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Chun O.K.,University of Connecticut | Floegel A.,University of Connecticut | Chung S.-J.,Kookmin University | Chung C.E.,Ansan College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The importance of antioxidants in reducing risks of chronic diseases has been well established; however, antioxidant intakes by a free-living population have not yet been estimated adequately. In this study, we aimed to estimate total antioxidant intakes from diets and supplement sources in the U.S. population. The USDA Flavonoid Database, food consumption data, and dietary supplement use data of 8809 U.S. adults aged≥19 y in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 were used in this study. Daily total antioxidant intake was 208 mg vitamin C (46 and 54% from diets and supplements, respectively), 20 mg α-tocopherol (36 and 64), 223 μg retinol activity equivalents carotenes (86 and 14), 122 μg selenium (89 and 11), and 210 mg flavonoids (98 and 2). Antioxidant intakes differed among sociodemographic subgroups and lifestyle behaviors. Energy-adjusted dietary antioxidant intakes were higher in women, older adults, Caucasians, nonconsumers of alcohol (only for vitamin C and carotenes), nonsmokers (only for vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenes), and in those with a higher income and exercise level (except for flavonoids) than in their counterparts (P <0.05). Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may be a good strategy to increase antioxidant intake. The possible association between antioxidant intake and the prevalence of chronic diseases should be investigated further. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Chun O.K.,University of Connecticut | Chung C.E.,Ansan College | Wang Y.,University of Connecticut | Padgitt A.,Michigan State University | Song W.O.,Michigan State University
Nutrients | Year: 2010

This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Floegel A.,University of Connecticut | Floegel A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Chung S.-J.,Kookmin University | Von Ruesten A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 6 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2011

Objective To investigate the association of antioxidant intakes from diet and supplements with elevated blood C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. Design A cross-sectional study. The main exposures were vitamins C and E, carotene, flavonoid and Se intakes from diet and supplements. Elevated blood CRP and Hcy concentrations were the outcome measures. Setting The US population and its subgroups. Subjects We included 8335 US adults aged ≥19 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.Results In this US population, the mean serum CRP concentration was 4.14 (95 % CI 3.91, 4.37) mg/l. Intakes of vitamins C and E and carotene were inversely associated with the probability of having serum CRP concentrations >3 mg/l in multivariate logistic regression models. Flavonoid and Se intakes were not associated with the odds of elevated serum CRP concentrations. The mean plasma Hcy concentration was 8.61 (95 % CI 8.48, 8.74) μmol/l. Intakes of vitamins C, E, carotenes and Se were inversely associated with the odds of plasma Hcy concentrations >13 μmol/l after adjusting for covariates. Flavonoid intake was not associated with the chance of elevated plasma Hcy concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that high antioxidant intake is associated with lower blood concentrations of CRP and Hcy. These inverse associations may be among the potential mechanisms for the beneficial effect of antioxidant intake on CVD risk mediators in observational studies. © 2011 The Authors.


Park D.-H.,Catholic University of Korea | Park K.,Catholic University of Korea | Park J.,Catholic University of Korea | Park H.-H.,Ansan College | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2011

Introduction: We determined the utility of leukocyte cell population data (CPD) for the screening of sepsis and fungemia. Methods: Blood culture-positive CBC samples, 117 bacteremia and 27 fungemia, and 134 CBC samples from healthy controls were analyzed using the DxH800 and CPD of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were analyzed. Immature granulocytes (IG) were counted using Sysmex XE-2100. Results: The neutrophils and monocytes volume were increased significantly, and the neutrophils light scattering values were reduced significantly in the sepsis samples. ROC curves evidenced excellent sensitivity in the lymphocyte SD parameters (sensitivity 78-89%, specificity 78-87%), monocytes volume (at 177.5, sensitivity 88.2% specificity 87.3%), and monocytes volume SD (at 22.16, sensitivity 93.1% specificity 91.0%) for sepsis. The IG value was significantly higher in sepsis and the ROC curve evidenced a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 90.8% for sepsis. Only lower angle light scatter of lymphocytes SD value evidenced good sensitivity and specificity in the discrimination of fungemia from bacteremia (sensitivity 74.1%, specificity 72.4% at 12.6). Conclusion: Many of the leukocyte CPD have been identified as useful parameters of sepsis. Hopefully, these parameters can ultimately be incorporated into a decision rule for the screening of sepsis samples and to discriminate fungemia from bacteremia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Shin S.-W.,Hanyang University | Kang H.,Hanyang University | Ahn J.-M.,Ansan College | Kim D.-W.,Hanyang University
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences | Year: 2010

In this paper, we have studied the 150 MPa ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC). RC beam is reinforced by SD400 and SD500 bars to evaluate on range of maximum tensile steel ratio which have reasonable ductility capacities and flexural behaviors of UHSC through the flexural test. The reinforced ultra-high-strength-concrete beam subjected to flexural moment behaves more brittleness than the reinforced moderate strength concrete beam with equal reinforcement ratio (ρ/ρb, ρb=balanced steel ratio). In this study, 10 singly reinforced rectangular beam specimens using 150 MPa concrete compressive strength are tested to evaluate on flexural behavior. The ductility capacity of UHSC flexural member without compression reinforcements significantly decrease. Displacement ductility index indicates about 1.3~2.56 on 150 MPa UHSC. To obtain the minimum ductility ratio with above 3.0 for double reinforced beam and above 2.0 for singly reinforced beam, limit strain shall be set so that the net tensile strain of outermost tensile steel may be above 0.006 in excess of 0.005 and the tensile steel ratio is required to be 0.55 ρb or less.


Lee W.,Catholic University of Korea | Kim J.-H.,Catholic University of Korea | Sung I.K.,Catholic University of Korea | Park S.K.,Catholic University of Korea | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: In the Retic channel of DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter), the red blood cells (RBCs) resistant to hemoglobin clearing are counted as unghosted cells (UGCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate that the UGC is a surrogate marker for both the detection and counting of target cells. Methods: In total, 1181 samples including 22 from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients, 95 from jaundice, 2 from sickle cell anemia, 3 from thalassemia, 1 cord blood, and 269 from normal controls were analyzed. Slides were prepared from all samples except normal controls and target cells were counted for correlation analysis of target cell counts to UGCs. Results: The normal control samples showed 0.01% (0%-0.01%) UGCs, and the reference range was set at ≤0.02%. The IDA samples showed 0.015% (0.01%-0.03%) UGC count and 0.05% (0%-0.2%) target cell count. The jaundice samples showed 0.98% (0.1%-5.36%) UGC count, and 1.4% (0.1%-7.0%) target cell count. The two sickle cell anemia samples showed 0.41% and 3.74% UGC counts and 0.4% and 11.5% target cell counts. A cord blood sample showed 0.01% UGCs and 0% target cells. The three thalassemia samples showed 0.01%, 1.99%, and 7.82% UGC counts and 0%, 1.4%, and 15.5% target cell counts. The samples showing poikilocytosis other than target cells showed normal UGC count (≤0.02%). The positive predictive value of UGCs was 58.2% (124/213) and the negative predictive value was 96.8% (674/696). The UGC counts were well correlated to the manual target cell counts (r=0.944, p=0.000). Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time in the literature that a hematological parameter obtained automatically every time a reticulocyte counting is performed can be used to both screen for the presence of target cells and reliably quantify them. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.


Shin S.,Hanyang University | Kim J.,Hanyang University | Ahn J.,Ansan College
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering | Year: 2010

An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the hysteretic behavior of ultrahigh-strength concrete tied columns under stress to determine the effect of the volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcements on column deformability. Eight 1/3-scale columns were fabricated to simulate a half-story of actual structural members, and their axial load ratio, transverse reinforcement configuration, and transverse reinforcement volumetric ratio were changed during the simulation. The column deformability was found to be affected by the configurations and volumetric ratios of the transverse reinforcement. The column behavior was particularly affected by the axial load ratio as compared to the amount and configuration of the transverse reinforcement. To improve the ductility behavior of an RC column using ultrahigh-strength concrete in a seismic region, a volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement was suggested for all data satisfying the required displacement ductility ratio of over 4. The results indicate that the effective lateral confining reduction factor λc, calculated by considering the configuration and spacing of transverse reinforcement and the axial load ratio, is reflected in the volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcements.


Oh J.-C.,Ansan College | Yoon S.-J.,Kyonggi University
Behaviour and Information Technology | Year: 2014

There is a growing consensus that the conventional technology acceptance model should be modified and expanded to provide a better understanding of the behaviour related to Internet services. Recognising this need, this study re-evaluates the utility of Venkatesh et al.s [2003. User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425-478] Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. First, this study proposes a new modified model of technology acceptance by adding the concepts of trust and flow experience to the original UTAUT model. Second, the study investigates how the model's explanatory power changes for different types of Internet services. For this, this study considers two services - e-learning and online gaming - for their utilitarian and hedonic characteristics, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the proposed model can better explain behavioural intentions towards Internet services than the original model. The two variables - flow experience and trust - contributed to the overall significance of the model. Furthermore, the type of Internet service moderated the effects of the independent variables on behavioural intentions and use behaviour. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Yang M.,University of Connecticut | Chung S.-J.,Kookmin University | Chung C.E.,Ansan College | Kim D.-O.,Kyung Hee University | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Given the importance of dietary antioxidants in reducing the risks of chronic diseases, the present study aimed to estimate the intake of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements of US adults. We utilised the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases, dietary supplement data and food consumption data of 4391 US adults aged 19+ years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2. In order to convert the intake data of individual antioxidant compounds to TAC values, the vitamin C equivalent (VCE) of forty-three antioxidant nutrients measured previously was also applied. Daily TAC averaged 503•3 mg VCE/d (approximately 75 % from diet and 25 % from supplements). The energy-adjusted daily TAC level from diet and supplements was higher in women (except for carotenoids), older adults, Caucasian (except for carotenoids), non-alcohol consumers (for vitamin E and proanthocyanidins), subjects with higher income (except for carotenoids) and higher exercise levels than their counterparts (P < 0•05). TAC was positively associated with daily consumption of fruits and fruit juices, vegetables and vegetable products, beverages, wines and teas (P < 0•001). Teas, dietary supplements, and fruits and fruit juices were the major sources of dietary TAC of the US population (28, 25 and 17 %, respectively), while the contribution of vegetables and vegetable products to TAC was minimal (< 2 %). The present study indicates that antioxidant intake from various diet and supplements contributes to TAC status. TAC levels are different in sociodemographic subgroups of the US population. The relationship between TAC intake and risks of chronic disease warrants further investigation. © 2011 The Authors.


PubMed | Ansan College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research and practice | Year: 2010

Although noodles occupy an important place in the dietary lives of Americans, up until the present time research and in-depth data on the noodle consumption patterns of the US population have been very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the food consumption and diet patterns of noodle consumers and non-consumers according to age, gender, income, and ethnicity. The 2001-2002 NHANES databases were used. The NHANES 2001-2002 data showed that noodle consumers reporting noodle consumption in their 24-h recall were 2,035 individuals (23.3% of total subjects). According to the results, the mean noodle consumption was 304.1 g/day/person, with 334.3 g for males and 268.0 g for females. By age, the intake of those in the age range of 9-18 years old ranked highest at 353.0 g, followed by the order of 19-50 year-olds with 333.5 g, 51-70 year-olds with by 280.4 g, older than 71years old with 252.3 g, and 1-8 year-olds with 221.5 g. By gender, males consumed more noodles than females. Also, according to income, the intake amount for the middle-income level (PIR 1~1.85) of consumers was highest at 312.5 g. Noodle intake also showed different patterns by ethnicity in which the other ethnic group consumed the most noodles with 366.1 g, followed by, in order, Hispanics with 318.7 g, Whites with 298.6 g, and Blacks with 289.5 g. After comparing food consumption by dividing the subjects into noodle consumers and non-consumers, the former was more likely to consume milk, fish, citrus fruits, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages while the latter preferred meat, poultry, bread, and non-alcohol beverages.

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