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Watier-Grillot S.,Service de Sante des Armees | Herder S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Marie J.-L.,Service de Sante des Armees | Bourry O.,Anses Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | And 2 more authors.
Medecine et Sante Tropicales | Year: 2016

This survey screened native dogs (Canis familiaris) in Gabon (Africa) for trypanosome infection. A total of 376 apparently healthy dogs, divided into two populations, were examined. The first group included 252 semi-domesticated dogs inhabiting 16 villages of the Ogooue´-Ivindo Province, a rural inland area in northeast Gabon, and the second group 124 dogs belonging to protection companies or families from Libreville (n = 113) and Port-Gentil (n = 11), in the coastal area of Gabon. Both study areas include active or former foci of sleeping sickness in Gabon. Molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction) was performed on blood samples from dogs in both groups. All dogs were negative for T. congolense (‘‘savanna type’’ and ‘‘forest type’’). Eighteen dogs (4.7%), however, tested positive for T. brucei s.l.: 3% (8/252) were from the Ogooue´-Ivindo Province, and 8% (10/124) from the coastal area. These animals may be potential reservoirs of the parasite T. brucei gambiense, responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. This hypothesis, as well as the role of the dog as a sentinel of human infection by T. brucei gambiense, should be investigated in further studies. © 2016 John Libbey Eurotext.

Bado-Nilles A.,Anses Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Quentel C.,Anses Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Mazurais D.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Zambonino-Infante J.L.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2011

Hydrocarbons are major contaminants that may affect biota at various trophic levels in estuaries and coastal ecosystems. The effects of accidental pollution by light cycle oil (LCO), a refined product of heavy fuel oil, on bioaccumulation, depuration processes and immune-related parameters in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were investigated in the laboratory after 7 days of exposure and a 2-week recovery period. Exposure of fish to the soluble fraction of LCO (1600ngL -1) for 7 days led to the bioaccumulation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles: naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. After 7 days of recovery period, half-elimination of naphthalene was reported in fish muscles due to facilitated diffusive loss by the epithelium and a faster elimination rate proven by the presence of a high level of naphthalene biliary metabolites. The other bioaccumulated molecules displayed a slower depuration rate due to their elimination by the formation of hydrophobic metabolites excreted through bile or urine. Three days after the beginning of the recovery period, each contaminated fish showed severe external lesions (tissue necrosis, suppurative exudates, haemorrhagic area). The hypothesis of a possible link with inflammatory phenomenon was supported by (i) an inversion of the leucocyte sub-population percentage, (ii) a significant up-expression in the spleen of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene, (iii) a significant increase in ACH 50. Moreover, the lack of C3 gene regulation in the spleen suggested a non-renewal of this component. The reduction of phagocytic activity and lysozyme concentration reflected immune suppression. Finally, LCO toxicity in this fish was clearly demonstrated to be related to inflammatory reaction and immune depletion. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Meguenni N.,Mouloud Mammeri University | Meguenni N.,Anses Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Le Devendec L.,Anses Laboratoire Of Ploufragan Plouzane | Le Devendec L.,European University of Brittany | And 8 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2015

Eleven avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from 2006 to 2010 from different farms in Algeria and resistant to cephalosporins were studied. Their susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion, and the genes responsible for resistance to critical antimicrobials were studied by PCR, sequencing, and conjugation. Their genetic profiles were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All strains were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and neomycin and showed the same PFGE profile. For most of them, resistance was encoded by a nontransferable group 1 blaCTX-M gene, and multiple mutations were detected in the quinolone resistance-determining regions. The clonal dissemination of this resistant APEC is worrying for animal and public health. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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