National campaign to analyse drug residues in drinking water: Outcome of a global approach [Campagne nationale d'analyse des résidus de médicaments dans les eaux de consommation: Aboutissement d'une démarche globale]
Rosin C.,Anses Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy 40 |
Py J.-S.,Anses Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy 40 |
Rimlinger N.,Anses Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy 40 |
Pallez C.,Anses Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy 40 |
And 3 more authors.
Environnement, Risques et Sante | Year: 2012
The presence of 44 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals was studied in raw and treated water samples from public water systems. Two thirds of the samples analysed were groundwater and one third surface water. Nineteen drugs were detected at least once in treated water, 14 of them at levels above the limit of quantification. No pharmaceutical residues were found in 75% of the treated water samples. In the other 25%, we quantified fromone to four different residues. The chemicals detected most often (except for caffeine) were epoxycarbamazepine, carbamazepine, oxazepam and hydroxyibuprofen. The sum of residue concentrations was lower than 25 ng/L in 90%of these samples. In raw water, about 35% of the surface water and 70% of the groundwater samples contained no pharmaceuticals. Thirty chemicals were detected at least once, 16 of them at levels higher than the limit of quantification. Raw water generally contained more drugs than treated water, and the cumulative concentrations in rawsurface water were generally higher than in raw groundwater.