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Leroux P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gredt M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Remuson F.,ANSES | Micoud A.,ANSES | Walker A.-S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Eyespot, caused by Oculimacula acuformis and Oculimacula yallundae, is the major foot disease of winter wheat in several European countries, including France. It can be controlled by chemical treatment between tillering and the second node stage. The fungicides used include antimicrotubule toxicants (benzimidazoles), inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylation (DMIs) or of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHIs), the anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and the benzophenone metrafenone. Since the early 1980s, a long-term survey has been set up in France to monitor changes in the sensitivity of eyespot populations to fungicides. Resistance to benzimidazoles has become generalised since the early 1990s, in spite of the withdrawal of this class of fungicides. In the DMI group, resistance to triazoles is generalised, whereas no resistance to the triazolinethione prothioconazole has yet developed. Resistance to the imidazole prochloraz evolved successively in O. acuformis and O. yallundae and is now well established. Specific resistance to cyprodinil has also been detected, but its frequency has generally remained low. Finally, since the early 2000s, a few strains of O. yallundae displaying multidrug resistance (MDR) have been detected. These strains display low levels of resistance to prothioconazole and SDHIs, such as boscalid. Knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution in France of O. acuformis and O. yallundae field strains resistant to fungicides allows resistance management strategies for eyespot fungi in winter wheat to be proposed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.


Walker A.-S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Micoud A.,ANSES | Remuson F.,ANSES | Grosman J.,DRAF SRAL Rhone Alpes | And 2 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Resistance to fungicides is an evolutionary process resulting from the selection of advantageous genotypes in naturally diverse populations. Seven fungicide modes of action are authorised to control grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on grapevine in France, and five of them have encountered specific resistance, with variable frequencies in populations and possible consequences for field fungicide efficacy. Moreover, multidrug resistance is caused by fungicide efflux and allows a weak resistance towards six unrelated modes of action. Here, a review is given of the fungicide resistance status of B. cinerea in France, particularly in the vineyards of Champagne, which are the most affected. Recently developed resistance and recent findings concerning the associated resistance mechanisms are focused upon in particular. Finally, antiresistance strategies are presented, and examples of managed resistance are discussed in a more general manner with the aim of extending this knowledge to other crops and countries undergoing similar resistance problems. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

How many mosquitoes live in your neighborhood? How many mosquito bites have you and your neighbors gotten this week? Answering these questions--and gauging how mosquito populations change over time or after a control strategy is implemented--has historically been difficult. Now, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have described a blood test that can be used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquitos. The test, which measures antibodies to an Aedes salivary peptide, showed decreased human exposure to mosquito bites after a vector control program. Various species of Aedes mosquitoes can carry dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Zika fever, and yellow fever, among other pathogens. To slow the spread of these diseases, efforts have been made to control Aedes populations. But determining whether control efforts are working has typically required time and labor-intensive monitoring of larval habitats and mosquito traps. Recently, researchers developed tests that determine whether someone has been bitten by a specific Aedes species by measuring whether their blood has antibodies that react to that species' saliva, but working with the whole saliva required is challenging. In the new work, author Franck Remoue, of the MIVEGEC unit of the Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD) France, and colleagues tested whether antibodies against one individual peptide from Aedes aegypti saliva could be indicative of exposure to other Aedes species. The team collected four sequential blood samples--before, during, and after a mosquito control intervention--from 102 adults in Saint-Denis, a city on the Indian Ocean island La Reunion where Aedes albopictus, but not Aedes aegypti, are endemic. Mosquitos were also tallied using traditional mosquito trap and larval counting methods during the intervention, which involved spraying insecticide and physical elimination of mosquito breeding sites. Despite being exposed only to Aedes albopictus mosquitos, 88% of people in the study had a positive antibody reaction to the Aedes aegypti salivary peptide, before vector control. 30 days after the control strategy was implemented, that number felt o 68%, a trend that was also seen in the manual tallying of larva and adult mosquitos. Moreover, on an individual basis, the level of the antibody immune response decreased significantly between the time points after vector control. Future studies will be needed to validate the tests in children and determine the ideal timing of testing to gauge the effectiveness of mosquito control strategies. "These results validate the usefulness of the antibody response to one salivary antigen for evaluating human exposure to Aedes bites and for monitoring vector control strategies against arboviral diseases," the researchers conclude. Please contact plosntds@plos.org if you would like more information about our content and specific topics of interest. All works published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases are open access, which means that everything is immediately and freely available. Use this URL in your coverage to provide readers access to the paper upon publication: Citation: Elanga Ndille E, Doucoure S, Poinsignon A, Mouchet F, Cornelie S, D'Ortenzio E, et al. (2016) Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10 (11): e0005109. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005109 Funding: EEN was supported by a PhD fellowship provided by the IRD (Département des Programmes de Formation au Sud) and SD by a fellowship provided by the "Infectiopole Sud" Foundation (Marseille, France). This research was supported by the Direction Générale de la Santé (DGS; Convention 2010), the IRD (Direction de la Valorisation au Sud, AIRD) and The French National Research Program for Environmental and Occupational Health of Anses (2013/1/089). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Devillers J.,CTIS | Mombelli E.,INERIS | Samsera R.,ANSES
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research | Year: 2011

More than 20 years ago, Ashby and Tennant showed the interest of structural alerts for the prediction of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. These structural alerts are functional groups or structural features of various sizes that are linked to the level of carcinogenicity of chemicals. Since this pioneering work it has been possible to refine the alerts over time, as more experimental results have become available and additional mechanistic insights have been gained. To date, one of the most advanced lists of structural alerts for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of chemicals is the list proposed by Benigni and Bossa and that is implemented as a rule-based system in Toxtree and in the OECD QSAR Application Toolbox. In order to gain insight into the applicability of this system to the detection of potential carcinogens we screened about 200 pesticides and biocides showing a high structural diversity. Prediction results were compared with experimental data retrieved from an extensive bibliographical review. The prediction correctness was only equal to 60.14%. Attempts were made to analyse the sources of mispredictions. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Kadar A.,Anses | Noel L.,Anses | Chekri R.,Anses | Vastel C.,Anses | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2011

A strategy for the accurate determination in foodstuffs of seven elements liable to be interfered with (V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, As and Se), was successfully applied. Firstly, to reduce spectroscopic interferences, four influential factors (hexapole and quadrupole bias, helium and hydrogen flows) of the collision/reaction cell device were optimised through the experimental design methodology. Secondly, non-spectroscopic interferences, which may severely disturb the analysis of matrices containing large amounts of non-target elements, were significantly reduced by a limited decrease in the flow rate of the optimum initial nebuliser rather than with a specific time-consuming dilution. Finally, the optimised multi-element method was subjected to a full validation that demonstrated its acceptable analytical performance. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Noel L.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Chekri R.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Millour S.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Merlo M.,Anses | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in 149 muscle samples of eight freshwater fish species (European eel, bream, common carp, European catfish, roach, perch, pike and pikeperch) from five different French fishing areas from contaminated and control sites were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion under pressure. No significant correlation was found between the condition factor (CF), based on the length-mass relationship, and As, Cd and Pb levels in all the samples analysed, but a positive correlation was detected between CF and Hg levels (P<0.0001, R=0.49). Positive correlations with body length were only found for Hg in roach (P<0.05, R=0.32) and Pb in bream (P<0.05, R=0.48) and correlations with both body weight and length were also found for Hg in pike (P<0.05, R=0.90 and 0.86) and Cd in European eel (P<0.01, R=-0.35 and -0.37). The average content and the standard deviation in fish muscle samples was 0.007±0.012, 0.102±0.077, 0.142±0.097 and 0.035±0.053mgkg-1 of wet mass for Cd, As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Significant differences were established between groups of predatory fish and non-predatory fish for Hg and Pb, and between control and contaminated sites in the whole selection and also within feeding guilds, i.e. the values of Hg in the benthophagic fish were significantly different between these sites. Finally, these results were also compared for each species with previous French and European studies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Uher E.,IRSTEA | Tusseau-Vuillemin M.-H.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Gourlay-France C.,ANSES
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2013

Recent papers have alerted the scientific community that a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) forming in front of diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) devices when they are immersed in water might have a significant impact on the results and have suggested a method to assess the DBL. This paper aims at evaluating to what extent the DBL impacts the results of metal measurement in water by DGT and providing new information on the dissociation kinetics of metal complexes in wastewater by using DBL calculation. A careful study of the influence of the water velocity on the measurement with DGTs equipped with restricted gels is presented. Deployments took place in the laboratory with a range of stirring speeds (0-400 rpm) and in a canal receiving treated wastewater with increasing controlled water velocity (0.07-3 cm s-1). Even under extreme low flow conditions, the error made in using the equation that does not take into account that the DBL was lower than the analytical error. Nevertheless, the DBL is the seat of dissociation of complexes and increases the lability window beyond the steric constraints of the hydrogel. The capacity of restricted gels to only sample inorganic species under these conditions is questioned. This study also is an opportunity to provide information on metal-ligand interactions in wastewater by creating the kinetic signature of the wastewater. Unlike previous studies which used different types of water, Pb was the more limited metal and interacted strongly with the ligands. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Noel L.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Chekri R.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Millour S.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | Vastel C.,Laboratoire Of Securite Des Aliments Of Maisons Alfort | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

In 2006, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) conducted the Second French Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate dietary exposures to the main minerals and trace elements from 1319 samples of foods typically consumed by the French population. The foodstuffs were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion. Occurrence data for lithium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were reported and compared with results from the previous French TDS. The results indicate that the food groups presenting the highest levels of these essential trace elements were "tofu" (for Li, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo),"fish and fish products" particularly "shellfish" (for Li, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo), "sweeteners, honey and confectionery" particularly dark chocolate (for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu), "cereals and cereal products" (for Mn, Ni and Mo) and "ice cream" (for Cr, Co and Ni). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


LYON, France, November 25, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Afin de respecter le principe de précaution, l'Anses, Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail, recommande un usage modéré et encadré des technologies sans- fil concernant les plus...


Afin de respecter le principe de précaution, l'Anses, Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail, recommande un usage modéré et encadré des technologies sans- fil concernant les plus jeunes. Pour répondre à ce principe de précaution, votre Wi-Fi à la maison devient smart grâce à Wi-fine4me®. En effet, ce nouveau routeur Wi-Fi permet de contrôler la puissance du signal. Concrètement, il s'agit d'étendre ou de réduire voire de couper la portée du signal Wi-Fi selon ses besoins. La fonctionnalité est accessible grâce à un interrupteur on/off sur le routeur présent dans la pièce ou via une application web sur smartphone ou tablette. Chacun peut ainsi reprendre le contrôle de son Wi-Fi et limiter les émissions d'ondes à une pièce (salon, bureau) et éviter d'émettre dans une chambre de bébé ou d'adolescent notamment pendant le sommeil de la famille. Par ailleurs, ce routeur  permet de couper la portée du signal et ainsi d'assurer des nuits plus paisibles aux adolescents accros à la connexion à des heures tardives ! En effet, les inquiétudes s'expriment fréquemment quant aux effets des radiofréquences sur la santé des enfants et des adolescents. Les travaux d'études menés par l'Anses soulignaient en juin 2016 que les enfants peuvent être plus exposés que les adultes en raison de leurs spécificités morphologiques et anatomiques, ainsi que des caractéristiques de certains de leurs tissus. Néanmoins, ces études ne permettent pas d'établir l'existence ou non d'effets des radiofréquences chez l'enfant. Thierry Techer, Président de Wi-system explique « Le concept Wifine4me répond à la demande croissante des clients cherchant une solution adaptée. Wifine4me est le seul routeur qui permet de contrôler la portée de son signal Wi-Fi à la maison». La technologie Wi-fine4me® garantit une fiabilité renforcée du signal (non-interférence des canaux d'émission). La sécurité du réseau, quant à elle, est assurée de fait par un signal limité dans un espace donné et donc inaccessible de l'extérieur de la maison. Wi-fine4me®, proposé au prix de 99 euros, est disponible sur la plate-forme http://www.indiegogo.com et sur le site web : http://www.wi-system.com/shop/fr/. De nombreuses photos sont disponibles sur demande.

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