Annāmalainagar, India
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Raju J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Kowsalya M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Arunachalam M.,University of Madras
International Review of Automatic Control | Year: 2015

This paper deals with dynamic impedance compensation and control schemes for changes in load as well as change in line reactance in transmission lines. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) designed to compensate the reactive power to the transmission line. Here SSSC uses Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Converter (VSC) to generate three phase voltage waveforms. It can provide dynamic response by quickly changing the equivalent reactance (capacitive) to desired level of compensation. The paper discusses the performance characteristics of SSSC with the Direct and Indirect controllers. Modeling and simulation of the transmission line with NPC VSC based SSSC and its performance is evaluated. © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Mohananthini N.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Yamuna G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

Multiple watermarking combines the advantages of single watermarking algorithms to create a sophisticated multiple watermarking scheme, which is efficient in terms of robustness and security. Multiple watermarks is to convey multiple sets of information designed to suit similar or differing objectives and is used to increase robustness with many different methods in which the embedded information is not easily lost. The primary intension of this research is to design and develop an efficient multiple-watermarking technique. The proposed multiple-watermarking technique makes use of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC) based Hybrid DWT-SVD and artificial neural network. The understanding between the transparency and robustness is considered as an optimization problem and is removed by applying artificial bee colony algorithm. This technique is used to obtain the highest possible robustness without losing the transparency. The proposed ABC based embedding and extracting method of hybrid DWT-SVD watermarking is employed to avoid watermark exposure. In embedding process, multiple watermarks are fused using a fusing technique in to a single watermark and then it will be embedded. From the fused single watermark, multiple watermarks are extracted using extraction process. Multiple watermark strength is analyzed using artificial neural network. The reliability was tested with various attacks such as Intensity, Geometric and salt and pepper noise attacks. © Research India Publications.

Deepalakshmi K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Mirunalini S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
New Horizons in Translational Medicine | Year: 2016

Neoplastic growth of the breast is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence has increased in most countries. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex Fr.) P.kumm. (P. ostreatus) an edible mushroom on modulating levels of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), protein expressions and histopathological analysis in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis using a rat model. DMBA was induced by single subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 25 mg in 1 mL vehicle. The ethanolic extract of P. ostreatus (POEet) was administered orally at a concentration of 600 mg/kg bwt as pre- and post-initiation stage of treatment throughout the experimental period which was also compared with standard tamoxifen (TAM) (10 mg/kg bwt). At the end of 16 weeks, our results showed the elevated phase I and depleted phase II metabolizing enzymes, over expression of (ER/PR) and the expression pattern of the proteins such as fas, fasL, caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, Bax were found to be down regulated whereas p53, Bcl2, cox-2 and cyclin D1 were markedly upregulated in DMBA-induced Sprague-Dawley rats, which were significantly reversed on P. ostreatus administration. Moreover, pre-treatment with P. ostreatus showed improved response when compared to that of posttreatment. Based on scientific appraisal, we conclude that the dietary consumption of P. ostreatus might offer maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis and improving human health if used as a regular basis. Focal points • Benchside ○ The potential of Pleurotus ostreatus on DMBA induced rat mammary carcinogenesis were determined by the analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, hormonal status of ER/PR, as well as the expression of protein using western blotting techniques and histological examination of liver and mammary tissues.• Bedside ○ The pharmaceutical potential of P. ostreatus are analysed for is markedly available, edible one with high protein as well as fiber with low fat content and cost effective for patient convenience.• Industry ○ Mushrooms are considered as a nutraceutical functional food which can contain enriched prolific produced of novel “mycochemicals” responsible for the human health potential on various diseases and malignancies.• Community ○ Standardization and refinement of mycochemical from mushrooms were help to develop the new novel active compounds which contribute for better health and also help to reduce disease burden.• Regulatory agencies ○ The P. ostreatus contain several bioactive compounds which might be the key factor for the anticancer effect. This will need to be taken for labeling and pattering the compounds and tested in clinical trials. © 2016 European Society for Translational Medicine

Udhayasankar R.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Karthikeyan B.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

Renewable natural fiber polymer composites include plant fibers could be extracted from bast fibers, leaves fibers, leaflets, seed fibers, grass and reed fibers, and all other types. The recent advances in biocomposite development are genetic engineering. In recent years, there has been a remarkable increase in interest in biodegradable bio-composite material for application such as packaging, agriculture, medicine, sportswear, insulation, coating and other areas. This effort to develop the biocomposites materials will decrease the need for synthetic polymer production at a low cost. The natural fibers are alternately producing a positive effect on both environmental and economical. The availability of coconut shells is increasing every year worldwide, which is hard liginocellulosic Agra waste. But mostly the coconut shells are left out in the garbage or burn as waste and produce large quantity of CO2 and methane emission product after consumption water and meat from coconut. These coconut shell wastes can be used to fabricate fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial purpose. Efforts to find utilization of this material have resulted mostly in low value. In this regard, coconut shell powder seems to be an interesting candidate due to its chemical composition. In present review is carried out to evaluate development of coconut shell fibers reinforced polymer composites with its manufacturing processes, methodology and also finding of mechanical properties, thermal analysis and its application. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Manieniyan V.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Vinodhini G.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Senthilkumar R.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sivaprakasam S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Energy | Year: 2016

Wear is an important characteristic because of its great value in connection with the engine parts. The main focus of this work is to analyze the effect of neural network models for predicting engine performance such as wear of the DI diesel engine using B20 blend of Methyl Ester of Mahua (MEOM) and diesel. Experimental results revealed that 20% biodiesel blend is the optimum blend in terms of performance, emission and combustion characteristics. For B20 blend, it was also found experimentally that 15% hot EGR and 20% cold EGR were the optimum EGR ratios. Under the optimum EGR ratios identified, a series of experimental work was done with B20 blend and diesel at various loads to obtain the concentration of wear metals from the lubricating oil. Experimentally, it was found that wear metals were found to be lower for B20 biodiesel compared to diesel. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become the premier candidate as the modeling tool. Using the experimental data, ANN models based on probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for predicting the engine wear were developed. The results show that ANN is sufficient enough in predicting the engine wear in terms of mean square error (MSE) and regression coefficient (R). Also among the ANN models tested, RBFN performs significantly better than PNN. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Gowthaman S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2016

This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI) fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure in the port fuel injector is varied from 3 bar to 5 bar respectively. From the results, the optimum inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure for efficient HCCI engine operation are identified. The result shows that, brake thermal efficiency of HCCI is nearer to the value of conventional diesel engine, and can be obtained if HCCI engine operates with 5 bar injection pressure and 60 °C air temperature and a simultaneous reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions compared to conventional diesel engine. However, when inlet air is heated for improvement of vaporisation of diesel fuel, the higher inlet air temperature limits the operation range of HCCI engine, due to high knocking intensity, high NOx emissions and misfire of charge. The fuel injection pressure is also limited due to high level of HC and NOx emissions. © 2016 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

Radika M.K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Anuradha C.V.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The energy status of the cell is regulated by the energy sensing network constituted by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the NAD+-dependent type III deacetylase silence information regulator T1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). This study investigates the potential effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide-1-b-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator on insulin signaling and energy sensing network in insulin resistant rats. Methods: Adult male albino Wistar rats with body weight of 150-180 g were fed high-fructose diet (HFD) for 60 days to induce insulin resistance. Rats fed HFD were divided into two and were treated or untreated with AICAR (0.7 mg/kg bw, i.p.) for the last 2 weeks. Results: Insulin resistant rats displayed increased glucose and insulin levels and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin resistance receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1. The downstream signaling and glucose transport were also affected. Phosphorylation of AMPK, SIRT1 protein abundance and mRNA expression of PGC-1α were reduced. Treatment with AICAR reduced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and improved the activation of the key molecules of insulin signaling. Improved action of energy sensing network was noted after AICAR treatment. AICAR showed higher binding affinity with Akt (-8.2 kcal/mol) than with AMPK or insulin receptor (-8.0 kcal/mol) in the in silico study. Conclusions: The findings suggest that AICAR, the AMPK activator, influences insulin signaling proteins and molecules involved in energy modulation during insulin resistance. © 2015 by De Gruyter.

Vaishnavi D.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Subashini T.S.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics | Year: 2015

The multimedia data such as digital images are essential to expose the evidence. There are numerous, image editing software through which the original images can be intentionally manipulated or forged for mishandling purposes. It is very difficult to discover the forgery by visually analysing it. Specifically, the copy move forgery is extremely challenging to expose the forged region. In this paper, contrast context histogram (CCH) features are used to effectively detect the copy move forgery and κ-means clustering algorithm to segregate the key points of copy move forged regions. The disparity map is created using sum of absolute difference to localise these regions. The comparative study was carried out and the performances reveal that the proposed system is better than the existing methods. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Govindarajan M.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Benelli G.,University of Pisa
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum (Apiaceae) leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC–MS analysis showed that EO major components were lavandulyl acetate (17.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.9%). The EO was toxic to A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 of 33.4, 37.5 and 40.9 µg/ml, respectively. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4.17 and 10.3 µg/ml for A. subpictus, 4.60 and 11.1 µg/ml for A. albopictus, 5.11 and 12.5 µg/ml for C. tritaeniorhynchus. Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to three non-target mosquito predators, Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 ranging from 206 to 4219 µg/ml. Overall, this study highlights that H. sprengelianum EO is a promising source of eco-friendly larvicides against three important mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target aquatic organisms. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Vijayaraj K.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu | Sathiyagnanam A.P.,Annamalai UniversityTamil Nadu
Alexandria Engineering Journal | Year: 2016

Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications. © 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

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