Ortega J.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University |
Corpa J.M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University |
Orden J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Blanco J.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation | Year: 2015
A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal. © 2015, The Author(s).
Villena I.,Reims University Hospital Center |
Durand B.,Anses Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
Aubert D.,Reims University Hospital Center |
Blaga R.,Anses Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
And 8 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012
Monitoring of Toxoplasma infection in animals destined for human consumption is a great challenge for human toxoplasmosis prevention. This study aimed to compare results obtained from a naturally infected population of sheep using different tests and targeting an original matrix: meat samples and muscle fluids collected at the slaughterhouse. A commercial ELISA test was performed on diaphragm fluids from 419 ovine carcasses collected at the slaughterhouse. A MAT (modified agglutination test) was performed on heart fluids obtained from the same animals. In addition, all hearts were bioassayed in mice. Serological test agreement, the relative sensitivity of ELISA MAT and mouse bioassay as well as a correlation between titres and parasite isolation probability were statistically evaluated. The overall agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.64) of ELISA on diaphragm fluids and MAT on heart fluids is substantial and subsequently both tests can be used for epidemiological studies. Relative sensitivity was higher for MAT performed on cardiac fluids (90%) than ELISA on diaphragm fluid (61%). For both serological tests, relative sensitivity is lower in lambs younger than 12 months. Relative sensitivity of mouse inoculation was 42%. A significant correlation was obtained between increasing MAT titres and probability to isolate live parasite from the heart. When the fluid titre was higher than 1:16, parasites were isolated in 65% of cases. When it was lower, isolation failed in 95% of the cases. According to our results, cardiac fluids appear to be a relevant matrix for toxoplasmosis survey in meat. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ahmadnejad F.,Pasteur Institute of Iran |
Otarod V.,Directorate Investigation Control of Animal Diseases |
Fallah M.H.,Engineering Research Institute |
Lowenski S.,Anses Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
And 5 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011
We report the first large-scale serosurvey for West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Iran. Blood samples were obtained in 2008-2009 from 1054 equines collected from 260 districts located in 27 provinces. The overall seroprevalence rate for WNV neutralizing antibodies was 23·7%. Marked geographical variations were observed as province-specific seroprevalence rates ranged from 1% to 88%, the highest values being observed in the southern and western parts of the country. The presence of IgM-positive animals (n=9) indicated a recent circulation of WNV in several provinces. Logistic modelling confirmed this result with a significant effect of age on seropositivity. This study revealed extensive circulation of WNV in Iran particularly in southwestern provinces where the virus probably circulates every year. © Cambridge University Press 2011.
Nouhin J.,University Paris Diderot |
Prak S.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia |
Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris |
Barennes H.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia |
And 5 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2016
BACKGROUND: Recent studies conducted in developed countries described hepatitis E virus (HEV) as an emerging infectious threat to blood safety. However, data on HEV among blood donors from southeast Asia are lacking. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between July and August 2014, we assessed the presence of HEV immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM in 301 Cambodian blood donors. All samples were further tested for the presence of HEV RNA using an in-house reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. ORF2/ORF3 phylogenetic analysis was performed on positive HEV RNA specimens. RESULTS: We found HEV IgG in 28.2% of blood donors from Cambodia. Three blood donors tested positive for HEV IgM with three distinct patterns: IgM(+)/IgG(–)/RNA(–) (n = 1), IgM(+)/IgG(+)/RNA(–) (n = 1), and IgM(+)/IgG(+)/RNA(+) (n = 1). Thus, the prevalence rates of HEV IgM and HEV RNA were 1.0 and 0.3%. Interestingly, the viremic blood donor harbored a HEV strain that belonged to Genotype 3 (HEV-3) and clustered with a Cambodian riverine HEV-3 isolate. CONCLUSION: Due to the high frequency of Cambodian blood donors with positive HEV IgG, we conclude that HEV is endemic in this country. Large-scale studies must be considered to determine whether Cambodian blood donation screening is warranted to enhance blood safety in regard to HEV. In addition, our findings suggest that river water may be a significant source of exposure to HEV-3. © 2016 AABB
Laroucau K.,Anses Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
Aaziz R.,Anses Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
Meurice L.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire |
Servas V.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire |
And 6 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015
Eight cases of psittacosis due to Chlamydia psittaci were identified in May 2013 among 15 individuals involved in chicken gutting activities on a mixed poultry farm in France. All cases were women between 42 and 67 years-old. Cases were diagnosed by serology and PCR of respiratory samples. Appropriate treatment was immediately administered to the eight hospitalised individuals after exposure to birds had been discovered. In the chicken flocks, mainly C. gallinacea was detected, a new member of the family Chlamydiaceae, whereas the ducks were found to harbour predominantly C. psittaci, the classical agent of psittacosis. In addition, C. psittaci was found in the same flock as the chickens that the patients had slaughtered. Both human and C. psittaci-positive avian samples carried the same ompA genotype E/B of C. psittaci, which is widespread among French duck flocks. Repeated grassland rotations between duck and chicken flocks on the farm may explain the presence of C. psittaci in the chickens. Inspection by the veterinary service led to temporary closure of the farm. All birds had to be euthanised on site as no slaughterhouses accepted processing them. Farm buildings and grasslands were cleaned and/or disinfected before the introduction of new poultry birds. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.