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Arnaud M.-C.,University of Avignon | Arnaud M.-C.,Institut Universitaire de France | Arnaud M.-C.,ANR Inc
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2016

The globally positive diffeomorphisms of the 2n-dimensional annulus are important because they represent what happens close to a completely elliptic periodic point of a symplectic diffeomorphism where the torsion is positive definite. For these globally positive diffeomorphisms, an Aubry–Mather theory was developed by Garibaldi and Thieullen that provides the existence of some minimizing measures. Using the two Green bundles (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) that can be defined along the support of these minimizing measures, we will prove that there is a deep link between:the angle between (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) along the support of the considered measure (Formula presented.) ;the size of the smallest positive Lyapunov exponent of (Formula presented.) ;the tangent cone to the support of (Formula presented.). © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

News Article | September 6, 2015
Site: www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr

In an era when producing sustainably is paramount, critical resources are undergoing rapid supply-side changes. The ASTER project (Systemic Analysis of Rare Earth Elements) has looked into some of today's most pressing challenges, including dependence (rare earths are actually abundant, though highly spread out), societal challenges posed by their extraction and the upheaval of production relationships. The project, which benefited from French National Research Agency (ANR) funding, also addressed how to recycle and make the best and most responsible use of natural resources. The ASTER project set out to map the flows and stocks of rare earths as well as the 14 chemically related precious metals and semi-metals used in certain green technologies, including motors and permanent magnets which respectively power electric vehicles and wind turbines. ASTER achieved a more thorough understanding of stocks and flows in Europe, identifying recycling opportunities and gauging the strategic value of individual rare earths in a market subjected to great strain over recent years. ASTER has provided researchers with crucial geopolitical insight. China, which puts out monopoly-level production (85-95%) of rare earth metals, has recently enacted export limitations. This imposed or artificial shortage comes on top of other factors influencing the strategic value of a given rare earth. Terbium, for example, despite its being spread out geographically, is experiencing decreasing demand and rising recycling potential, countering supply shortages.  As for other rare earths whose supply needs are unable to be met through product recycling, solutions must be implemented such as "responsible" mines (mining operations seeking to actively minimise related environmental risks) or mine tailings recovery processing. The project also provided a glimpse of the role that Europe could play in rare earth production based on European industrial groups’ know-how and the worldwide dimensions of the rare earth value chain from exploration to use. ASTER has shown that France and the European Union need to support and invest in the energy transition and related technologies to forecast and control fluctuations and secure jobs in its historical metallurgical sector over the long run. This holistic approach, combining the prospecting of Europe's subsurface and reusing end-of-life products, has the power to guarantee Europeans a more effective provisioning of resources whilst preserving the environment. Such a project by its very nature bears upon industrial and public interest issues at national and European levels. ASTER, which ran from January 2012 to June 2015 under the ANR "Ecotech" programme (Sustainable production and environmental technologies), was allocated an ANR grant worth €558 k. The project was led by the chemical group Solvay, the firm BIO by Deloitte, the French geological survey (BRGM), Université Paul-Sabatier in Toulouse and the Polytechnic Institute of Lasalle Beauvais. These organisations boast expertise covering disciplines including sub-soil resource management, chemical manufacturing and sustainable development. Teams from the European EURARE project (European RARe Earth) coordinated by the British Geological Survey also worked together with the ASTER team.

For the fourth consecutive year, ANR is joining NSF and NIH to issue a call for collaborative projects in computational neuroscience. The BMBF in Germany and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) are also participating in the initiative. The call is launched under the NSF “Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience” CRCNS programme. The deadline for applications is 29 October 2015. Computational neuroscience provides a theoretical foundation and a rich set of technical approaches for understanding complex neurobiological systems, building on the theory, methods, and findings of computer science, neuroscience, and numerous other disciplines. Through the CRCNS programme, the French National Research Agency (ANR) is joining  the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) to support collaborative activities that will advance the understanding of nervous system structure and function, mechanisms underlying nervous system disorders, and computational strategies used by the nervous system. Two types of proposals will be considered: research proposals describing collaborative research projects, and data sharing proposals to enable sharing of data and other resources. Only transnational projects will be considered by ANR: project consortia must include at least one French partner and one US partner. Consortia involving French, American, Israeli and/or German partners will also be considered. NSF will coordinate and manage the review of proposals jointly with ANR and other participating funding organisations, through a joint panel review process used by all participating funders. Each agency will fund its national teams according to its own national rules. The deadline to submit applications to NSF is 29 October 2015.

Toussirot E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Toussirot E.,Besancon University Hospital Center | Toussirot E.,University of Franche Comte | Toussirot E.,ANR Inc
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2015

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. This increased CV burden is the result of an enhanced prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, the effects of treatments given for RA but also systemic inflammation. In this setting, the control of inflammation by the current therapeutic approach may improve the overall CV prognosis of RA.Areas covered: This paper analyses the impact of TNFα inhibitors on the different CV risk factors with a special emphasis on lipid profile and body composition. The lipid profile under TNFα inhibitors changes, an increase in total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is observed but the atherogenic index and low density lioprotein cholesterol are unaffected. In parallel, TNFα inhibitors induce an accumulation of fat in the abdominal/visceral region. Analysis of cohort and registry studies indicates that CV events are reduced under this treatment.Expert opinion: Overall, the favourable CV effect under TNFα inhibitors does not seem to be explained by the changes in traditional CV risk factors, but rather by the improvement in systemic inflammation. Alternatively, the changes in body composition raise the question of their effect on long-term CV safety. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Toussirot E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Toussirot E.,Besancon University Hospital Center | Toussirot E.,University of Franche Comte | Toussirot E.,ANR Inc | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014

Psoriasis (Pso) is a common chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease involving the skin that is associated with serious comorbidities. Comorbidities in Pso include psoriatic arthritis (Ps A), reduced quality of life, malignancy, depression, but also a constellation of associated conditions that enhance the cardiovascular (CV) risk. Indeed, obesity is common in patients with Pso or Ps A and is considered to be a risk factor for the onset of these diseases. Patients with Pso and Ps A share common obesity-related complications such as metabolic syndrome (Met S), dyslipidemia, diabetes or insulin resistance, and CV diseases. Chronic inflammation in Pso and Ps A partially explains the development of atherosclerosis and CV diseases. In parallel, body composition is disturbed in patients with Pso or Ps A, as suggested by anthropometric measurements, while an excess of abdominal adiposity is observed in Ps A, enhancing the risk of Met S and CV diseases. Adipokines may link the adipose tissue to the obesity-related complications of Pso and Ps A. Indeed, altered circulating levels of the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, visfatine, and resistin have been found in patients with Pso or Ps A. In addition, an excess of adipose tissue may compromise the therapeutic response to traditional drugs or biological agents in Pso and Ps A.This paper reviews the comorbidities that contribute to enhanced CV risk, the body composition results, and the potential role of adipokines in systemic inflammation and energetic balance in Pso and Ps A. © 2014 Toussirot, Aubin and Dumoulin. Source

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