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Pesticides are widely used in agriculture and can be transferred to animals in a number of ways. Consequently, reliable analytical methods are required to determine pesticide residues in foods of animal origin. The present review covers published methods and research articles (1990-2010) in which pesticide residues have been extracted from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, fish and seafood, and eggs, then cleaned up, and isolated by chromatographic techniques to be identified and quantified by various detection methods. Recovery rates, quantification limits, the matrix effect and related parameters have all been considered. Lastly, future developments in this field are outlined. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Baron T.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of misfolded proteins appears as a fundamental pathogenic process in human neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), the intraneuronal deposition of aggregated alpha-synuclein (αS) is a major characteristic of the disease, but the molecular basis distinguishing the disease-associated protein (αSD) from its normal counterpart remains poorly understood. However, recent research suggests that a prion-like mechanism could be involved in the inter-cellular and inter-molecular propagation of aggregation of the protein within the nervous system.RESULTS: Our data confirm our previous observations of disease acceleration in a transgenic mouse line (M83) overexpressing a mutated (A53T) form of human αS, following inoculation of either brain extracts from sick M83 mice or fibrillar recombinant αS. A similar phenomenon is observed following a "second passage" in the M83 mouse model, including after stereotactic inoculations into the hippocampus or cerebellum. For further molecular analyses of αSD, we designed an ELISA test that identifies αSD specifically in sick mice and in the brain regions targeted by the pathological process in this mouse model. αSD distribution, mainly in the caudal brain regions and spinal cord, overall appears remarkably uniform, whatever the conditions of experimental challenge. In addition to specific detection of αSD immunoreactivity using an antibody against Ser129 phosphorylated αS, similar results were observed in ELISA with several other antibodies against the C-terminal part of αS, including an antibody against non phosphorylated αS. This also indicated consistent immunoreactivity of the murine αS protein specifically in the affected brain regions of sick mice.CONCLUSIONS: Prion-like behaviour in propagation of the disease-associated αS was confirmed with the M83 transgenic mouse model, that could be followed by an ELISA test. The ELISA data question their possible relationship with the conformational differences between the disease-associated αS and its normal counterpart.


Bougeard S.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Qannari E.M.,College de France | Rose N.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2011

For the purpose of exploring and modeling the relationships between a dataset Y and several datasets measured on the same individuals, multiblock Partial Least Squares is a regression technique which is widely used, particularly in process monitoring, chemometrics and sensometrics. In the same vein, a new multiblock method, called multiblock Redundancy Analysis, is proposed. It is introduced by maximizing a criterion that reflects the objectives to be addressed. The solution of this maximization problem is directly derived from the eigenanalysis of a matrix. In addition, this method is related to other multiblock methods. Multiblock modeling methods provide to the user a large spectrum of interpretation indices for the investigation of the relationships among variables and among datasets. They are related to the criterion to maximize and therefore directly derived from the maximization problem under consideration. The interest of multiblock Redundancy Analysis and the associated interpretation tools are illustrated using a dataset in the field of veterinary epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For the purpose of exploring and modeling the relationships between a dataset and several datasets measured on the same individuals, multiblock Partial Least Squares is a regression technique which is widely used, particularly in process monitoring, chemometrics and sensometrics. In the same vein, an new multiblock method, called multiblock Redundancy Analysis, is proposed. Multiblock modeling methods provide to the user a large spectrum of interpretation indices for the investigation of the relationships among variables and among datasets. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Delannoy S.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Facha P.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Delannoy S.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Fach P.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We explored the genetic diversity of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to design simplex real-time PCR assays for each of the seven most important EHEC serotypes worldwide. A panel of 958 E. coli strains investigated for their CRISPR loci by high-throughput real-time PCR showed that CRISPR polymorphisms in E. coli strongly correlated with both O:H serotypes and the presence of EHEC virulence factors (stx and eae genes). The CRISPR sequences chosen for simplex real-time PCR amplification of EHEC strains belonging to the top 7 EHEC serogroups differentiated clearly between EHEC and non-EHEC strains. Specificity estimates for the CRISPR PCR assays varied from 97.5% to 100%. Sensitivity estimates for the assays ranged from 95.7% to 100%. The assays targeting EHEC O145: H28, O103:H2, and O45:H2 displayed 100% sensitivity. The combined usage of two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the O26 CRISPR locus allowed detection of EHEC O26:H11 with 100% sensitivity. By combining two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the EHEC O157 CRISPR locus, EHEC O157:H7 was detected with 99.56% sensitivity. EHEC O111:H8 and EHEC O121:H19 were detected with 95.9% and 95.7% sensitivity, respectively. This study demonstrates that the identification of EHEC serotype-specific CRISPR sequences is more specific than the mere identification of O-antigen gene sequences, as is used in current PCR protocols for detection of EHEC strains. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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