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The cognitive abilities of Neanderthals are debated, but a raven bone fragment found at the Zaskalnaya VI (ZSK) site in Crimea features two notches that may have been made by Neanderthals intentionally to display a visually consistent pattern, according to a study by Ana Majkic at the Universite de Bordeaux and colleagues, published in the open access journal, PLOS ONE on March 29, 2017. Majkic and colleagues conducted a mixed-methods study to assess whether the two extra notches on the ZSK raven bone were made by Neanderthals with the intention of making the final series of notches appear to be evenly spaced. First, researchers conducted a multi-phase experiment where recruited volunteers were asked to create evenly spaced notches in domestic turkey bones, which are similar in size to the ZSK raven bone. Morphometric analyses reveal that the equal spacing of the experimental notches was comparable to the spacing of notches in the ZSK raven bone, even when adjusted for errors in human perception. Archeological specimens featuring aligned notches from different sites were also analyzed and compared with the ZSK raven bone specimen. Researchers concluded that the two extra notches on the ZSK raven bone may have been made by Neanderthals intentionally to create a visually consistent, and perhaps symbolic, pattern. A series of recent discoveries of altered bird bones across Neanderthal sites has caused many researchers to argue that the objects were used for personal ornaments, as opposed to butchery tools or activities. But this study is the first that provides direct evidence to support a symbolic argument for intentional modifications on a bird bone. In your coverage please use this URL to provide access to the freely available article in PLOS ONE: http://journals. Citation: Majki A, Evans S, Stepanchuk V, Tsvelykh A, d'Errico F (2017) A decorated raven bone from the Zaskalnaya VI (Kolosovskaya) Neanderthal site, Crimea. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173435. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173435 Funding: This research was conducted with the financial support awarded to the authors through the PICS collaborative research project "The emergence of symbolically mediated behavior in Eastern Europe" by the CNRS and NASU (PICS-NASU 3-15). One of the authors (AM) acknowledges financial support of the Wenner-Gren Foundation. This research was also funded by the LaScArBx, a research programme supported by the ANR (ANR-10-LABX-52). Another author (SE) acknowledges financial support of the AHRC. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


News Article | March 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

« Ces bons résultats 2016 sont la concrétisation de la stratégie initiée par les équipes de Foncière depuis 5 ans. La performance de notre modèle économique, très distinctif, repose sur la complémentarité des métiers de l'investissement, la construction pour compte propre et l'Asset Management. Notre filiale Voisin monte en puissance et constitue un relais de croissance fort sur nos produits SCPI et OPPCI. Je suis très confiant sur notre capacité à poursuivre notre croissance et à maintenir un niveau de rendement récurrent à nos actionnaires » déclare Georges Rocchietta, président de FONCIÈRE ATLAND. Foncière Atland a développé un premier OPPCI RFA avec effet de levier géré par sa filiale Voisin. Cet OPPCI (Transimmo), dédié à l'activité et à l'infrastructure de transport de personnes, a accueilli via sa filiale Transbus, par voie d'apport ou de cession, l'ensemble des dépôts de bus acquis et/ou gérés par Foncière Atland depuis 2007 (détention directe ou dans le cadre de montages en co-investissements). Ces actifs sont loués aux sociétés Keolis (filiale SNCF) et Transdev (filiale de la Caisse des Dépôts et Consignation). Foncière Atland, qui conserve l'asset management et la gestion des actifs, détient 30% de la société Transbus (filiale à 70% de l'OPPCI) qui représente plus de 100 M€ d'actifs (valeur HD). Cet OPPCI a été constitué en partenariat avec AG Real Estate et des investisseurs privés (au travers de la société Immobus, elle-même actionnaire de l'OPPCI). La volonté des actionnaires est de développer ce portefeuille pour le porter à 200 M€. Foncière Atland et le gestionnaire néerlandais de fonds de pensions PGGM ont créé, en septembre 2016, un véhicule d'investissement commun ciblant des actifs de bureaux à Paris et en Ile-de-France. Le fonds dispose d'une capacité d'investissement de 250 M€. PGGM et Foncière Atland ont créé cette société avec pour objectif d'investir dans des actifs tertiaires recélant un potentiel de création de valeur. Au cours du premier semestre, Foncière Atland a réalisé une émission obligataire de 10 M€ d'une durée de 5 ans. L'émission a été réalisée par placement privé. Les Obligations portent intérêt au taux de 4,5 % l'an, payable annuellement et seront remboursées en totalité en numéraire à leur valeur nominale majorée, le cas échéant, d'une prime de remboursement liée à la performance économique de Foncière Atland à la date de remboursement et plafonnée à 7% par an. Par ailleurs, Foncière Atland a décidé de procéder au remboursement anticipé, le 4 mai 2016, des obligations émises en 2013 pour un montant de 5 M€. Foncière Atland a opté pour la méthode du coût amorti et comptabilise ses immeubles de placement à leur coût diminué des amortissements et pertes de valeur. Dans un souci d'information et à titre de comparaison avec les autres acteurs SIIC du marché qui ont opté pour la méthode de juste valeur, le bénéfice net de Foncière Atland se serait élevé à 5,5 M€ au 31 décembre 2016 (soit 9,67 € par action) contre un bénéfice de 7,2 M€ au 31 décembre 2015 (soit 12,72 € par action) si la société avait opté pour la comptabilisation de ses immeubles à la juste valeur dans ses comptes consolidés. Les revenus locatifs des actifs détenus en propre ont baissé de 28% par rapport à l'année 2015, soit de 0,8 M€ en valeur. Cette variation s'explique par la perte des loyers des actifs « dépôts de bus » apportés ou cédés au nouvel ensemble constitué de l'OPPCI Transimmo et ses filiales à partir de septembre 2016 (1,5 M€ de loyer sur la période) non compensée par les loyers relatifs à la l'acquisition, en avril 2016, du portefeuille de 7 centres d'entretien de poids lourds exploités par le Groupe FPLS (0,7 M€ sur la période 2016). Retraitée de ces deux éléments et à périmètre constant, l'évolution des loyers est stable. Jusqu'à fin 2013, l'ANR publié par le Groupe ne tenait pas compte de la valorisation de l'activité d'asset management. Pour la première fois, au 31 décembre 2014, cette activité a atteint une maturité suffisante, renforcée en 2015 par l'acquisition et le développement de la société Voisin. Depuis cette date, elle fait l'objet d'une évaluation par un expert indépendant. Elle contribue respectivement à hauteur de 15,87 € par action à l'ANR EPRA et 12,88 € par action à l'ANR Triple Net (contre respectivement 10,04 € par action pour l'ANR EPRA et 8,77 € par action pour l'ANR Triple Net en 2015) Ainsi, le ratio endettement net sur juste valeur des actifs (composé du portefeuille locatif propre de Foncière Atland, des actifs en cours de construction à leur valeur de marché et de la juste valeur des titres des sociétés non consolidées constituées dans le cadre de partenariats et club-deals) s'élève à 31% à fin décembre 2016 contre 51,9% fin 2015. La conjonction des perspectives de croissance, du développement de l'activité de gestion, des livraisons de projets en développement et d'un coût de la dette maîtrisé permet au Groupe d'envisager la distribution progressive d'un dividende dans le respect des obligations de distribution du régime des Sociétés d'Investissements Immobiliers Cotées (SIIC), et apprécié, pour chaque exercice, en fonction des résultats distribuables de la Société, de sa situation financière et de tout autre facteur jugé pertinent.


News Article | May 6, 2017
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

Owners of the Alliance pipeline, one of the longest natural gas pipelines in North America, are in the early stages of assessing interest in expanding its capacity to transport natural gas from western Canada to Chicago, Illinois. The Alliance pipeline is unique because, unlike other natural gas pipelines that only transport natural gas after it has been processed, Alliance carries unprocessed natural gas. Unprocessed, or wet, natural gas contains ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline, as well as methane, the primary component of natural gas. The Alliance pipeline currently has the capacity to carry up to 1.6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of wet natural gas from production sites in Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada along 2,391 miles of pipeline to the Aux Sable natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) extraction and fractionation facility near Chicago. The expansion would add up to 0.5 Bcf/d of capacity, for a total throughput of more than 2.0 Bcf/d, potentially starting November 2020. Most long-haul natural gas pipelines transport natural gas after processing, meaning that the natural gas in the pipeline has had NGPL removed and consists of mostly methane. Generally, wet gas is moved on gathering lines under low pressure that allows NGPL to remain mixed in the gas stream. Alliance is the only pipeline of its kind that transports wet natural gas prior to processing over long distances at high pressure. It accomplishes this feat by modulating pipeline pressure up to nearly 2,000 pounds per square inch to ensure that the mix of methane and NGPL does not separate while in the pipeline. Because demand for NGPL is limited in Western Canada, the original designers of the Alliance pipeline determined that it would be economically favorable for Canadian producers to transport the growing volumes of natural gas produced in western Canada to Illinois for processing and marketing rather than to build processing facilities in western Canada and ship the liquids and dry natural gas separately. Since 2010, the pipeline has added capacity in North Dakota to enable natural gas produced in that region to be transported to Aux Sable. The Prairie Rose lateral pipeline transports up to 0.12 Bcf/d of wet natural gas from the Palermo Conditioning Plant, and the Tioga lateral receives up to 0.13 Bcf/d of wet natural gas from the Hess Tioga natural gas processing plant. After processing at Aux Sable, natural gas is delivered to several major interstate natural gas pipelines in the Alliance Chicago Exchange, a market hub that offers title transfer, wheeling, and park and loan services. Pipelines receiving the processed natural gas— including the ANR Pipeline Company, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company, and Vector Pipeline Company—then send it to customers in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan, as well as Ontario, Canada. NGPL recovered at Aux Sable are delivered to market by rail, pipeline, and direct connections to local refineries and petrochemical facilities. The potential pipeline expansion involves a call for interest among market participants. If the level of interest is sufficient, Alliance may hold an open season for bids in fall 2017, when natural gas producers or other shippers form agreements with the pipeline company to demonstrate to regulators that, if built, the additional capacity would be used.


News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.spie.org

A novel fabrication procedure is used to produce flexible devices that include inorganic semiconductor nanowires and that can compete with organic devices in terms of brightness. Nitride LEDs are coming to replace other light sources in almost all general lighting, as well as in displays and life-science applications. Inorganic semiconductor devices, however, are naturally mechanically rigid and cannot be used in applications that require mechanical flexibility. Flexible LEDs are therefore currently a topic of intense research, as they are desirable for use in many applications, including rollable displays, wearable intelligent optoelectronics, bendable or implantable light sources, and biomedical devices. At present, flexible devices are mainly fabricated from organic materials. For example, organic LEDs (OLEDs) are already being used commercially in curved TV and smartphone screens. However, OLEDs have worse temporal stability and lower luminescence (especially in the blue spectral range) than nitride semiconductor LEDs. Substantial research efforts are thus being made to fabricate flexible inorganic LEDs.1 The conventional approach for flexible inorganic LED fabrication consists of number of steps, i.e., layer lift-off, microstructuring, and transfer to plastic supports. To avoid the microstructuring step and facilitate the lift-off, it is advantageous to shrink the active element dimensions and to use bottom-up nanostructures (such as nanowires, NWs) rather than 2D films. These NWs—i.e., elongated nanocrystals with a submicrometer diameter—have remarkable mechanical and optoelectronic properties that stem from their anisotropic geometry, high surface-to-volume ratio, and perfect crystallinity. In addition, such NWs are mechanically flexible and can withstand high levels of deformation without suffering plastic relaxation. Efficient LEDs that include nitride NWs have previously been demonstrated, and in our work,2 we make use of nitride NWs as the active material for flexible LEDs. Our polymer-embedded NWs offer an elegant solution to create flexible optoelectronic devices in which we combine the high efficiency and long lifetimes of inorganic semiconductor materials with the high flexibility of polymers. In our devices, the NW arrays—which are embedded in a flexible film and can be lifted-off from their native substrate—can sustain large deformations because of the high flexibility of the individual NWs. Furthermore, the footprints of individual NWs are much smaller than the typical curvature radius of LEDs (i.e., on the order of a few millimeters or more). In our approach, we used catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to grow self-assembled gallium nitride (GaN) NWs on c-plane sapphire substrates.3 These NWs (with lengths of about 20μm and radii of about 0.5–1.5μm) have core/shell n–p junctions into which we incorporate multiple radial indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/GaN quantum wells. We control the emission color by changing the indium concentration of the InGaN emitting layer. In our actual device fabrication process4—see Figure 1(a)—the NW array is embedded into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), peeled-off from the sapphire host substrate, and we then flip the composite NW/polymer membrane onto an arbitrary substrate to conduct the metal back-contacting. We subsequently flip the layer again and mount it on a flexible substrate (a metal foil or plastic), at which point we front-contact it with a flexible and transparent electrode. For the front contact we chose a silver NW mesh—see Figure 1(b)—which is characterized by mechanical flexibility, good electrical conductivity, and optical transparency. Figure 1. (a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication process for flexible LEDs that are based on a vertical nitride nanowire (NW) array. Ni: Nickel. Au: Gold. Ti: Titanium. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the spin-coated silver (Ag) NW network on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/NW membrane. This silver NW network is used to form the transparent top-contact of the device. The protruding LED NWs are circled in red. We have used this technological procedure to fabricate blue and green flexible NW LEDs.4 We find that our devices exhibit typical behavior for nitride NW LEDs, i.e., with a light-up voltage of about 3V. Moreover, our LEDs can be bent to a curvature radius of ±3mm without any degradation of their electrical or luminescent properties. Photographs of our NW LEDs under operation in flat conditions, and during upward or inward bending are shown in Figure 2. Our flexible NW LEDs also have reasonable stability over time, unlike conventional OLEDs. Indeed, storing our devices in ambient conditions for several months does not cause their properties to degrade, whereas the lifetime of an OLED without encapsulation is limited to only several hours. Figure 2. Photographs of the blue (top), green (middle), and white (bottom) flexible LEDs at operation under different bending conditions. We have also used our composite NW/polymer membrane architecture to realize a flexible white LED (see Figure 2). To achieve this device we follow the standard approach of down-converting blue emission with yellow phosphors, i.e., to get white light from a blue–yellow mixture. To adapt this scheme for our flexible NW LEDs, we added yellow cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet phosphors into the PDMS layer between the NWs and covered the surface with an additional phosphorous-doped PDMS cap.5 The phosphor particles we use are smaller than 0.5μm so that they can fill the gaps between the NWs. The light that is emitted by the NWs is thus partially converted by the phosphors from blue to yellow, and we achieve a broad spectrum (covering almost the full visible range). Our NW membrane lift-off and transfer procedure allows free-standing layers of NW materials with different bandgaps to be assembled without any constraints relating to lattice-matching or compatability of growth conditions. Our approach therefore provides a large amount of design freedom and modularity, i.e., because it enables materials with very different physical and chemical properties to be combined (which cannot be achieved with monolithic growth). We made use of this modularity to demonstrate a two-color device, in which we combined two flexible LED layers that contain different active NWs: see Figure 3(a). In this device, we mounted a fully transparent flexible blue LED on top of a green LED. We were able to bias the two LEDs separately by producing either blue or green light, or by simultaneously producing a light mixture. We show the electrolumniscence spectra from the different layers of this bicolor flexible LED in Figure 3(b). Figure 3. (a) Schematic illustration of a blue-green two-color flexible NW LED, in which a fully transparent blue LED is mounted on top of a green LED. The two LEDs are biased separately (i.e., V1 and V2). (b) Electroluminescence (EL) spectra (in arbitrary units) of the two-color flexible NW LED. The blue, green, and red curves show the emissions from the top layer, bottom layer, and both layers together (biased simultaneously), respectively. In summary, we have successfully demonstrated a new procedure for the fabrication of efficient, flexible nitride NW LEDs. In our approach, we embed GaN NWs within a PDMS membrane and have realized blue, green, and white LEDs that exhibit good bending, electrical, luminescent, and temporal stability characteristics. The modularity of our technique means that we can also produce bicolor devices in which one LED is mounted upon another. Our approach thus opens up new routes to achieving efficient flexible LEDs and other optoelectronic devices, such as red-green-blue flexible LEDs or displays, flexible NW-based photodetectors6, or solar cells. In our future research we will concentrate on improving the efficiency of our flexible light-emitting devices, which is not yet comparable to that of commercialized rigid thin-film LEDs. We will also try to integrate the flexible light sources into life-science applications. This work has been financially supported through the 'PLATOFIL' project (ANR-14-CE26-0020-01), the EU H2020 ERC ‘NanoHarvest’ project (grant 639052), and by the French national Labex GaNex project (ANR-11-LABX-2014). The device fabrication was performed at the Centrale de Technologie Universitaire's Institut d'Electronique Fondamental (CTU-IEF) Minerve technological platform, which is a member of the Renatech Recherche Technologique de Base network. Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Paris-Sud University, CNRS Nan Guan is a PhD candidate in physics. He received both his master's and engineering degrees in optics from Université Paris-Saclay, France, in 2015. His current research interests include nanofabrication, characterization, and optical simulations for nitride nanowire LEDs. Xing Dai received her PhD in applied physics from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in 2014. During her time as a postdoctoral researcher at Paris-Sud University, she focused on flexible nanowire LEDs. She is currently a process-development engineer at Almae Technologies. Maria Tchernycheva received her PhD in physics from Paris-Sud University in 2005. She joined CNRS in 2006, where she currently leads the ‘NanoPhotoNit’ research group. Her research focuses on the fabrication and testing of novel optoelectronic devices that are based on semiconductor nanowires. Quantum Photonics, Electronics and Engineering (PHELIQS) Institute for Nanoscience and Cryogenics, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) Joël Eymery obtained his engineering degree, PhD, and habilitation from Université Grenoble Alpes, France, and now leads CEA's Nanostructures and Synchrotron Laboratory. His research is focused on the development of nanowire physics, including metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth of nitride compounds, structural and optical characterization, and the development of nanodevice demonstrators. Christophe Durand received his PhD in physics from the Université Joseph Fourier, France, in 2004. Since 2006, he has been an associate professor at the Université Grenoble Alpes. In his research, he focuses on the synthesis of novel III-N nanostructures by metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy to develop new optoelectronic applications. Quantum Photonics, Electronics and Engineering (PHELIQS)Institute for Nanoscience and Cryogenics, French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) 2. N. Guan, X. Dai, J. Eymery, C. Durand, M. Tchernycheva, Nitride nanowires for new functionalities: from single wire properties to flexible light-emitting diodes. Presented at SPIE Photonics West 2016. 3. R. Koester, J.-S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J.-P. Barnes, D. Le Si Dang, et al., M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices, Nano Lett. 11, p. 4839-4845, 2011. 4. X. Dai, A. Messanvi, H. Zhang, C. Durand, J. Eymery, C. Bougerol, F. H. Julien, M. Tchernycheva, Flexible light-emitting diodes based on vertical nitride nanowires, Nano Lett. 15, p. 6958-6964, 2015. 5. N. Guan, X. Dai, A. Messanvi, H. Zhang, J. Yan, E. Gautier, C. Bougerol, et al., Flexible white light emitting diodes based on nitride nanowires and nanophosphors, ACS Photonics 3, p. 597-603, 2016.


Dublin, April 19, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "5G Market Assessment: Vendor Strategies, Technology and Infrastructure Outlook and Application Forecasts 2016 - 2025" report to their offering. This research provides an in-depth assessment of both technical issues (enabling technologies, 5G standardization and research initiatives, spectrum bands, etc.) and business areas (market drivers, challenges, use cases, vertical market applications, regulatory issues, trial commitments, introduction strategies, and impact to CSPs), as well as analysis of the emerging 5G ecosystem. The report includes specific ecosystem constituent recommendations and forecasts for both 5G investments, subscriptions, and more for the period of 2016 - 2025. Select Findings: - Large-scale commercial 5G trials to increase 5X by 2021 - Manufacturing to be leading IoT 5G industrial application area by 2021 - Leading 5G apps include IoT, Haptic Internet, Virtual Reality, and Robotics - 5G enabled autonomous robots market is expected to reach $14.6 billion by 2030 - 5G will lead to accelerated Virtual Reality deployment with $72B incremental revenue by 2026 Report Benefits: - Forecasts for leading 5G apps and services - Understand 5G technologies and solutions - Identify company R&D strategies and plans - Learn about 5G challenges and opportunities - Identify 5G investment targets and allocations Target Audience: - Wireless service providers - 5G infrastructure suppliers - Wireless device manufacturers - Big Data and analytics companies - Internet of Things (IoT) companies - Robotics and Virtual Reality suppliers - Enterprise across all industry verticals Key Topics Covered: 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Scope of the Research 1.3 Target Audience 1.4 Companies in Report 2. Executive Summary 2.1 5G Requirements 2.1.1 User Driven Requirement 2.1.2 Network Driven Requirement 2.2 Stakeholders to Benefit from Expanded Services 2.3 Anticipated 5G Investment 2016 - 2031 3. Overview 3.1 Market Definition of 5G 3.2 Evolution of Mobile Communication Standards (1G to 5G) 3.3 Introduction to 5G Technology 3.4 5G Spectrum Options and Utilization 3.5 What can 5G Technology Offer? 3.5.1 5G Network will Facilitate Faster and Less Expensive Services 3.6 Key Advantages and Growth Drivers of 5G 3.7 Challenges for 5G 3.7.1 Consistent Growth in Technology Requirements and Service Characteristics 3.7.2 Standardization Challenges 3.7.3 Network Challenges 3.7.4 Mobile Device Challenges 3.7.5 Application Challenges 3.8 5G Roadmap 3.8.1 5G Requirements 2016 - 2020 3.8.2 5G Wireless Subsystem 2016 - 2020 3.8.3 Network Virtualization & Software Networks 2016 - 2020 3.8.4 Converged Connectivity 3.9 5G Use Cases 3.9.1 5G in M2M and IoT 3.9.2 5G in Robotics 3.9.3 5G in Augmented and Virtual Reality 3.9.4 5G in Home Internet 3.9.5 5G in Wireless Office 3.9.6 Other Use Cases 3.9.6.1 High Speed Train 3.9.6.2 Remote Computing 3.9.6.3 Non-Stationary Hot Spots 3.9.6.4 Natural Disaster 3.9.6.5 Public Safety 3.9.6.6 Context Aware Service 4. 5G Enabling Technologies 4.1 OSI Layers in 5G 4.1.1 Physical and Medium Access Control Layer 4.1.2 Network Layer 4.1.3 Application Layer 4.1.4 Differences between 5G and 4G 4.2 5G Technology Requirements 4.2.1 Disruptive Network Architecture 4.2.2 Access 4.2.3 One Millisecond Latency 4.2.4 System Level Principles 4.2.5 Right Business Model 4.2.6 Stakeholder Community 4.2.7 Policy and Standardization Framework 4.2.8 Communication Service Providers (CSP) 4.3 Key 5G Enabling Technologies 4.3.1 Massive MIMO 4.3.2 Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) 4.3.3 SDN and Virtualization 4.3.4 Cognitive Radios (CRs) and Transmission Technologies 4.3.5 Self-Organizing Networks (SONs) 4.3.6 Communication, Navigation, Sensing and Services 4.3.7 Cooperative Communication Functions 4.3.7.1 Multi-Hop 4.3.7.2 Caching 4.3.8 Automated Network Organization 4.3.9 Self-Configuration 4.3.10 Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) 4.3.11 Self-Healing 4.3.12 Self-Organization 4.3.13 Advanced traffic management 4.3.14 Visible Light Communications (VLCs) 4.3.15 Energy Efficiency 4.3.16 Millimeter Wave 4.3.17 Massive M2M Communications 4.3.18 C-RAN Architecture 4.3.19 HetNet Solutions 4.3.20 H-CRAN Solution 4.3.20.1 Large-Scale Cooperative Spatial Signal Processing 4.4 Software Defined Radio 4.4.1 Spectrum and Satellite 4.4.2 Drones, Robots, and High Altitude Balloons 4.4.3 5G New Radio 4.4.3.1 Architecture Options 4.4.4 Next Gen Technology 4.4.4.1 Cross Layer Controller 4.4.4.2 Energy Aware 4.4.4.3 Security 5. 5G Research Forecasts and Developments 5.1 5G Vision 2020 5.2 The Evolving 5G Standardization Process 5.3 The IMT 2020 Initiative to Define 5G 5.3.1 RAN Study 5.4 3GPP Roadmap for 5G 5.5 GSMA Definition for 5G 5.6 NGMN Business Model and value Creation for 5G 5.7 TIA Helping Deployment of 5G in North America 5.8 METIS Consensus Building in Europe 5.9 5G PPP Initiated Research Projects 5.9.1 5G PPP Projects 5.10 Research on the use of Quantum Technology in 5G 5.11 Research on Spectrum and Coverage Implications of 5G 5.12 5GNow to Challenge Shortcomings of 4G while Developing 5G 5.13 5G Research and Development in Asia 5.13.1 China IMT-2020 5.13.2 Japan ARIB 20B AH 5.13.3 Korea 5G Forum 5.13.4 China's 863-5G Project 5.14 R&D Initiatives and Collaboration 5.14.1 SK Telecom and Ericsson 5.14.2 Huawei and Samsung 5.14.3 NTT DoCoMo and Multiple Vendors 5.14.4 Turkcell and Ericsson 5.14.5 5G NORMA (Nokia and SK Telecom) 5.14.6 Huawei and Ericsson 5.14.7 FANTASTIC-5G 5.14.8 5GIC 5.14.9 NYU WIRELESS 6. Global 5G Market Forecasts 2016 - 2021 6.1 Global 5G R&D and Trial Investments 2016 - 2021 6.1.1 5G Investment in R & D and Trials by Category 6.2 Global Scenarios for 5G Networks 6.3 5G Considerations 6.3.1 5G Arrival Depends on Specifications and Adoption 6.3.2 New RAN will Improve Mobile Networks 6.3.3 Immediate Technological Developments 6.3.4 LTE May Slow Down 5G Growth 6.3.5 Use of Governmental Interest and Resources 6.3.6 More Sustainable Operator Investment Model in Terms of Capacity 6.4 5G Value Creation 6.4.1 Better User Services with 5G 6.4.2 5G will Enhance Work Processes for Enterprise 6.4.3 Expanded Business Opportunities for Partners 6.5 Global Markets for 5G 2021 - 2030 6.6 5G Adoption by 2025 6.7 5G Deployment by Region 2016 - 2025 6.8 5G Enhancements to Internet of Things (IoT) 6.8.1.1 CAT M LTE for IoT 6.9 5G Fixed Wireless Solutions 7. 5G Company Analysis 7.1 Alcatel-Lucent 7.2 Broadcom 7.3 China Mobile 7.4 Deutsche Telekom 7.5 Ericsson 7.6 Fujitsu 7.7 Huawei 7.8 Intel Corporation 7.9 LG Uplus Corp. 7.10 NEC Corporation 7.11 Nokia Networks 7.12 NTT DoCoMo 7.13 Qualcomm 7.14 Samsung 7.16 SK telecom 7.17 ZTE Corporation 7.18 5G Regulatory Contributor 8. Mobile Operator 5G Requirements 8.1 Network Level Expectations 8.2 Spectrum Usage Expectations 8.3 Service Level Expectations 8.4 5G Development by Region 8.5 5G Commercial Launch Plans 8.6 Data Traffic, Video, and Download Speed Projections 2020 - 2030 8.7 5G Investment Case Analysis 8.7.1 Huawei 8.7.2 South Korea 8.7.3 ZTE 8.7.4 Horizon 2020 8.8 End-to-End Ecosystem 9. Appendix: Forecasts for Leading 5G Apps and Services 9.1 5G Industrial Automation Global Forecasts 2020 - 2025 9.1.1 IIoT 5G Automation Market Value 9.1.1.1 Market by Segment 9.1.1.1.1 Hardware & Equipment Market by Type of Device 9.1.1.2 Market by Industry Verticals 9.1.1.3 Market by Technology Application 9.1.2 Wireless IIoT 5G Device Deployments 9.1.2.1 Deployment by Device Type 9.1.2.2 Deployment by Industry Vertical 9.2 5G Industrial Automation Regional Forecasts 2020 - 2025 9.2.1 Market Value by Region 9.2.2 Market Value by Leading Countries 9.2.3 Deployment by Region 9.2.4 Deployment by Leading Countries 9.2.5 Europe Market Forecasts 9.2.5.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical, & Technology Application 9.2.5.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.2.6 North America Market Forecasts 9.2.6.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical & Technology Application 9.2.6.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.2.7 APAC Market Forecasts 9.2.7.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical & Technology Application 9.2.7.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.3 5G Robotics Global Market Revenue 9.3.1 Autonomous Robot Market 9.3.2 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot Market 9.3.3 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot Market by Categories 9.4 5G Robotics Regional Forecasts 9.4.1 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot by Region 9.5 Global 5G Enabled Virtual Reality Market 9.5.1 Combined Market Revenue 2021 - 2026 9.5.2 Combined Unit Shipment 2021 - 2026 9.5.3 Combined Active User 2021 - 2026 9.6 5G Accelerated VR Uptake Market 9.6.1 Market by Segments 2021 - 2026 9.6.1.1 Hardware Market 9.6.1.1.1 Full Feature Device including Haptic & Eyewear Devices 9.6.1.1.2 Hardware Components including Haptic Sensors & Semiconductor Components 9.6.1.2 Software & Application Market 9.6.1.3 Professional Service Market 9.6.2 VR Shipment Units 2021 - 2026 9.6.3 VR Active Users 2021 - 2026 9.6.4 5G VR Market by Region 2021 - 2026 9.6.4.1 North America Market 9.6.4.2 APAC Market 9.6.4.3 Europe Market 9.6.5 5G Consumer VR Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.6.6 Gaming 9.6.6.1 Pokémon Go Market Learning 9.6.7 Live Events 9.6.8 Video Entertainment 9.7 5G VR Enterprise Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.7.1 Retail Sector 9.7.2 Real Estate 9.7.3 Healthcare 9.7.4 Education 9.8 5G VR Industrial Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.8.1 Military 366 9.8.2 Engineering 9.8.3 Civil Aviation 9.8.4 Medical Industry 9.8.5 Agriculture 9.8.6 Government and Public Sector For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/862pzp/5g_market


Dublin, April 19, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "5G Market Assessment: Vendor Strategies, Technology and Infrastructure Outlook and Application Forecasts 2016 - 2025" report to their offering. This research provides an in-depth assessment of both technical issues (enabling technologies, 5G standardization and research initiatives, spectrum bands, etc.) and business areas (market drivers, challenges, use cases, vertical market applications, regulatory issues, trial commitments, introduction strategies, and impact to CSPs), as well as analysis of the emerging 5G ecosystem. The report includes specific ecosystem constituent recommendations and forecasts for both 5G investments, subscriptions, and more for the period of 2016 - 2025. Select Findings: - Large-scale commercial 5G trials to increase 5X by 2021 - Manufacturing to be leading IoT 5G industrial application area by 2021 - Leading 5G apps include IoT, Haptic Internet, Virtual Reality, and Robotics - 5G enabled autonomous robots market is expected to reach $14.6 billion by 2030 - 5G will lead to accelerated Virtual Reality deployment with $72B incremental revenue by 2026 Report Benefits: - Forecasts for leading 5G apps and services - Understand 5G technologies and solutions - Identify company R&D strategies and plans - Learn about 5G challenges and opportunities - Identify 5G investment targets and allocations Target Audience: - Wireless service providers - 5G infrastructure suppliers - Wireless device manufacturers - Big Data and analytics companies - Internet of Things (IoT) companies - Robotics and Virtual Reality suppliers - Enterprise across all industry verticals Key Topics Covered: 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Scope of the Research 1.3 Target Audience 1.4 Companies in Report 2. Executive Summary 2.1 5G Requirements 2.1.1 User Driven Requirement 2.1.2 Network Driven Requirement 2.2 Stakeholders to Benefit from Expanded Services 2.3 Anticipated 5G Investment 2016 - 2031 3. Overview 3.1 Market Definition of 5G 3.2 Evolution of Mobile Communication Standards (1G to 5G) 3.3 Introduction to 5G Technology 3.4 5G Spectrum Options and Utilization 3.5 What can 5G Technology Offer? 3.5.1 5G Network will Facilitate Faster and Less Expensive Services 3.6 Key Advantages and Growth Drivers of 5G 3.7 Challenges for 5G 3.7.1 Consistent Growth in Technology Requirements and Service Characteristics 3.7.2 Standardization Challenges 3.7.3 Network Challenges 3.7.4 Mobile Device Challenges 3.7.5 Application Challenges 3.8 5G Roadmap 3.8.1 5G Requirements 2016 - 2020 3.8.2 5G Wireless Subsystem 2016 - 2020 3.8.3 Network Virtualization & Software Networks 2016 - 2020 3.8.4 Converged Connectivity 3.9 5G Use Cases 3.9.1 5G in M2M and IoT 3.9.2 5G in Robotics 3.9.3 5G in Augmented and Virtual Reality 3.9.4 5G in Home Internet 3.9.5 5G in Wireless Office 3.9.6 Other Use Cases 3.9.6.1 High Speed Train 3.9.6.2 Remote Computing 3.9.6.3 Non-Stationary Hot Spots 3.9.6.4 Natural Disaster 3.9.6.5 Public Safety 3.9.6.6 Context Aware Service 4. 5G Enabling Technologies 4.1 OSI Layers in 5G 4.1.1 Physical and Medium Access Control Layer 4.1.2 Network Layer 4.1.3 Application Layer 4.1.4 Differences between 5G and 4G 4.2 5G Technology Requirements 4.2.1 Disruptive Network Architecture 4.2.2 Access 4.2.3 One Millisecond Latency 4.2.4 System Level Principles 4.2.5 Right Business Model 4.2.6 Stakeholder Community 4.2.7 Policy and Standardization Framework 4.2.8 Communication Service Providers (CSP) 4.3 Key 5G Enabling Technologies 4.3.1 Massive MIMO 4.3.2 Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) 4.3.3 SDN and Virtualization 4.3.4 Cognitive Radios (CRs) and Transmission Technologies 4.3.5 Self-Organizing Networks (SONs) 4.3.6 Communication, Navigation, Sensing and Services 4.3.7 Cooperative Communication Functions 4.3.7.1 Multi-Hop 4.3.7.2 Caching 4.3.8 Automated Network Organization 4.3.9 Self-Configuration 4.3.10 Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) 4.3.11 Self-Healing 4.3.12 Self-Organization 4.3.13 Advanced traffic management 4.3.14 Visible Light Communications (VLCs) 4.3.15 Energy Efficiency 4.3.16 Millimeter Wave 4.3.17 Massive M2M Communications 4.3.18 C-RAN Architecture 4.3.19 HetNet Solutions 4.3.20 H-CRAN Solution 4.3.20.1 Large-Scale Cooperative Spatial Signal Processing 4.4 Software Defined Radio 4.4.1 Spectrum and Satellite 4.4.2 Drones, Robots, and High Altitude Balloons 4.4.3 5G New Radio 4.4.3.1 Architecture Options 4.4.4 Next Gen Technology 4.4.4.1 Cross Layer Controller 4.4.4.2 Energy Aware 4.4.4.3 Security 5. 5G Research Forecasts and Developments 5.1 5G Vision 2020 5.2 The Evolving 5G Standardization Process 5.3 The IMT 2020 Initiative to Define 5G 5.3.1 RAN Study 5.4 3GPP Roadmap for 5G 5.5 GSMA Definition for 5G 5.6 NGMN Business Model and value Creation for 5G 5.7 TIA Helping Deployment of 5G in North America 5.8 METIS Consensus Building in Europe 5.9 5G PPP Initiated Research Projects 5.9.1 5G PPP Projects 5.10 Research on the use of Quantum Technology in 5G 5.11 Research on Spectrum and Coverage Implications of 5G 5.12 5GNow to Challenge Shortcomings of 4G while Developing 5G 5.13 5G Research and Development in Asia 5.13.1 China IMT-2020 5.13.2 Japan ARIB 20B AH 5.13.3 Korea 5G Forum 5.13.4 China's 863-5G Project 5.14 R&D Initiatives and Collaboration 5.14.1 SK Telecom and Ericsson 5.14.2 Huawei and Samsung 5.14.3 NTT DoCoMo and Multiple Vendors 5.14.4 Turkcell and Ericsson 5.14.5 5G NORMA (Nokia and SK Telecom) 5.14.6 Huawei and Ericsson 5.14.7 FANTASTIC-5G 5.14.8 5GIC 5.14.9 NYU WIRELESS 6. Global 5G Market Forecasts 2016 - 2021 6.1 Global 5G R&D and Trial Investments 2016 - 2021 6.1.1 5G Investment in R & D and Trials by Category 6.2 Global Scenarios for 5G Networks 6.3 5G Considerations 6.3.1 5G Arrival Depends on Specifications and Adoption 6.3.2 New RAN will Improve Mobile Networks 6.3.3 Immediate Technological Developments 6.3.4 LTE May Slow Down 5G Growth 6.3.5 Use of Governmental Interest and Resources 6.3.6 More Sustainable Operator Investment Model in Terms of Capacity 6.4 5G Value Creation 6.4.1 Better User Services with 5G 6.4.2 5G will Enhance Work Processes for Enterprise 6.4.3 Expanded Business Opportunities for Partners 6.5 Global Markets for 5G 2021 - 2030 6.6 5G Adoption by 2025 6.7 5G Deployment by Region 2016 - 2025 6.8 5G Enhancements to Internet of Things (IoT) 6.8.1.1 CAT M LTE for IoT 6.9 5G Fixed Wireless Solutions 7. 5G Company Analysis 7.1 Alcatel-Lucent 7.2 Broadcom 7.3 China Mobile 7.4 Deutsche Telekom 7.5 Ericsson 7.6 Fujitsu 7.7 Huawei 7.8 Intel Corporation 7.9 LG Uplus Corp. 7.10 NEC Corporation 7.11 Nokia Networks 7.12 NTT DoCoMo 7.13 Qualcomm 7.14 Samsung 7.16 SK telecom 7.17 ZTE Corporation 7.18 5G Regulatory Contributor 8. Mobile Operator 5G Requirements 8.1 Network Level Expectations 8.2 Spectrum Usage Expectations 8.3 Service Level Expectations 8.4 5G Development by Region 8.5 5G Commercial Launch Plans 8.6 Data Traffic, Video, and Download Speed Projections 2020 - 2030 8.7 5G Investment Case Analysis 8.7.1 Huawei 8.7.2 South Korea 8.7.3 ZTE 8.7.4 Horizon 2020 8.8 End-to-End Ecosystem 9. Appendix: Forecasts for Leading 5G Apps and Services 9.1 5G Industrial Automation Global Forecasts 2020 - 2025 9.1.1 IIoT 5G Automation Market Value 9.1.1.1 Market by Segment 9.1.1.1.1 Hardware & Equipment Market by Type of Device 9.1.1.2 Market by Industry Verticals 9.1.1.3 Market by Technology Application 9.1.2 Wireless IIoT 5G Device Deployments 9.1.2.1 Deployment by Device Type 9.1.2.2 Deployment by Industry Vertical 9.2 5G Industrial Automation Regional Forecasts 2020 - 2025 9.2.1 Market Value by Region 9.2.2 Market Value by Leading Countries 9.2.3 Deployment by Region 9.2.4 Deployment by Leading Countries 9.2.5 Europe Market Forecasts 9.2.5.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical, & Technology Application 9.2.5.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.2.6 North America Market Forecasts 9.2.6.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical & Technology Application 9.2.6.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.2.7 APAC Market Forecasts 9.2.7.1 Market Value by Segment, Devices, Industry Vertical & Technology Application 9.2.7.2 Deployment Base by Devices & Industry Vertical 9.3 5G Robotics Global Market Revenue 9.3.1 Autonomous Robot Market 9.3.2 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot Market 9.3.3 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot Market by Categories 9.4 5G Robotics Regional Forecasts 9.4.1 5G Enabled Autonomous Robot by Region 9.5 Global 5G Enabled Virtual Reality Market 9.5.1 Combined Market Revenue 2021 - 2026 9.5.2 Combined Unit Shipment 2021 - 2026 9.5.3 Combined Active User 2021 - 2026 9.6 5G Accelerated VR Uptake Market 9.6.1 Market by Segments 2021 - 2026 9.6.1.1 Hardware Market 9.6.1.1.1 Full Feature Device including Haptic & Eyewear Devices 9.6.1.1.2 Hardware Components including Haptic Sensors & Semiconductor Components 9.6.1.2 Software & Application Market 9.6.1.3 Professional Service Market 9.6.2 VR Shipment Units 2021 - 2026 9.6.3 VR Active Users 2021 - 2026 9.6.4 5G VR Market by Region 2021 - 2026 9.6.4.1 North America Market 9.6.4.2 APAC Market 9.6.4.3 Europe Market 9.6.5 5G Consumer VR Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.6.6 Gaming 9.6.6.1 Pokémon Go Market Learning 9.6.7 Live Events 9.6.8 Video Entertainment 9.7 5G VR Enterprise Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.7.1 Retail Sector 9.7.2 Real Estate 9.7.3 Healthcare 9.7.4 Education 9.8 5G VR Industrial Application Market 2021 - 2026 9.8.1 Military 366 9.8.2 Engineering 9.8.3 Civil Aviation 9.8.4 Medical Industry 9.8.5 Agriculture 9.8.6 Government and Public Sector For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/862pzp/5g_market

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