Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu

Annāmalainagar, India

Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu

Annāmalainagar, India
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Vijayalakshmi A.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sindhu G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2017

This study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of umbelliferone (UMB) on 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for chemopreventive potential of UMB was evaluated by measuring the status of tumour incidence, tumour volume, and tumour burden as well as by analyzing the status of phase I, phase II detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, histopathological changes and also expression patterns of cell proliferation (PCNA, Cyclin D1) and apoptotic (p53) markers using immunohistochemistry in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was created by painting of 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks, in the golden Syrian hamsters buccal pouches. We observed 100% tumor formation with high tumor volume, tumor burden and over expression of mutant p53, PCNA, and cyclin D1 in the DMBA alone painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of UMB at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to DMBA-treated hamsters completely prevented tumor incidences and restored the status of the biochemical markers in the plasma, liver and buccal mucosa, and also prevented the deregulation in the expression of molecular markers in group 4. Therefore, the present study suggests that UMB has potent chemopreventive, anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant potential as well as modulating effect on phase I and phase II detoxification system with reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in experimental oral carcinogenesis. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

Kartigeyan J.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Ramaswamy M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Journal of Magnetics | Year: 2017

The effort attempts to investigate the influence of various non-oriented electrical steel sheets on the core loss of a switched reluctance motor (SRM). The core loss of the motor inherits a strong correlation with flux density and permeability of the material. The study involves the use of laminated 2.7 % high silicon steel suitable for the motor in view of its higher flux density and lower core loss. The accurate prediction of core loss leaves way to suggest measures for improving the performance of the SRM. The dynamic simulation measurements of a 1.5 kW, three-phase 12/8 SRM involve the finite element method (FEM) and use the data obtained experimentally from Epstein frame. The closeness of the simulated and hardware results obtained with laminations of M400-50A, DI MAX-M19 and DI MAX-M15 both for the stator and rotor, espouse a greater significance to the findings in terms of the core loss density and forge new dimensions for its use in the drive industry. ©The Korean Magnetics Society. All rights reserved. and © 2017 Journal of Magnetics.

Sundari S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Ganesan G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Raju S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development | Year: 2016

The study of deformation and stretching limits are of considerable practical interest in the sheet metal forming operations. Stretchability of sheet material is commonly evaluated by ball punch deformation test. It evaluates the ability of a sheet material to undergo biaxial stretching without fracture. In this study, ASTM E643 – 84, the ball punch deformation test was used to evaluate the stretch formability of Super Duplex Stainless Steel in terms of depth of punch penetration up to fracture. A finite element based software Dynaform/Lsdyna was used in the present work to simulate the stretch forming process. The results of simulation and the experiments were compared. The results can be used to gain insights into material behavior under production in press forming conditions and can help the design engineers to reduce the number of die tryouts. © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Raju J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Kowsalya M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Arunachalam M.,University of Madras
International Review of Automatic Control | Year: 2015

This paper deals with dynamic impedance compensation and control schemes for changes in load as well as change in line reactance in transmission lines. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) designed to compensate the reactive power to the transmission line. Here SSSC uses Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Converter (VSC) to generate three phase voltage waveforms. It can provide dynamic response by quickly changing the equivalent reactance (capacitive) to desired level of compensation. The paper discusses the performance characteristics of SSSC with the Direct and Indirect controllers. Modeling and simulation of the transmission line with NPC VSC based SSSC and its performance is evaluated. © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Deepalakshmi K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Mirunalini S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
New Horizons in Translational Medicine | Year: 2016

Neoplastic growth of the breast is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence has increased in most countries. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex Fr.) P.kumm. (P. ostreatus) an edible mushroom on modulating levels of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), protein expressions and histopathological analysis in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis using a rat model. DMBA was induced by single subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 25 mg in 1 mL vehicle. The ethanolic extract of P. ostreatus (POEet) was administered orally at a concentration of 600 mg/kg bwt as pre- and post-initiation stage of treatment throughout the experimental period which was also compared with standard tamoxifen (TAM) (10 mg/kg bwt). At the end of 16 weeks, our results showed the elevated phase I and depleted phase II metabolizing enzymes, over expression of (ER/PR) and the expression pattern of the proteins such as fas, fasL, caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, Bax were found to be down regulated whereas p53, Bcl2, cox-2 and cyclin D1 were markedly upregulated in DMBA-induced Sprague-Dawley rats, which were significantly reversed on P. ostreatus administration. Moreover, pre-treatment with P. ostreatus showed improved response when compared to that of posttreatment. Based on scientific appraisal, we conclude that the dietary consumption of P. ostreatus might offer maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis and improving human health if used as a regular basis. Focal points • Benchside ○ The potential of Pleurotus ostreatus on DMBA induced rat mammary carcinogenesis were determined by the analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of ER/PR, as well as the expression of protein using western blotting techniques and histological examination of liver and mammary tissues.• Bedside ○ The pharmaceutical potential of P. ostreatus are analysed for is markedly available, edible one with high protein as well as fiber with low fat content and cost effective for patient convenience.• Industry ○ Mushrooms are considered as a nutraceutical functional food which can contain enriched prolific produced of novel “mycochemicals” responsible for the human health potential on various diseases and malignancies.• Community ○ Standardization and refinement of mycochemical from mushrooms were help to develop the new novel active compounds which contribute for better health and also help to reduce disease burden.• Regulatory agencies ○ The P. ostreatus contain several bioactive compounds which might be the key factor for the anticancer effect. This will need to be taken for labeling and pattering the compounds and tested in clinical trials. © 2016 European Society for Translational Medicine

Udhayasankar R.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Karthikeyan B.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

Renewable natural fiber polymer composites include plant fibers could be extracted from bast fibers, leaves fibers, leaflets, seed fibers, grass and reed fibers, and all other types. The recent advances in biocomposite development are genetic engineering. In recent years, there has been a remarkable increase in interest in biodegradable bio-composite material for application such as packaging, agriculture, medicine, sportswear, insulation, coating and other areas. This effort to develop the biocomposites materials will decrease the need for synthetic polymer production at a low cost. The natural fibers are alternately producing a positive effect on both environmental and economical. The availability of coconut shells is increasing every year worldwide, which is hard liginocellulosic Agra waste. But mostly the coconut shells are left out in the garbage or burn as waste and produce large quantity of CO2 and methane emission product after consumption water and meat from coconut. These coconut shell wastes can be used to fabricate fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial purpose. Efforts to find utilization of this material have resulted mostly in low value. In this regard, coconut shell powder seems to be an interesting candidate due to its chemical composition. In present review is carried out to evaluate development of coconut shell fibers reinforced polymer composites with its manufacturing processes, methodology and also finding of mechanical properties, thermal analysis and its application. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Manieniyan V.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Vinodhini G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Senthilkumar R.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sivaprakasam S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Energy | Year: 2016

Wear is an important characteristic because of its great value in connection with the engine parts. The main focus of this work is to analyze the effect of neural network models for predicting engine performance such as wear of the DI diesel engine using B20 blend of Methyl Ester of Mahua (MEOM) and diesel. Experimental results revealed that 20% biodiesel blend is the optimum blend in terms of performance, emission and combustion characteristics. For B20 blend, it was also found experimentally that 15% hot EGR and 20% cold EGR were the optimum EGR ratios. Under the optimum EGR ratios identified, a series of experimental work was done with B20 blend and diesel at various loads to obtain the concentration of wear metals from the lubricating oil. Experimentally, it was found that wear metals were found to be lower for B20 biodiesel compared to diesel. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become the premier candidate as the modeling tool. Using the experimental data, ANN models based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for predicting the engine wear were developed. The results show that ANN is sufficient enough in predicting the engine wear in terms of mean square error (MSE) and regression coefficient (R). Also among the ANN models tested, RBFN performs significantly better than PNN. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Gowthaman S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2016

This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI) fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure in the port fuel injector is varied from 3 bar to 5 bar respectively. From the results, the optimum inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure for efficient HCCI engine operation are identified. The result shows that, brake thermal efficiency of HCCI is nearer to the value of conventional diesel engine, and can be obtained if HCCI engine operates with 5 bar injection pressure and 60 °C air temperature and a simultaneous reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions compared to conventional diesel engine. However, when inlet air is heated for improvement of vaporisation of diesel fuel, the higher inlet air temperature limits the operation range of HCCI engine, due to high knocking intensity, high NOx emissions and misfire of charge. The fuel injection pressure is also limited due to high level of HC and NOx emissions. © 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

Govindarajan M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Benelli G.,University of Pisa
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum (Apiaceae) leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC–MS analysis showed that EO major components were lavandulyl acetate (17.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.9%). The EO was toxic to A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 of 33.4, 37.5 and 40.9 µg/ml, respectively. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4.17 and 10.3 µg/ml for A. subpictus, 4.60 and 11.1 µg/ml for A. albopictus, 5.11 and 12.5 µg/ml for C. tritaeniorhynchus. Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to three non-target mosquito predators, Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 ranging from 206 to 4219 µg/ml. Overall, this study highlights that H. sprengelianum EO is a promising source of eco-friendly larvicides against three important mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target aquatic organisms. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Vijayaraj K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2016

Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications. © 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

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