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Beauvoir-sur-Niort, France

Chartier C.,College of the Atlantic | Chartier C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Paraud C.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

Coccidiosis (Eimeriosis sensu stricto) of small ruminants is a protozoan infection caused by several species of the genus Eimeria which develop in the small and the large intestine, affect young animals in particular and are specific for each host. Eimeria ovinoidalis in sheep and Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae in goats are the most pathogenic species. Coccidiosis is of great economic importance because of the losses due to clinical disease (diarrhoea) but also because of subclinical infections (poor weight gain in particular). Oocyst excretion is at the maximum around the weaning period and shows a steady decline afterwards due to a strong immunity. Risk factors for high excretion include breeding intensification, high stocking rates in premises, poor hygiene and all causes of stress (physiological, nutritional, etc.). Reliable diagnosis include combined clinical, epidemiological, necropsic and coproscopical approaches. Control is mainly based on hygienic measures between lambing/kidding and weaning periods and on anticoccidial compounds use. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chartier C.,Oniris | Mercier P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Pellet M.-P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Vialard J.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

The effect of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine on the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats was investigated in a herd with a history of clinical paratuberculosis but which was free of TB. Cohorts of animals in 2006, 2008 and 2009, were vaccinated once at 1 month of age, and 50% of the 2006 cohort served as unvaccinated controls. The goats were aged 8 months, 20 months and 3.5 years old at the time of the survey. All animals were assessed using a single intradermal injection of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) (SID test), or using both bovine and avian PPD (CID test). An interferon (IFN)-γ assay using both bovine and avian PPD was carried out on the 2006 cohort and was interpreted according to three different 'cut-off' points. No unvaccinated (control) animals tested positive to any of the assays, confirming that the herd was TB-free. The SID test had a low specificity in vaccinated animals at 8 and 20 months of age, whereas the CID test demonstrated 100% specificity in animals ≥20 months-old. The specificity of IFN-γ assay was less than maximal for vaccinated animals 3.5 years old as small numbers of false positives were detected, although this depended on the chosen cut-off point. The study findings demonstrate that the use of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in goats <1 month-old in a TB-free herd does not result in false positives to a CID test for TB when performed in animals ≥20 months-old. © 2011. Source

Valas S.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Le Ven A.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Croise B.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Maquigneau M.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Perrin C.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

The effects of the recent vaccinations against bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and BTV-8 in Europe on the reliability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) currently used for diagnosis of small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection were examined. Primary vaccination against BTV-8 in goats induced an increase in reactivity that did not exceed 3 months in a whole-virus indirect ELISA and a competitive ELISA based on the gp135 glycoprotein. Subsequent BTV-1/8 vaccination extended the time scale of false-positive reactivity for up to 6 months. These results are of relevance for SRLV-monitoring programs. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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