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Proshin A.T.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology
Neurochemical Journal | Year: 2015

In this review, we summarized the modern concepts on the association between a cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and alterations of the functional activities of different neuromediator systems. We analyzed the modern experimental data on the roles of the monoaminergic, aminoacidergic, and cholinergic systems of the brain in the mechanisms of attention and executive functions, as well as in the disturbances of these cognitive processes that occur in patients with schizophrenia. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms of neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. We show that with a high probability the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia is determined by the individual profile of disturbances of neuromediator processes. Identification of the individual mechanisms of a cognitive deficit at the level of neurotransmission may be used for the formation of a complex and selective strategy that is directed at the maintenance and recovery of functions, including both pharmacotherapy and non-drug methods of treatment. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Grohovsky S.S.,Research Center | Kubryak O.V.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology
Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2014

A systematic approach (“four conditions” principle) to address the problem of the validity and reasoning of data interpretation for stabilometric study in medical practice is proposed. The approach is based on standardization of technical requirements for stabiloplatforms, metrological control, choice of methodology, and unification of indicator calculation methods. This concept can serve as a “roadmap” for preparation of the relevant national standard. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Lebedev I.V.,Moscow State University | Bezryadnov D.V.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology | Deacon R.M.J.,University of Oxford | Kuptsov P.A.,Moscow State University | And 2 more authors.
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2013

The involvement of the caudal hippocampus in spatial learning is presently uncertain, compared to the well established role of the dorsal region. Therefore voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) with large (about 1/3 of the whole hippocampus) caudal cytotoxic lesions were tested in the Morris water maze. A version of the test intended to measure long term spatial memory was used. The lesion inhibited the learning process, as well as reducing the accuracy of platform location memory at early stages of training. The data obtained indicate the involvement of this area in control of spatial learning in rodents. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Bogachouk A.P.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Solovjeva O.A.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology | Sherstnev V.V.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology | Zolotarev Y.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2016

A comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of two pharmaceutical substances, the HLDF-6 peptide (HLDF-6-OH) and its amide form (HLDF-6-NH, was conducted. The study was performed in male rats using two models of a neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive deficit in rats was induced by injection of the beta-amyloid fragment 25-35 (βA 25-35) into the giant-cell nucleus basalis of Meynert or by coinjection of βA 25-35 and ibotenic acid into the hippocampus. To evaluate cognitive functions in animals, three tests were used: the novel object recognition test, the conditioned passive avoidance task and the Morris maze. Comparative analysis of the data demonstrated that the neuroprotective activity of HLDF-6-NH evaluated by improvement of cognitive functions in animals, surpassed that of the native HLDF-6-OH peptide. The greater cognitive/ behavioral effects can be attributed to improved kinetic properties of the amide form of the peptide, such as the character of biodegradation and the half-life time. The effects of HLDF-6-NHare comparable to, or exceed, those of the reference compounds. Importantly, HLDF-6-NHexerts its effects at much lower doses than the reference compounds. © British Association for Psychopharmacology.

Mezentseva L.V.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology | Pertsov S.S.,Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology | Hugaeva V.K.,Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology
Biophysics (Russian Federation) | Year: 2015

The nonlinear dynamics of renal blood-flow oscillations in rats were studied in baseline conditions and a perturbed state. An intramuscular injection of aspirin in 0.9% saline (0.5 mg per 100 g body weight) served as the perturbation factor. Capillary blood flow in the right kidney was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The persistence of the time series was estimated by the Hurst method. The time series were shown to persist in the baseline conditions (Hurst index H = 0.817 ± 0.041). The statistical parameters of the perturbed state significantly differed from those that were observed at the baseline. However, the perturbed series remained persistent. The Hurst index for the series was H = 0.677 ± 0.057. The decrease in the index relative to the baseline was insignificant. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

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