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Dubreil-Cheneau E.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Pirotais Y.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Verdon E.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Hurtaud-Pessel D.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous confirmation of 13 sulfonamides in honey was developed and fully validated in accordance with the European Commission Decision No 2002/657/EC. The validation scheme was built in accordance with the target level of 50μgkg-1 for all analytes. The sulfonamides investigated were as follows: sulfaguanidine (SGN), sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethizole (SMZ), sulfadimerazine (SDM), sulfamonomethoxine (SMNM), sulfamethoxypiridazine (SMP), sulfadoxine (SDX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfadimethoxine (SDT). Several extraction procedures were investigated during the development phase. Finally, the best results were obtained with a procedure using acidic hydrolysis and cation exchange purification. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column. Matrix effects were also investigated. Data acquisition implemented for the confirmatory purpose was performed by monitoring 2 MRM transitions per analyte under the positive electrospray mode. Mean relative recoveries ranged from 85.8% to 110.2% and relative standard deviations lying between 2.6% and 19.8% in intra-laboratory reproducibility conditions. The decision limits (CCα) ranged from 1.8 to 15.5μgkg-1. High resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate the possible formation of sulfonamide metabolites in honey. The validation results proved that the method is suitable for the screening and confirmatory steps as implemented for the French monitoring residue plan for sulfonamides residue control in honeybees. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Guinebretiere M.,Anses French Agency for Food | Huneau-Salaun A.,Anses French Agency for Food | Huonnic D.,Anses French Agency for Food | Michel V.,Anses French Agency for Food
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Bougeard S.,Anses French Agency for Food | Qannari E.M.,Collège de France | Rose N.,Anses French Agency for Food
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2011

For the purpose of exploring and modeling the relationships between a dataset Y and several datasets measured on the same individuals, multiblock Partial Least Squares is a regression technique which is widely used, particularly in process monitoring, chemometrics and sensometrics. In the same vein, a new multiblock method, called multiblock Redundancy Analysis, is proposed. It is introduced by maximizing a criterion that reflects the objectives to be addressed. The solution of this maximization problem is directly derived from the eigenanalysis of a matrix. In addition, this method is related to other multiblock methods. Multiblock modeling methods provide to the user a large spectrum of interpretation indices for the investigation of the relationships among variables and among datasets. They are related to the criterion to maximize and therefore directly derived from the maximization problem under consideration. The interest of multiblock Redundancy Analysis and the associated interpretation tools are illustrated using a dataset in the field of veterinary epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For the purpose of exploring and modeling the relationships between a dataset and several datasets measured on the same individuals, multiblock Partial Least Squares is a regression technique which is widely used, particularly in process monitoring, chemometrics and sensometrics. In the same vein, an new multiblock method, called multiblock Redundancy Analysis, is proposed. Multiblock modeling methods provide to the user a large spectrum of interpretation indices for the investigation of the relationships among variables and among datasets. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Pesticides are widely used in agriculture and can be transferred to animals in a number of ways. Consequently, reliable analytical methods are required to determine pesticide residues in foods of animal origin. The present review covers published methods and research articles (1990-2010) in which pesticide residues have been extracted from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, fish and seafood, and eggs, then cleaned up, and isolated by chromatographic techniques to be identified and quantified by various detection methods. Recovery rates, quantification limits, the matrix effect and related parameters have all been considered. Lastly, future developments in this field are outlined. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Delannoy S.,Anses French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Fach P.,Anses French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a subgroup of Shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and are characterized by a few serotypes. Among these, seven priority STEC serotypes (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121: H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7) are most frequently implicated in severe clinical illness worldwide. Currently, standard methods using stx, eae, and O-serogroup-specific gene sequences for detecting the top 7 EHEC serotypes bear the disadvantage that these genes can be found innon-EHEC strains as well. Here, we explored the suitability of ureD, espV, espK, espN, Z2098, and espM1 genes and combinations thereof as candidates for a more targeted EHEC screening assay. For a very large panel of E. coli strains (n = 1,100), which comprised EHEC (n = 340), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n = 392), STEC (n = 193), and apathogenic strains (n = 175), we showed that these genetic markers were more prevalent in EHEC (67.1% to 92.4%) than in EPEC (13.3% to 45.2%), STEC (0.5% to 3.6%), and apathogenic E. coli strains (0 to 2.9%). It is noteworthy that 38.5% of the EPEC strains that tested positive for at least one of these genetic markers belonged to the top 7 EHEC serotypes, suggesting that such isolates might be Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC. The associations of espK with either espV, ureD, or Z2098 were the best combinations for more specific and sensitive detection of the top 7 EHEC strains, allowing detection of 99.3% to100% of these strains. In addition, detection of 93.7% of the EHEC strains belonging to other serotypes than the top 7 offers a possibility for identifying new emerging EHEC strains. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Delannoy S.,Anses French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Burgos Y.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Fach P.,Anses French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

In 2011, a large outbreak of an unusual bacterial strain occurred in Europe. This strain was characterized as a hybrid of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) and a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain of the serotype O104:H4. Here, we present a single PCR targeting the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats locus of E. coli O104:H4 (CRISPRO104:H4) for specific detection of EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains from different geographical locations and time periods. The specificity of the CRISPRO104:H4 PCR was investigated using 1,321 E. coli strains, including reference strains for E. coli O serogroups O1 to O186 and flagellar (H) types H1 to H56. The assay was compared for specificity using PCR assays targeting different O104 antigen-encoding genes (wbwCO104, wzx O104, and wzyO104). The PCR assays reacted with all types of E. coli O104 strains (O104:H2, O104:H4, O104:H7, and O104:H21) and with E. coli O8 and O9 strains carrying the K9 capsular antigen and were therefore not specific for detection of the EAEC STEC O104:H4 type. A single PCR developed for the CRISPRO104:H4 target was sufficient for specific identification and detection of the 48 tested EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains. The 35 E. coli O104 strains expressing H types other than H4 as well as 8 E. coli strains carrying a K9 capsular antigen tested all negative for the CRISPRO104:H4 locus. Only 12 (0.94%) of the 1,273 non-O104:H4 E. coli strains (serotypes Ont:H2, O43:H2, O141:H2, and O174:H2) reacted positive in the CRISPRO104:H4 PCR (99.06% specificity). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Delannoy S.,Anses French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Facha P.,Anses French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Delannoy S.,Anses French Agency for Food | Beutin L.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Fach P.,Anses French Agency for Food
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We explored the genetic diversity of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to design simplex real-time PCR assays for each of the seven most important EHEC serotypes worldwide. A panel of 958 E. coli strains investigated for their CRISPR loci by high-throughput real-time PCR showed that CRISPR polymorphisms in E. coli strongly correlated with both O:H serotypes and the presence of EHEC virulence factors (stx and eae genes). The CRISPR sequences chosen for simplex real-time PCR amplification of EHEC strains belonging to the top 7 EHEC serogroups differentiated clearly between EHEC and non-EHEC strains. Specificity estimates for the CRISPR PCR assays varied from 97.5% to 100%. Sensitivity estimates for the assays ranged from 95.7% to 100%. The assays targeting EHEC O145: H28, O103:H2, and O45:H2 displayed 100% sensitivity. The combined usage of two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the O26 CRISPR locus allowed detection of EHEC O26:H11 with 100% sensitivity. By combining two simplex PCR assays targeting different sequences of the EHEC O157 CRISPR locus, EHEC O157:H7 was detected with 99.56% sensitivity. EHEC O111:H8 and EHEC O121:H19 were detected with 95.9% and 95.7% sensitivity, respectively. This study demonstrates that the identification of EHEC serotype-specific CRISPR sequences is more specific than the mere identification of O-antigen gene sequences, as is used in current PCR protocols for detection of EHEC strains. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Niqueux T.,Anses French Agency for Food | Guionie O.,Anses French Agency for Food | Amelot M.,Anses French Agency for Food | Jestin V.,Anses French Agency for Food
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Vaccination protocols were evaluated in one-day old Muscovy ducklings, using an experimental Newcastle disease recombinant vaccine (vNDV-H5) encoding an optimized synthetic haemagglutinin gene from a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV), either as a single administration or as a boost following a prime inoculation with a fowlpox vectored vaccine (vFP89) encoding a different H5 HP haemagglutinin from an Irish H5N8 strain. These vaccination schemes did not induce detectable levels of serum antibodies in HI test using a clade 2.2.1 H5N1 antigen, and only induced H5 ELISA positive response in less than 10% of vaccinated ducks. However, following challenge against a clade 2.2.1 HPAIV, both protocols afforded full clinical protection at six weeks of age, and full protection against mortality at nine weeks. Only the prime-boost vaccination (vFP89. +. vNDV-H5) was still fully protecting Muscovy ducks against disease and mortality at 12 weeks of age. Reduction of oropharyngeal shedding levels was also constantly observed from the onset of the follow-up at 2.5 or three days post-infection in vaccinated ducks compared to unvaccinated controls, and was significantly more important for vFP89. +. vNDV-H5 vaccination than for vNDV-H5 alone. Although the latter vaccine is shown immunogenic in one-day old Muscovy ducks, the present work is original in demonstrating the high efficacy of the successive administration of two different vector vaccines encoding two different H5 in inducing lasting protection (at least similar to the one induced by an inactivated reassortant vaccine, Re-5). In addition, such a prime-boost schedule allows implementation of a DIVA strategy (to differentiate vaccinated from infected ducks) contrary to Re-5, involves easy practice on the field (with injection at the hatchery and mass vaccination later on), and should avoid eventual interference with NDV maternally derived antibodies. Last, the HA insert could be updated according to the epidemiological situation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Baron T.,ANSES French Agency for Food
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of misfolded proteins appears as a fundamental pathogenic process in human neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), the intraneuronal deposition of aggregated alpha-synuclein (αS) is a major characteristic of the disease, but the molecular basis distinguishing the disease-associated protein (αSD) from its normal counterpart remains poorly understood. However, recent research suggests that a prion-like mechanism could be involved in the inter-cellular and inter-molecular propagation of aggregation of the protein within the nervous system.RESULTS: Our data confirm our previous observations of disease acceleration in a transgenic mouse line (M83) overexpressing a mutated (A53T) form of human αS, following inoculation of either brain extracts from sick M83 mice or fibrillar recombinant αS. A similar phenomenon is observed following a "second passage" in the M83 mouse model, including after stereotactic inoculations into the hippocampus or cerebellum. For further molecular analyses of αSD, we designed an ELISA test that identifies αSD specifically in sick mice and in the brain regions targeted by the pathological process in this mouse model. αSD distribution, mainly in the caudal brain regions and spinal cord, overall appears remarkably uniform, whatever the conditions of experimental challenge. In addition to specific detection of αSD immunoreactivity using an antibody against Ser129 phosphorylated αS, similar results were observed in ELISA with several other antibodies against the C-terminal part of αS, including an antibody against non phosphorylated αS. This also indicated consistent immunoreactivity of the murine αS protein specifically in the affected brain regions of sick mice.CONCLUSIONS: Prion-like behaviour in propagation of the disease-associated αS was confirmed with the M83 transgenic mouse model, that could be followed by an ELISA test. The ELISA data question their possible relationship with the conformational differences between the disease-associated αS and its normal counterpart.

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