Chidambaram, India
Chidambaram, India

Annamalai University is one of Asia's largest public residential universities located in Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. The university is spread across 1,500 acres acres in Chidambaram and offers courses of higher education in science, engineering, humanities, agriculture and arts.The university also provides more than 500 courses through distance education. The Directorate of Distance Education of Annamalai University offers education to those people who are unable to attend the campus but who desire to study. It is credited with the largest enrollment in India and is well equipped with computers and other infrastructure, separate teaching faculty and administration, study centers, and computer training centers to serve its students. It was the first institution in India to offer postgraduate degree programmes in Applied Psychology, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, Bioinformatics and Law through distance education. The Directorate of Distance Education also offers programmes in Fashion Design, Textile Design, Interior Design, Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Retail Management, Twinning, Health Science, a Commonwealth Youth Programme, Yoga, Music, Fire and Safety, Pharmaceutical and Taxation.All the programmes of study offered by the Directorate of Distance Education have the approval of the Distance Education Council, New Delhi. The Directorate introduced a B.Ed. Programme through distance education in 2008-09 with the approval of National Council for Teacher Education, New Delhi. Wikipedia.

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Basak S.C.,Annamalai University
American journal of pharmaceutical education | Year: 2010

Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes.

Jothilakshmi S.,Annamalai University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

Acoustic analysis is a noninvasive technique based on the digital processing of the speech signal. Acoustic analysis based techniques are an effective tool to support vocal and voice disease screening and especially in their early detection and diagnosis. Modern lifestyle has increased the risk of pathological voice problems. This work focuses on a robust, rapid and accurate system for automatic detection of normal and pathological speech and also to detect the type of pathology. This system employs non-invasive, inexpensive and fully automated measures of vocal tract characteristics and excitation information. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and linear prediction cepstral coefficients are used as acoustic features. The system uses Gaussian mixture model and hidden Markov model classifiers. Cerebral palsy, dysarthria, hearing impairments, laryngectomy, mental retardation, left side paralysis, quadriparesis, stammering, stroke, tumour in vocal tract are the types of pathologies considered in our experiments. From the experimental results, it is observed that to classify normal and pathological voice hidden Markov model with mel frequency cepstral coefficients with delta and acceleration coefficients is giving 94.44% efficiency. Likewise to identify the type of pathology Gaussian mixture model with mel frequency cepstral coefficients with delta and acceleration coefficients is giving 95.74% efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Balachandran S.,Annamalai University | Swaminathan M.,Annamalai University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The development of coupled semiconductor photocatalysts makes a significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. A new heterostructured Bi 2O3-ZnO, synthesized by a simple hydrothermal-thermal decomposition method, exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Acid Black 1 (AB 1) under UV light than pure ZnO, Bi 2O3, and commercial Degussa P25. X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveals that the as-synthesized product has the monoclinic lattice phase of Bi2O3 and the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. HR-SEM images show that Bi2O3-ZnO has an ordered mixture of nanofiber and nanochain structures. This heterostructured Bi 2O3-ZnO has increased UV absorption when compared with ZnO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3-ZnO is attributed to the low recombination rates of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, caused by the vectorial transfer of electrons and holes between ZnO and Bi 2O3. Higher efficiency at neutral pH 7 and reusability in the degradation of AB 1 makes Bi2O3-ZnO, a promising candidate for the photocatalytic treatment of dye effluent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

Since ancient times, plant and microbial products were used in various aspects. However, their use against insects decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insects. In this study, mosquito Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of the leaf of three plants, Eclipta alba, Cardiospermum halicacabum, and Andrographis paniculata, were tested against the early third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata, E. alba, and C. halicacabum against the larvae of A. stephensi (LC50 = 79.68, 112.56, and 133.01 ppm; LC90 = 154.66, 220.68, and 270.72 ppm), respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with methanol and ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata and methanol extract of E. alba were exerted at 200 ppm and methanol and benzene extract of C. halicacabum exerted at 150 ppm. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malaria vector, A. stephensi. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal and ovicidal activities against malaria vector, A. stephensi of E. alba plant extracts. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Murugadoss G.,Annamalai University
Journal of Materials Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Different morphologies of undoped and transition metals (Mn, Co and Ni) doped one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by chemical method in an air atmosphere using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a surfactant. The structure and optical properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The doped ZnO nanorods exhibited a blue-shifted band gap and enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission. In addition defect related emission was observed for the doped ZnO. © 2012 The Chinese Society for Metals.

Mn2doped ZnS nanoparticles have been prepared through the reverse micelles method using sodium bis (2ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as a surfactant. The prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectrometer (FT-IR), UVvis spectrometry, photoluminescence (PL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermogravimetrydifferential scanning calorimetry (TGDSC). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

(-) Epicatechin rich foods and (-) epicatechin improve cardiovascular function. Consumption of diets rich in flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress resulting from increased production of free radicals associated with decreased levels of antioxidants in the myocardium plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. This study aims to evaluate the preventive effects of (-) epicatechin on oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with (-) epicatechin (20 mg/kg body weight) daily for 21 days. After pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected into the rats at an interval of 24 h for two days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol induced rat's electrocardiogram showed elevated ST segments and significant increase in the activity of serum creatine kinase-MB, level of serum troponin-T and increased intensities of serum lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 2-isoenzymes. The rats also showed significant increased levels of heart lipid peroxidation products and significant decreased activities of heart superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and levels of reduced glutathione. Pretreatment with (-) epicatechin revealed significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram investigated. Histopathology of myocardium confirmed the present findings. The in vitro study on the effects of (-) epicatechin on scavenging free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl revealed the free radical scavenging potential of (-) epicatechin. Thus, (-) epicatechin exerts protective effects against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cardiac tissue damage by its free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Namasivayam N.,Annamalai University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011

The potential cancer-preventive effects of resveratrol, evident from the data obtained by various studies, are summarized in this review. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, was first isolated in 1940 as a constituent of the roots of white Hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum O. Loes), and is now found to be present in various plants including grapes, berries, peanuts, and red wine. This review first briefly describes the current evidence on the link between resveratrol and cancer occurrence, based on epidemiological studies. Subsequently, investigations with resveratrol in animal models of colon carcinogenesis are presented, followed by a comprehensive compilation of resveratrol on cancer. In the second part, the article focuses on results from investigations on cancer-preventive mechanisms of resveratrol. Biological activities including antioxidant effects, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, anti-inflammatory potential, antioxidant properties, antiproliferative mechanisms by induction of apoptosis, and cell differentiation are discussed. Some novel information on its modulating effects on cell signaling pathway, metabolism studies, bioavailability, and cancer-preventive efficacy is also provided. Based on these findings, resveratrol may be used as a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

Murugadoss G.,Annamalai University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2012

Transition metal doped ZnS:Ni and ZnS:Cu and co-doped ZnS:Ni, Mn and ZnS:Cu, Cd nanoparticles were synthesized through the chemical precipitation method in an air atmosphere. The XRD analysis of co-doped samples shows the formation of cubic phase. The average size of nanoparticles ranges from 3.6 to 5.5 nm. The formation of co-doped nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD and PL analysis. The PL spectra show that the obtained nanoparticles have good crystal quality. An optimum concentration of transition metals was selected in co-doped ZnS nanoparticles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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