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Annāmalainagar, India

Raju J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Kowsalya M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Arunachalam M.,University of Madras
International Review of Automatic Control

This paper deals with dynamic impedance compensation and control schemes for changes in load as well as change in line reactance in transmission lines. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) designed to compensate the reactive power to the transmission line. Here SSSC uses Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Converter (VSC) to generate three phase voltage waveforms. It can provide dynamic response by quickly changing the equivalent reactance (capacitive) to desired level of compensation. The paper discusses the performance characteristics of SSSC with the Direct and Indirect controllers. Modeling and simulation of the transmission line with NPC VSC based SSSC and its performance is evaluated. © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved. Source

Deepalakshmi K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Mirunalini S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
New Horizons in Translational Medicine

Neoplastic growth of the breast is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence has increased in most countries. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex Fr.) P.kumm. (P. ostreatus) an edible mushroom on modulating levels of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), protein expressions and histopathological analysis in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis using a rat model. DMBA was induced by single subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 25 mg in 1 mL vehicle. The ethanolic extract of P. ostreatus (POEet) was administered orally at a concentration of 600 mg/kg bwt as pre- and post-initiation stage of treatment throughout the experimental period which was also compared with standard tamoxifen (TAM) (10 mg/kg bwt). At the end of 16 weeks, our results showed the elevated phase I and depleted phase II metabolizing enzymes, over expression of (ER/PR) and the expression pattern of the proteins such as fas, fasL, caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, Bax were found to be down regulated whereas p53, Bcl2, cox-2 and cyclin D1 were markedly upregulated in DMBA-induced Sprague-Dawley rats, which were significantly reversed on P. ostreatus administration. Moreover, pre-treatment with P. ostreatus showed improved response when compared to that of posttreatment. Based on scientific appraisal, we conclude that the dietary consumption of P. ostreatus might offer maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis and improving human health if used as a regular basis. Focal points • Benchside ○ The potential of Pleurotus ostreatus on DMBA induced rat mammary carcinogenesis were determined by the analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of ER/PR, as well as the expression of protein using western blotting techniques and histological examination of liver and mammary tissues.• Bedside ○ The pharmaceutical potential of P. ostreatus are analysed for is markedly available, edible one with high protein as well as fiber with low fat content and cost effective for patient convenience.• Industry ○ Mushrooms are considered as a nutraceutical functional food which can contain enriched prolific produced of novel “mycochemicals” responsible for the human health potential on various diseases and malignancies.• Community ○ Standardization and refinement of mycochemical from mushrooms were help to develop the new novel active compounds which contribute for better health and also help to reduce disease burden.• Regulatory agencies ○ The P. ostreatus contain several bioactive compounds which might be the key factor for the anticancer effect. This will need to be taken for labeling and pattering the compounds and tested in clinical trials. © 2016 European Society for Translational Medicine Source

Mohananthini N.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Yamuna G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research

Multiple watermarking combines the advantages of single watermarking algorithms to create a sophisticated multiple watermarking scheme, which is efficient in terms of robustness and security. Multiple watermarks is to convey multiple sets of information designed to suit similar or differing objectives and is used to increase robustness with many different methods in which the embedded information is not easily lost. The primary intension of this research is to design and develop an efficient multiple-watermarking technique. The proposed multiple-watermarking technique makes use of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC) based Hybrid DWT-SVD and artificial neural network. The understanding between the transparency and robustness is considered as an optimization problem and is removed by applying artificial bee colony algorithm. This technique is used to obtain the highest possible robustness without losing the transparency. The proposed ABC based embedding and extracting method of hybrid DWT-SVD watermarking is employed to avoid watermark exposure. In embedding process, multiple watermarks are fused using a fusing technique in to a single watermark and then it will be embedded. From the fused single watermark, multiple watermarks are extracted using extraction process. Multiple watermark strength is analyzed using artificial neural network. The reliability was tested with various attacks such as Intensity, Geometric and salt and pepper noise attacks. © Research India Publications. Source

Punitha A.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Kalaiselvi Geetha M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research

A novel technique for facial expression recognition from image sequences is proposed in this paper. Since human face plays a vital part in articulating emotions, the work exploits the temporal templates (Motion History Image - MHI) to capture the dynamics of face actions. Further, a Level 2 haar wavelet decomposition using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is done on the MHI image. The low frequency sub-band of the level 2 decomposed imagesis given as input to Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and 30 DCT coefficients are extracted using zig-zag approach. The experiments are carried out on image sequences, by considering five facial expressions viz., (happy, disgust and surprise) and two strange expressions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Bayesian Network are used to classify the facial expressions. The approach achieves overall recognition accuracy of 89.90% with SVM Polynomial kernel and 87.32% Bayesian Network respectively. © Research India Publications. Source

Udhayasankar R.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Karthikeyan B.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of ChemTech Research

Renewable natural fiber polymer composites include plant fibers could be extracted from bast fibers, leaves fibers, leaflets, seed fibers, grass and reed fibers, and all other types. The recent advances in biocomposite development are genetic engineering. In recent years, there has been a remarkable increase in interest in biodegradable bio-composite material for application such as packaging, agriculture, medicine, sportswear, insulation, coating and other areas. This effort to develop the biocomposites materials will decrease the need for synthetic polymer production at a low cost. The natural fibers are alternately producing a positive effect on both environmental and economical. The availability of coconut shells is increasing every year worldwide, which is hard liginocellulosic Agra waste. But mostly the coconut shells are left out in the garbage or burn as waste and produce large quantity of CO2 and methane emission product after consumption water and meat from coconut. These coconut shell wastes can be used to fabricate fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial purpose. Efforts to find utilization of this material have resulted mostly in low value. In this regard, coconut shell powder seems to be an interesting candidate due to its chemical composition. In present review is carried out to evaluate development of coconut shell fibers reinforced polymer composites with its manufacturing processes, methodology and also finding of mechanical properties, thermal analysis and its application. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved. Source

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