Anschutz Health and Wellness Center

Aurora, CO, United States

Anschutz Health and Wellness Center

Aurora, CO, United States
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Wing R.R.,The Miriam Hospital | Leahey T.,The Miriam Hospital | Jeffery R.,University of Minnesota | Johnson K.C.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of 0.007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of 0.05-0.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64% (SD = 2.35%, interquartile range = 6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.


Matthew Morris E.,University of Missouri | Matthew Morris E.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Meers G.M.E.,University of Missouri | Koch L.G.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2016

Objective: Aerobic capacity is the most powerful predictor of all-cause mortality in humans; however, its role in the development of obesity and susceptibility for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain is not completely understood. Methods: Herein, a rodent model system of divergent intrinsic aerobic capacity [high capacity running (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR)] was utilized to evaluate the role of aerobic fitness on 1-week HFD-induced (45% and 60% kcal) weight gain. Food/energy intake, body composition analysis, and brown adipose tissue gene expression were assessed as important potential factors involved in modulating HFD-induced weight gain. Results: HCR rats had reduced 1-week weight gain on both HFDs compared with LCR. Reduced HFD-induced weight gain was associated with greater adaptability to decrease food intake following initiation of the HFDs. Further, the HCR rats were observed to have reduced feeding efficiency and greater brown adipose mass and expression of genes involved in thermogenesis. Conclusions: Rats with high intrinsic aerobic capacity have reduced susceptibility to 1-week HFD-induced weight gain, which is associated with greater food intake adaptability to control intake of energy-dense HFDs, reduced weight gain per kcal consumed, and greater brown adipose tissue mass and thermogenic gene expression. © 2016 The Obesity Society


Cardel M.I.,University of Florida | Johnson S.L.,Aurora University | Beck J.,Colorado State University | Dhurandhar E.,Texas Tech University | And 10 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2016

Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n =9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p =0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p =0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p =0.05) and after their lunch meal (p =0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p =0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p =0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and increased acute energy intakes in Hispanic young adults, potentially influenced by decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness. Increased energy intake over time, resulting in positive energy balance, could contribute to increased risk for obesity, which could partially explain the observed relationship between low social standing and higher weight. Larger and longitudinal studies in a diverse sample need to be conducted to confirm findings, increase generalizability, and assess whether this relationship persists over time. © 2016.


PubMed | 530 41st St., Brown University, Colorado State University, University of Florida and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI 18.5 and 30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of privilege depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and increased acute energy intakes in Hispanic young adults, potentially influenced by decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness. Increased energy intake over time, resulting in positive energy balance, could contribute to increased risk for obesity, which could partially explain the observed relationship between low social standing and higher weight. Larger and longitudinal studies in a diverse sample need to be conducted to confirm findings, increase generalizability, and assess whether this relationship persists over time.


Peters J.C.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | Peters J.C.,University of Colorado at Denver | Polsky S.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | Polsky S.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2014

Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n=101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P<0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P≤0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P<0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines. © 2014 The Author.


PubMed | University of Colorado at Denver and Anschutz Health and Wellness Center
Type: | Journal: Appetite | Year: 2014

Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entre, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P 0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P < 0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines.


Morris E.M.,University of Missouri | Jackman M.R.,Aurora University | Johnson G.C.,Aurora University | Liu T.-W.,University of Missouri | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


PubMed | Metabolism and Diabetes and Anschutz Health and Wellness Center
Type: | Journal: ISRN obesity | Year: 2013

Individuals attempting weight reduction have varying success when participating in the same intervention. Identifying physiological factors associated with greater weight loss could improve outcomes.Sixty-one adults (BMI 27-30 kg/mThe SG had 46 subjects (75.4%), while the LSG had 15 (24.6%).There were no differences in baseline sex distribution, age, weight, BMI, and body composition between groups. In the SG, baseline to the 16-week levels decreased significantly for c-peptide (1,030 versus 891 pg/mL, Successful weight loss was associated with changes in adiposity (less fat mass) and unfavorable hunger signals. No baseline biomarker profile was associated with weight loss success. Behavioral factors may have outweighed physiological signals for determining successful weight loss. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429650.


Martinson H.A.,Aurora University | Lyons T.R.,Aurora University | Giles E.D.,Aurora University | Giles E.D.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2013

The magnitude of the breast cancer problem implores researchers to aggressively investigate prevention strategies. However, several barriers currently reduce the feasibility of breast cancer prevention. These barriers include the inability to accurately predict future breast cancer diagnosis at the individual level, the need for improved understanding of when to implement interventions, uncertainty with respect to optimal duration of treatment, and negative side effects associated with currently approved chemoprevention therapies. None-the-less, the unique biology of the mammary gland, with its postnatal development and conditional terminal differentiation, may permit the resolution of many of these barriers. Specifically, lifecycle-specific windows of breast cancer risk have been identified that may be amenable to risk-reducing strategies. Here, we argue for prevention research focused on two of these lifecycle windows of risk: postpartum mammary gland involution and peri-menopause. We provide evidence that these windows are highly amenable to targeted, limited duration treatments. Such approaches could result in the prevention of postpartum and postmenopausal breast cancers, correspondingly. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Polsky S.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | Polsky S.,Aurora University | Beck J.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | Stark R.A.,Anschutz Health and Wellness Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2014

Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.35 RF compared with 6.71 RFS, P = 0.0061). RFS and FF breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken, and vegetable likings were similar. FF and RFS conditions were liked more than RF for the breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken entrée, and vegetables. Liking of all 3 sausage conditions was similar. FF pasta was liked more than RFS and RF (7.47 FF compared with 6.42 RFS, P < 0.0001; 7.47 FF compared with 6.47 RF, P < 0.0001). Habitual consumption of roasted chicken was associated with reduced liking of FF chicken (r = -0.23, P = 0.004) and FF pasta (r = -0.23, P = 0.005). Herbs and spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Practical Application: Americans consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study shows that you can take foods like French toast, chicken, or a vegetable side and cut the fat and calories by up to 50% while restoring flavor with herbs and spices. People typically use butter, cheese, or fatty meat to enhance the flavor of their food. We found that even when we reduced the fat in our meals by using lower fat dairy and meat products but then added herbs and spices, we were able to deliver the flavor people desire for a fraction of the calories. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®.

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