Annāmalainagar, India
Annāmalainagar, India

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Balasubramaniyan V.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
HTM - Journal of Heat Treatment and Materials | Year: 2016

WC-Cr3C2-Ni thermal spray coatings was applied on the surface of low carbon steel (AISI 1018) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The base metal, coating powder and coated materials were analyzed using scanning electron microscope. Water-jet erosion test (WJET) was used to test the mass loss of the samples with different process parameters such as impingement angle, water jet velocity, erodent discharge, and stand-off distance. As results lower mass loss was observed for the selected process parameters. Pitting corrosion test reveals that better corrosion resistance can be achieved for the low carbon steels by WC-Cr3C2-Ni powder coating. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.


Vaishnavi D.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Subashini T.S.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a novel watermarking method to discover the tampers and localize it in digital image. The image which is to be used to generate a watermark is first wavelet decomposed and the edge feature from the sub bands of high frequency coefficients are retrieved to generate a watermark (Edge Feature Image) and which is to be embed on the cover image. Before embedding the watermark, the pixels of cover image are disordered through the Arnold Transform and this helps to upgrade the security of the watermark. The embedding of generated edge feature image is done only on the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the cover image. The invisibleness and robustness of the proposed method is computed using Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Correlation (NC) and it proves that the proposed method delivers good results and the proposed method also detects and localizes the tampers efficiently. The invisibleness of proposed method is compared with the existing method and it proves that the proposed method is better. © The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers.


Gowthaman S.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

Biodiesel has suitable alternative fuel for diesel engine with high thermal efficiency and lower exhaust emissions of CO and HC. But biodiesel fuelled engine has higher level of smoke and oxides of nitrogen emissions in the exhaust due to higher viscosity and more oxygen molecules in the biodiesel compared to reference diesel. In order to overcome these limitations and further reduce the emission in biodiesel fuelled engine, a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is suitable replacement for conventional DI diesel engine. The homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are capable of providing more power output especially at high load and reducing exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot than conventional diesel engine. This study, investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engine using cotton seed biodiesel as a primary fuel. And also analyse the effect of charge temperature on HCCI combustion parameters such as start of combustion (SOC) and combustion duration and analyse the changes in HCCI engine performance and emission parameters. The experimental investigations have been conducted with different inlet charge temperatures of 90°C, 100°C, 110°C, 120°C, 130°C, 140°C and limited the charge temperature for poor output and higher level of emissions of HCCI engine. This paper described the result of ultra low NOx and soot emissions in biodiesel fuelled HCCI engine compared to diesel engine. The NOx and soot emissions are reduced about 40% and 28% respectively than convention diesel engine. The result of this study indicated that the HCCI engine has consumed less amount of fuel and produced higher power output at high load operation. And the result shows, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) has been increased with increasing the charge temperature. Because of the higher inlet air temperature could reduced the ignition delay and combustion duration of the charge. The inlet charge temperature could reflect on HC and CO emissions and result showed that, there is slight reduction in HC and CO emissions in biodiesel fuelled engine. © Research India Publications.


Punitha A.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Geetha M.K.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of Imaging and Robotics | Year: 2016

The most important factor that degrades the performance of a facial expression recognition system is the presence of face occlusions due to scarves, hat, sunglasses, mask etc., Occlusion results in loss of discriminative information, particularly with the case of lower face occlusion, the mouth region where most of the emotions are expressed. Hence a novel block based approach to deal with expression recognition in the presence of partial occlusion has been examined to confirm the portion of the face that holds the foremost discriminative part for emotion classification. Four different types of occlusions namely- eye/upper, mouth/lower, right and left face occlusions are handled in this paper and bayesian network (BN) and support vector machine (SVM) are exploited in emotion recognition from the occluded facial expressions. Experiments are conducted with images of varying block sizes. © 2016 [International Journal of Imaging and Robotics].


Venkatesan S.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Kannappan N.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014

Developed and optimized a validated isocratic reverse phase HPLC separation of Cefixime, Levofloxacin, and Moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation using Response surface methodology. The separation was applied by using Phenomenex C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size) and UV detection at 283 nm. The ranges of the individual variables used for the optimization were acetonitrile: 30-35%, flow rate: 0.8-1.2 and buffer concentration 25-35mM. The influence of these individual variables on the output responses: capacity factor of the first peak(k1), resolutions of the 2nd and 3rd peak (Rs2,3) and Retention time of the third peak (tR3) were evaluated. Using this strategy, a mathematical model was defined and a response surface was derived for the separation. The three responses were simultaneously optimized by using Derringer’s desirability functions. The optimum conditions predicted for quality control samples were acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (35 mM, pH 7.0)-triethylamine 32.43:67.52:0.05 (v/v) as mobile phase and 1.2 mL min-1 as flow rate. Total chromatographic analysis time per sample was approximately 4.7 min. The optimized assay condition was validated as per the ICH guidelines and applied for the quantitative analysis of commercial formulations. The developed method was simple, accurate and precise. Hence, it can be employed for the routine analysis in quality control laboratories. © 2014, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Vaishnavi D.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Subashini T.S.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2014

In this paper, a robust image watermarking method is proposed to alleviate the geometric distortion problems. In this method, a logo is chosen as watermark and is embedded in the DC coefficients of normalized host image. Normalized image is acquired by transforming the image to its original co-ordinate position using the affine parameters. These parameters are estimated by the geometric moments of an image. The security of the proposed method is increased by employing the Arnold scrambling on the logo watermark before embedding on it. The performance of the proposed method is quantified using the Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Correlation (NC) metrics. The robustness of the proposed method is compared with the existing method and it proves that the proposed method is highly resilient to geometric distortions. © Research India Publications.


Biju E.R.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Anitha M.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

The aim of expansion planning of distribution system is to determine the capacity, reinforcement of distribution substation unit and addition or upgradation of distribution feeders to meet the growing load demand in future. This paper addresses the multistage radial distribution system (RDS) expansion planning problem in the presence of distributed generator (DG) in a multiobjective optimization framework. In addition, the reliability of the RDS has been enhanced by employing reconfiguration of RDS as a failure rate reduction strategy. Expected interruption cost (ECOST) corresponding to interruption duration time is calculated using a composite customer damage function (CCDF). The complex multiobjective optimization problem has been solved using bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA). In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, standard IEEE 33 bus is used as a test system. Different case studies were carried out on the test system and in all the case studies, customer and energy based reliability indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI, AENS and ASAI have been determined. © Research India Publications.


Thiyagarajan V.S.,Annamalai UniversityTamilNadu | Venkatachalapathy K.,Annamalai UniversityTamilNadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

Clustering plays a major role in handling large data sets to do their relevant process in various domains. The main issue is the identification of clusters in multi-dimensional data sets. It also has the open problem of privacy and security issues. To overcome these challenges, we propose the clustering algorithm of Apriori enhancement algorithm for directly mines frequent closed itemsets. Multi dimensional data sets produce the best quality of clustering for the user needs because the datasets are gathering from various domains. The slicing can be used to handle the high dimensional data in the difficult situation. Slicing can support both the horizontal and vertical processes of the large data set; for that we will use both of the process. Initially the input data are divided into subsets; then the data are given as the inputs for another process. For that the horizontal process is used to reduce the time complexity and cost of the overall process. Vertical grouping of attributes is used to help the privacy preservation. Finally divided subsets are combined with the help of group heads. © Research India Publications.


Vijayaraj K.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2014

The rapid depletion of petroleum based fuels forced the researchers to find alternative fuels for IC engines. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine are mainly influenced by the combustion of fuel. This paper investigates the combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of mango seed oil and its diesel blends. The experiments are conducted on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, air cooled and constatnt speed diesel engine under steady state condition. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate, cumulative heat release rate, maximum cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, ignition delay, duration of injection and combustion duration of MEMSO and its diesel blends are evaluated and compared with diesel fuel. From the analysis, it is found that the cylinder peak pressure and heat release rate of diesel are higher when compared with MEMSO blends. The ignition delay, duration of injection and combustion duration are decreased for MEMSO blends compared with diesel. Moreover, the cumulative heat release rate of MEMSO and its blends are higher than that of diesel. Finally, it is concluded that B25 blend (25% methyl ester of mango seed oil and 75% diesel) gives optimim combustion for all loads and can be used as a fuel in the existing diesel engine without any modifications. © Research India Publications.


Syed Aalam C.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu | Saravanan C.G.,Annamalai UniversityTamilnadu
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

Biodiesel, which is derived from vegetable oil (triglycerides) by transesterification with ethanol, has the significant notice during the past decade as a nontoxic, biodegradable, and renewable fuel. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, amongst which transesterification by alkali catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding ethyl esters. In this paper, biodiesel produced from Mahua vegetable oil through catalytic transesterification using ethanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The properties of biodiesel were analyzed using ASTM standard methods. From the tests it is clear that the, properties of Mahua biodiesel are similar to diesel fuel. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

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