind contribution to the European X-FEL. Each package consists of a main superferric quadrupole and two steerers, vertical and horizontal, fed by conduction-cooled current leads and enclosed in a stainless steel vessel. The operation temperature is 2 K, as they are embedded in a superfluid helium bath. The magnetic and mechanical designs are published elsewhere. The magnets are being produced in the Spanish company ANTEC, while the vessels are fabricated by another Spanish company, Trinos Vacuum-Projects, which is also responsible for the integration, under the supervision of CIEMAT. The helium vessel manufacturer needs to accomplish the requirements given by the European Pressure Equipment Directive, namely PED 97/23/EC. This paper describes the series fabrication techniques, the production follow-up, the quality assurance, and the magnet testing at the manufacturer site. Cold tests are realized at DESY premises. The main problems found during the fabrication of the first half of the series are also reported: 1) the reproducibility of the quadrupole coil dimensions; 2) the accuracy of the beam position monitor housing after final welding of the vessel; and 3) the minimization of the magnetization effects on the transfer function of the magnets. 1051-8223 © 2013 IEEE.

Plattner S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Erb R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Pitterl F.,Innsbruck Medical University | Brouwer H.-J.,Antec | Oberacher H.,Innsbruck Medical University
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2012

Chemicals can interact with the genetic material giving rise to the formation of covalent adducts. These alterations can lead to adverse consequences, including cancer, reproductive impairment, development anomalies, or genetic diseases. In search for an assay allowing identification of hazardous compounds that might form covalent adducts with nucleic acids, electrochemistry (EC)/liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. EC/LC/MS is a purely instrumental approach. EC is used for oxidative activation, LC for the fractionation of the reaction mixture, and MS for the detection and characterization of the reaction products. To test the system capabilities, we investigated the formation of covalent adducts produced by guanosine and acetaminophen (APAP). Electrochemical activation of mixtures of guanosine and APAP gave rise to the formation of four isomers of (guanosine. +. APAP-2H). Mass voltammograms as well as dose-response-curves were used to obtain insights in the mechanism of adduct formation. These experiments revealed that a mechanism involving radical intermediates is favored. The initial step of adduct formation is the conversion of both APAP and guanosine into radicals via one-electron-one-proton reactions. Among different competing reaction pathways, the generated radical intermediates undergo intermolecular reactions to form covalent adducts between guanosine and APAP. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kraj A.,Antec | Brouwer H.-J.,Antec | Reinhoud N.,Antec | Chervet J.-P.,Antec
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

A novel electrochemical (EC) method for fast and efficient reduction of the disulfide bonds in proteins and peptides is presented. The method does not use any chemical agents and is purely instrumental. To demonstrate the performance of the EC reactor cell online with electrospray mass spectrometry, insulin and somatostatin were used as model compounds. Efficient reduction is achieved in continuous infusion mode using an EC reactor cell with a titanium-based working electrode. Under optimized conditions, the presented method shows almost complete reduction of insulin and somatostatin. The method does not require any special sample preparation, and the EC reactor cell makes it suitable for automation. Online EC reduction followed by collision-induced dissociation fragmentation of somatostatin showed more backbone cleavages and improved sequence coverage. By adjusting the settings, the EC reaction efficiency was gradually changed from partial to full disulfide bonds reduction in α-lactalbumin, and the expected shift in charge state distribution has been demonstrated. The reduction can be controlled by adjusting the square-wave pulse, flow rate or mobile phase composition. We have shown the successful use of an EC reactor cell for fast and efficient reduction of disulfide bonds for online mass spectrometry of proteins and peptides. The possibility of online and gradual disulfide bond reduction adds a unique dimension to characterization of disulfide bonds in mid- and top-down proteomics applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 The Author(s).

Nicolardi S.,Leiden University | Giera M.,Leiden University | Kooijman P.,Leiden University | Kraj A.,Antec | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013

Particularly in the field of middle- and top-down peptide and protein analysis, disulfide bridges can severely hinder fragmentation and thus impede sequence analysis (coverage). Here we present an on-line/electrochemistry/ESI- FTICR-MS approach, which was applied to the analysis of the primary structure of oxytocin, containing one disulfide bridge, and of hepcidin, containing four disulfide bridges. The presented workflow provided up to 80 % (on-line) conversion of disulfide bonds in both peptides. With minimal sample preparation, such reduction resulted in a higher number of peptide backbone cleavages upon CID or ETD fragmentation, and thus yielded improved sequence coverage. The cycle times, including electrode recovery, were rapid and, therefore, might very well be coupled with liquid chromatography for protein or peptide separation, which has great potential for high-throughput analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 The Author(s).

Van Schoors J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Brouwer H.-J.,Antec | Maes K.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Michotte Y.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Van Eeckhaut A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

The use of ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD) is of great interest for the fast and sensitive determination of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in microdialysis samples. However, when applying high flow rates in ion-pair UHPLC, other peaks than the initial compound peaks appear on the chromatogram. This peak-splitting phenomenon is caused by disturbed ion-pair retention mechanisms. The influence of several chromatographic parameters is investigated. Peak-splitting is delayed to higher flow rates when increasing the concentration of ion-pair reagent or buffering agent in the mobile phase, when decreasing the percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, when applying a stationary phase with a smaller amount of packing material or when increasing the separation temperature. One or a combination of these conditions can be applied to analyze the monoamine neurotransmitters using ion-pair UHPLC-ECD at high flow rates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jones R.E.,ANTEC
Plastics Engineering | Year: 2010

The conditions prevailing in the economy of the US after facing the challenges of economic recession are discussed. It has been observed that the economic recession has adverse impact on the overall GDP growth of the country and its plastics industry. The domestic manufacturing industry, including the plastics sector, is facing challenges of recovering from the adverse impacts of economic recession due to the implementation of stringent environmental regulations by several states in the country. The federal government is planning to increase its control over major sectors of the economy, ranging from banking, automobile companies, and healthcare within a year. The US Congress is planning to discontinue the tax discounts to companies after they expire in 2010, while increasing tax rates and adopting new taxes. These new taxes will include a value added tax similar to those used in Europe.

News Article | November 23, 2016

It’s no good if you’re in the middle of some important work or an intensive gaming session and your laptop starts to slow down or even crash. If that’s happened to you before – or you’re worried it might in the future – then it’s worth investing in a laptop cooler. These devices sit beneath a notebook and use fans to circulate extra cold air around a laptop’s toastiest corners. And that’s not all they offer: many have adjustable angles for improved ergonomics, and some function as USB hubs. We’ve found five of the best on the market – so if your notebook needs a little extra cooling, then look no further. The slick and solid laptop stand gets its strength from aluminium – and that’s not the only bonus that comes from the MasterNotepal’s metal design. The material is sandblasted, so it looks superb, and it works efficiently when it comes to dissipating heat. This standard version of the MasterNotepal is positioned at an 8° angle – a figure that Cooler Master has arrived at through extensive research. The MasterNotepal’s underside is adorned with a pair of 80mm fans, and they can be repositioned, which means hotspots on your laptop can be targeted with cool air. This device also supports 17.3in notebooks – a boon when compared to some rivals that just can’t handle laptops that large. The bottom of the MasterNotepal’s stand is rubberised and has clasps for keeping cables tidy, and the top of the device has an anti-slip strip – perfect for keeping your laptop secure. The standard version of the MasterNotepal costs £33/$41, and two other models are available with additional features. The MasterNotepal Pro serves up an extra viewing angle and a USB hub for £49/$60, and the MasterNotePal Maker has five viewing angles and huge versatility at a cost of £54/£67. The MasterNotePal is a top-notch notebook cooler, no matter which model you buy – you can be sure that your laptop is cool and secure. The NB in the Silverstone NB04S’s name stands for Noble Breeze, and it‘s easy to see why this cooler has been given such a lofty title. Underneath its aluminium frame is a huge 200mm fan – a spinner that’s bigger than the fans inside the vast majority of desktop PCs. There’s plenty of sensible design to back that fan up. The sheer size of its fins means that it doesn’t have to spin as quickly to circulate air around a notebook, which means its 800rpm spin speed is slower than most of its rivals. In turn, that allows the Silverstone to be quieter than most of the other laptop coolers on the market. The NB04S is rated for an 18dBA noise level – lower than the vast majority of other coolers. It’ll still be enough for most laptops, too, although it could struggle when tasked with chilling huge and powerful gaming notebooks. The sand-blasted aluminium looks good and has ample strength, and the body is covered in slats to allow for maximum airflow. There aren’t any USB ports, though, and the angle isn’t adjustable – and this cooler isn’t large enough to accommodate 17.3in notebooks. Despite that, though, the Silverstone NB04S remains tempting if you’re after a laptop cooler that keeps as quiet as possible. It’s not unusual for a laptop cooler to have two fans installed, but Zalman’s ZM-NC1000 goes beyond most of the market by offering adjustable fans – which means the user has more control than most over this product’s cooling abilities and noise levels. A dial on the right-hand side of the unit can be used to set the speed between 1,000rpm and 1,500rpm, which sees noise levels ranging between 18 and 25.5dBA – both moderately quiet outputs. The Zalman is hewn from smart-looking 3mm anodized aluminium, and the bottom of the angled section has a strip of rubber to prevent laptops from sliding around. Zalman drills exactly 679 holes into the metal for airflow, and the side has two USB ports. This cooler doesn’t have movable fans or an adjustable angle, but those are minor issues – and it’s certainly bolstered by its customisable fan speed. It’s a smart and low-key option and, at £35/$43, its price is tempting. This smart-looking laptop cooler will look just as comfortable in the boardroom, on the train or at home thanks to its smart plastic design and soft-touch fabric underside. The Kensington has two fans to keep air circulating, and the top panel has four stability pads to secure notebooks up to 17.3-inches in size. Kensington’s cooling product has a retracting stand that allows the laptop to be positioned on a flat base or at a slight, ergonomically-adjusted angle, and the USB cable that powers the fans can be hidden away beneath that stand when it’s not being used. It doesn’t have as many flashy features as some of its rivals, but it’s smarter-looking than many of the other notebook coolers on the market – and that means it’s more suited to the office than several competitors. The other fans in this group have been conventional laptop coolers that provide a base for the laptop with fans underneath, but the Antec Mini Notebook Cooler is different. It’s a tiny accessory that sits alongside or beneath a laptop, and it’s got an 80mm fan that blows hot air towards problem areas. The Antec device can be used at the back of a notebook or even on the sides, and a couple of rubber pads on its top surface allow it to be positioned underneath, directing air towards a notebook’s base panel. The clever design means the Antec can be used with any size of laptop, and the single 80mm fan spins at 1,200rpm – a modest level that means a quiet 18.8dBA noise level. That’s fine, but those with toasty gaming laptops may want to invest in beefier cooling equipment. The Antec’s design also means there are no USB ports and angle adjustment, but there’s still plenty to like here – no least its tiny size and £11/$14 price. If other products are too large or expensive, this is a solid alternative.

News Article | February 23, 2017

In this report, the global CPU Cooler market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of CPU Cooler in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Global CPU Cooler market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players including Antec Corsair Swiftech NZXT Nexustek Phononic Asetek ... On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into Air Cooling (Including Heatpipe Cooling) Water Cooling Thermoelectric Cooling On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate of CPU Cooler for each application, including Desktop Laptop Some Major Points from Table of content: Global CPU Cooler Market Research Report 2017 1 CPU Cooler Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of CPU Cooler 1.2 CPU Cooler Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global CPU Cooler Production and CAGR (%) Comparison by Type (Product Category) (2012-2022) 1.2.2 Global CPU Cooler Production Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016 1.2.3 Air Cooling (Including Heatpipe Cooling) 1.2.4 Water Cooling 1.2.5 Thermoelectric Cooling 1.3 Global CPU Cooler Segment by Application 1.3.1 CPU Cooler Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2012-2022) 1.3.2 Desktop 1.3.3 Laptop 1.4 Global CPU Cooler Market by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.1 Global CPU Cooler Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) Comparison by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.2 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.4 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.5 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.7 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of CPU Cooler (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global CPU Cooler Revenue Status and Outlook (2012-2022) 1.5.2 Global CPU Cooler Capacity, Production Status and Outlook (2012-2022) If you have any enquiry before buying a copy of this report@ 2 Global CPU Cooler Market Competition by Manufacturers 2.1 Global CPU Cooler Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) 2.1.1 Global CPU Cooler Capacity and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) 2.1.2 Global CPU Cooler Production and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) 2.2 Global CPU Cooler Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2012-2017) 2.3 Global CPU Cooler Average Price by Manufacturers (2012-2017) 2.4 Manufacturers CPU Cooler Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type 2.5 CPU Cooler Market Competitive Situation and Trends 2.5.1 CPU Cooler Market Concentration Rate 2.5.2 CPU Cooler Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers 2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion 3 Global CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2012-2017) 3.1 Global CPU Cooler Capacity and Market Share by Region (2012-2017) 3.2 Global CPU Cooler Production and Market Share by Region (2012-2017) 3.3 Global CPU Cooler Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017) 3.4 Global CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.5 North America CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.6 Europe CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.7 China CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.8 Japan CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.9 Southeast Asia CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 3.10 India CPU Cooler Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) For more information or any query mail at About Us Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available. For more information, please visit

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