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Anna University , formerly Perarignar Anna University of Technology , is a technical university in Tamil Nadu, India. It's been ranked 6th best university in India. The university encompasses within it one of the oldest technical institutes in the world and has a history spanning 220 years . It was renamed 'Anna University' on 4 September 1978 as a unitary university, named after C. N. Annadurai. It became an affiliating university in 2001, absorbing about 250 engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu. Between 2007 and 2010, it was split into six universities, namely, Anna University, Chennai, Anna University, Chennai - Taramani Campus, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Tiruchirappalli, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Coimbatore, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Tirunelveli, and Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Madurai. On September 14, 2011, a bill was passed to merge back the universities. Anna University has once again become a single affiliating university for engineering colleges all over Tamil Nadu from August 1, 2012. The university departments include College of Engineering, Guindy campus, Madras Institute of Technology - Chromepet campus, ACT campus and SAP campus. Wikipedia.


Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Raja R.,Periyar University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2010

In this paper, the asymptotic stability analysis problem is considered for a class of delayed stochastic genetic regulatory networks with impulses. Based on the Lyapunov stability technique and stochastic analysis theory, stability criteria are proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). It is shown that the addressed stochastic genetic regulatory networks are globally asymptotically stable if four LMIs are feasible, where the feasibility of LMIs can be readily checked by Matlab LMI toolbox. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed result. © 2010 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Genitha C.H.,St. Josephs College | Vani K.,Anna University
2013 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies, ICT 2013 | Year: 2013

Vagueness in the boundaries of land cover classes is one of the important problems in the image classification. Fuzzy c means (FCM) is a traditional clustering algorithm that has been widely used in the satellite image classification. However, this algorithm has the drawback of falling into a local minimum and it needs much time to accomplish the classification for a large data set. In order to overcome these drawbacks, aNew Fuzzy Cluster Centroid (NFCC) for unsupervised classification algorithm is proposed to improve the traditional FCM and fuzzy weighted c means (FWCM) algorithm. In this work a, new objective function is formulated by adding the new term along with the distance between the pixels and cluster centers in the spectral domain. This new term is formulated by multiplying the Lagrange's multiplier with the membership values of the pixel for a particular class is subtracted with one. It gives weightage to the instance of a particular pixel. The inclusion of the fuzzy centroid for each cluster increases the stability of the algorithm and the inclusion of the new term reduces the number of iterations for image classification. The technique was applied to both IKONOS and QuickBird images. Overall accuracy statistics indicates that NFCC for unsupervised classification algorithm increases the accuracy of the satellite image classification at the pixel level. © 2013 IEEE.


Rajesh Kumar M.,Annamalai University | Murugadoss G.,Anna University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2014

High quality and monodispersed CdS:Mn (1-5%) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using PVP as surfactant. The structure and morphology of the CdS:Mn were investigated by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, UV-visible, PL, EPR and TG-DTA. XRD study was confirmed the formation cubic structured CdS:Mn nanoparticles. The optical absorption of Mn doped CdS nanoparticles was found to be 420-432 nm, which is significantly decreased from the bulk CdS material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the CdS:Mn nanocrystals showed a strong emission peak at 535 nm near the band edge along with a week green emission around 575 nm. The PL property of annealed (255 C-850 C) samples was also investigated under different excitations. The presence of PVP on the CdS:Mn surface and incorporated the Mn ion into CdS lattice were identified by FT-IR and EPR spectroscopy, respectively. TEM result showed spherical with monodispersed particles with typical size of 3.8-4.3 nm, which is a favorable characteristic for many applications. The major weight loss and gain were found in the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which corresponds to the decomposition and oxidation of the samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jawahar C.P.,Karunya University | Saravanan R.,Anna University | Bruno J.C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Coronas A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

A detailed parametric analysis is carried out on both simple and GAX based combined power and cooling cycle. The effect of various parameters such as heat source temperature, refrigeration temperature, sink temperature, split ratio (refrigerant flow ratio between power and cooling systems), split factor (solution flow ratio between absorber and GAX heat exchanger) on the performance of the cycle is studied. The results of the analysis show that using the GAX heat exchanger about 20% of internal heat is recovered within the cycle. The optimum split factor is 0.8-0.9 and the split ratio is 0.5:0.5. The maximum combined thermal efficiency of 35-45% and coefficient of performance of about 0.35 is attained at the optimum conditions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Lakshmana Gomathi Nayagam V.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Muralikrishnan S.,Anna University | Sivaraman G.,Periyar Maniammai University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Out of several generalizations of fuzzy set theory for various objectives, the notions introduced by Atanassov (1983) and Atanassov and Gargov (1989) in defining intuitionistic fuzzy sets and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets are interesting and very useful in modeling real life problems. Ranking of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets plays a vital role in decision-making, data analysis, artificial intelligence and socioeconomic system and it was studied in Xu (2007c), Xu and Chen (2007a) and Ye (2009). In this paper a new method for ranking interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets has been introduced and studied. The method is illustrated by numerical examples and compared with other methods. And then a new method for handling multi-criteria fuzzy decision-making problems based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets is presented in which criterion values for alternatives are interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The method proposed here can provide a useful way to efficiently help the decision-maker to make his decision. An illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gunasekaran K.,SRM University | Annadurai R.,SRM University | Kumar P.S.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Borghi C.,University of Ferrara | Dell'Atti L.,Anna University
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2016

Purpose: Pelvic congestion syndrome is an uncommon poorly understood and frequently misdiagnosed disorder of the pelvic venous circulation, which causes chronic pelvic pain in women in premenopausal age. This condition has typical features, such as pelvic varicosities, pelvic pain worsened by prolonged standing, coitus, menstruation, and pregnancy. Methods: The precise etiology of this syndrome remains uncertain, and it is probably multifactorial. Valvular insufficiency, venous obstruction, and hormones all may play a role in the development of congestion of the pelvic veins. Results: Pelvic pain and venous varices are often both present in premenopausal women, but not necessarily causally related. Furthermore, incompetent and dilated pelvic veins are a common finding in asymptomatic women. As such, it is challenging but important to determine which patients have chronic pelvic pain specifically related to pelvic congestion syndrome in order to treat them properly. Conclusions: Once the syndrome has been accurately diagnosed, medical, surgical, or minimally invasive endovascular treatments can improve symptoms in a high percentage of cases. This updated nonsystematic review of the literature explores the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and treatment option of this complex condition that affects young women with considerable implications for their daily social and psychological condition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Babuponnusami A.,Adhiparasakthi Engineering College | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2011

The present work focuses on the performance of Fenton, sono-Fenton, and sono-photo-Fenton processes for the oxidation of phenol present in aqueous solution. The effects of H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, pH, and initial phenol concentration on the oxidation of phenol were studied. The optimum Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations for the Fenton process were 45 and 800mg/L, respectively. For the sono-Fenton process, the optimum Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations were 30 and 800mg/L, respectively. The optimal conditions for the sono-photo-Fenton process were found to be 20mg/L of Fe2+ and 700mg/L of H2O2. The optimum pH was found to be 3 for the processes investigated in the present study. The analysis of results showed that the sono-photo-Fenton method reduced the Fe2+ concentration by 30-50% and the H2O2 concentration by 12.5%. It was found that the sono-photo-Fenton technique showed better performance than the Fenton and sono-Fenton processes for the oxidation of phenol. A lumped kinetic model was used to predict the chemical oxygen demand reduction and the model was found to fit the data. Synergistic effects of sono, photo, and Fenton processes on the degradation of phenol are presented. The sono-photo-Fenton technique showed better performance than the Fenton and sono-Fenton processes for the oxidation of phenol. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Muralidhar B.A.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Flax fibres can be considered as a natural composite, made of concentric layers in which cellulose microfibrils are surrounded helicoidally in a polysaccharidic matrix. They are characterised by low density, high aspect ratio and good specific mechanical properties. These considerations make flax a potential contender for reinforcement in polymer matrix composites, as replacement for the widely used glass fibres. 1 × 1 rib knitted structures are manufactured on a V-bed manual knitting machine using flax yarn. Composites with two and four rib knitted preform layers were fabricated in a hot press. Tensile and compressive tests were carried out and the failure mechanism was analysed, structure of the broken end of the composite was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is observed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Thyagarajah K.,Anna University
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2011

Photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumps are basically similar to any other pumping system. Just as wind turbine pumps, PV pumps use intermittent power. When there is enough sunlight, the system functions well. The simplest PV water pumping system consists of a PV array directly connected to a DC motor and a pump. This type of configuration is used for smaller applications and is economically competitive. PV pumps using DC motors are useful for individual homes and small communities. In this paper, a PV-powered water pump using Permanent Magnet DC Motor (PMDC) is taken into account. The modeling of PV cell, Boost converter and PMDC motor has been studied and developed. The overall PMDC pumping system fed by solar cell is simulated and its results are obtained. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011.


Anguraj A.,PSG College of Technology | Karthikeyan P.,Anna University | Rivero M.,University of La Laguna | Trujillo J.J.,University of La Laguna
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2014

In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions for a class of initial value problems with integral condition for impulsive fractional integro-differential equations. The results are established by the application of the contraction mapping principle and the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem. An example is provided to illustrate the results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Varatharajan K.,Velammal Engineering College | Cheralathan M.,SRM University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Fuel | Year: 2011

Biodiesel offers cleaner combustion over conventional diesel fuel including reduced particulate matter, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. However, several studies point to slight increase in NOx emissions (about 10%) for biodiesel fuel compared with conventional diesel fuel. Use of antioxidant additives is one of the most cost-effective ways to mitigate the formation of prompt NOx. In this study, the effect of antioxidant additives on NOx emissions in a jatropha methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally and compared. A survey of literature regarding the causes of biodiesel NOx effect and control strategies is presented. The antioxidant additives L-ascorbic acid, α tocopherol acetate, butylated hydroxytoluene, p-phenylenediamine and ethylenediamine were tested on computerised Kirloskar-make 4 stroke water cooled single cylinder diesel engine of 4.4 kW rated power. Results showed that antioxidants considered in the present study are effective in controlling the NOx emissions of biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. A 0.025%-m concentration of p-phenylenediamine additive was optimal as NOx levels were substantially reduced in the whole load range in comparison with neat biodiesel. However, hydrocarbon and CO emissions were found to have increased by the addition of antioxidants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jeyabalan V.,Victory Electricals Ltd. | Usa S.,Anna University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

To locate the partial discharge in transformer windings, statistical techniques are proposed. The experimental studies are performed on a 22-kV prototype interleaved winding to prove the feasibility of the methods © 2011 IEEE.


Sathishkumar G.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2010

Nano particles of Mn(0.5-x)NixZn0.5 Fe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The lattice constant and distribution of cation in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been deduced through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data analysis. The lattice constant (Å) for all Mn/Ni concentration is found to be less than that for the corresponding bulk values. X-ray intensity calculations indicate that there is deviation in the normal cation distribution. Magnetization decreases with increasing Ni concentration except for x=0.3, where it shows increasing trend. This is due to migration of Fe3+ ions from B-site to A-site, which reduces the B-B coupling and there by the spin canting in the B sublattice. The Curie temperature was found to decrease with increase in nickel concentration except for x=0.3, where it shows a rise. Coercivity is very low and is found to be inversely proportional to the grain size. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Character recognition is the electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten or printed text into a machine encoded text or typewritten. Sanskrit, an alphabetic script is used by over 500 million people all over the world. Handwritten scripts of Sanskrit are complicated compared to other language scripts. The greatest challenge in the field of image processing is to recognize the documents both in printed and handwritten format. The character recognition is a standout amongst the most generally utilized biometric attributes for authentication of persons and document. In this study, proposed an offline handwritten Sanskirt character recognition framework utilizing multilayer feed forward neural network. Efficiency and accuracy are the main parameters in the field of handwritten character recognition. Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) is a procedure used to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of theoff line handwritten Sanskirt character recognition system which is involved various technologies aimed at the analysis and recognition of handwritten Sanskirt characters from an electronic image. This framework will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into the structural content form and recognizing handwritten characters. A novel approach to achieve a very fast recognition rate and high accuracy rates compare with other recognition systems. © Medwell Journals, 2016.


Sri Bala Kameswari K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Kalyanaraman C.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Porselvam S.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Thanasekaran K.,Anna University
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2012

The inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio is an important factor which influences the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different I/S ratios on the performance of co-digestion of fleshings along with mixture of sludge generated during treatment of tannery wastewater was investigated. The parameters studied were biogas generation, volatile solids reduction, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and the stability of the digestion process based on VFA to alkalinity ratio was evaluated for various I/S ratios. Economical significance of I/S ratio as related to the volume of the anaerobic digester and the potential benefit of bio-energy generated are discussed in detail. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Thanigaiyarasu G.,Anna University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2010

Addition of inexpensive silicon carbide particulates (SiCp) in the aluminium alloy matrix results in materials with properties non-obtainable in monolithic materials. The forging process results in improved properties as well as forms a shape of the final product. The age-hardening processes accelerate the coarse hardening process of the composites and improve strength and ductility. The size, morphology and volume fraction are the key controlling factors that control the plasticity and the thermal residual stresses in the matrix and thereby it's mechanical and fatigue properties. This research paper focuses on the effect of particle size, forging and ageing on the mechanical and fatigue properties of the cast, forged and age-hardened aluminium 6082 (AI6082) reinforced with SiCp. Al6082 reinforced with three different particle sizes of SiCp (average particles size of 22, 12 and 3 μm) in the forged and ageing conditions were studied. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy, hardness, tensile and fatigue tests. The forged microstructure shows a more uniform distribution of SiCp in the aluminium matrix. The addition of SiCp results in improved tensile strength, yield strength and elastic constants of the composites with reduction in ductility. It also increases the fatigue strength of the composites by increasing the number of cycles required for fatigue failure of the composites for the given value of stress. The results also show considerable improvements in mechanical fatigue properties due to forging and ageing heat treatment of the metal matrix composites. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Yeap G.-Y.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Balamurugan S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rakesh S.,Anna University
Liquid Crystals | Year: 2013

Symmetrical liquid crystal dimers bis{2-alkyl-(S)-(+)-2-(6-[4-4′-decyloxyphenylazo)-benzoyloxy]-2-naphthyl)propinate} have conveniently been designed, synthesised and their mesomorphic properties were investigated. These dimers possess two identical mesogenic units with each of them attached to the terminal end of a flexible spacer (-CnH2n; where n = 6-10). The respective mesogenic unit was made up from a naphthyl ring attached to the alkyloxylated azobenzene via the ester (COO-) bond. The chiral moiety attached to the 6-position of the naphthyl ring possesses a terminal carboxylic group COO- which linked up the mesogenic unit and the spacer. The thermal and optical properties for the ultimate compounds at different temperature were studied explicitly with the aids of differential scanning calorimetry and polarising optical microscopy. All dimers exhibit unambiguously the monotropic nematic and smectic A phases. The homeotropic alignment of the molecules within the anisotropic region was further confirmed through the application of homogeneously treated cell. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Telalovic S.,Technical University of Delft | Ramanathan A.,Anna University | Mul G.,Technical University of Delft | Hanefeld U.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

The three-dimensional sponge-like mesoporous material TUD-1 is straightforward to prepare. Its synthesis can readily be modified to introduce metals into the framework of TUD-1, imparting many different catalytic activities. M-TUD-1 catalysts have proven to be very active, unlimited by diffusion and very stable. By combining two metals into one TUD-1 catalyst, synergy between Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be induced; incorporation of zeolites similarly gave rise to synergy. In addition to successful applications in redox-, acid- and photo-catalysis TUD-1 proved to be an excellent carrier material for catalysts, enabling new applications. TUD-1 was used as a contrast agent and drug delivery system, indicating that this material is but at the beginning of its potential applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Malathi V.,Anna University | Marimuthu N.S.,National Engineering College | Baskar S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering | Ramar K.,Multimedia University
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a new approach based on combined Wavelet Transform-Extreme Learning Machine (WT-ELM) technique for fault section identification (whether the fault is before or after the series capacitor as observed from the relay point), classification and location in a series compensated transmission line. This method uses the samples of fault currents for half cycle duration from the inception of fault. The features of fault currents are extracted by first level decomposition of the current samples using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the extracted features are applied as inputs to ELMs for fault section identification, classification and location. The feasibility of the proposed method has been tested on a 400 kV, 300 km series compensated transmission line for all the ten types of faults using MATLAB simulink. On testing 28,800 fault cases with varying fault resistance, fault inception angle, fault distance, load angle, percentage compensation level and source impedance, the performance of the proposed method has been found to be quite promising. The results also indicate that the proposed method is robust to wide variation in system and operating conditions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sankar S.,Anna University | Nataraj M.,Government College of Technology, Coimbatore
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

This research paper discusses a novel method to prevent the tooth failure in the spur gear by introducing circular root filet instead of standard trochoidal root filet in the gear. In general, gears with less than 17 teeth had the problem of undercutting during gear manufacturing process depending on the tip radius of the hob (cutter) which minimizes the strength of the gear at the root. Analysis is carried out using ANSYS software version 11.0 for the existing standard design gear teeth as well as the proposed design gear teeth to evaluate the performance. In order to facilitate the analysis, the gear tooth was considered as a cantilever beam and the tooth force was applied normal to the profile at the highest point of single tooth contact. The study reveals that the proposed design (circular root filet) exhibits higher bending strength rather than the standard trochoidal root filet design. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Banu M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Sivasanker S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Sankaranarayanan T.M.,Anna University | Venuvanalingam P.,Bharathidasan University
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2011

The hydrogenolysis of sorbitol (15% aqueous solution) was carried out at 60 bar pressure at 220 °C in a stirred batch reactor using Ni-NaY (2, 4, 6 wt.% Ni) with and without added Pt(1 wt.%). 1,2-Propanediol was the major product over Ni-NaY and glycerol was the main product over Pt(1 wt.%)-NaY. The addition of 1 wt.% Pt to the Ni-catalysts had only a marginal effect on conversion and selectivity of the catalysts. Addition of Ca(OH) 2 as the promoter to both Ni and Pt catalysts increased the conversion significantly without any significant effect on selectivity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Danev S.I.,Anna University
Folia medica | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the contemporary trends in the pathobiochemistry of neurodegenerative disorders with respect to their early predictive diagnosis and possible treatment interventions. If we consider the current epidemiological data related to neurodegenerative disorders, medicine is going to face in the near future latent pandemic situations. The introduction puts an emphasis on the emerging importance of one major cluster of neurodegenerative disorders: diseases of the abnormal protein beta-conformation. The cluster includes such significant diseases as Alzheimer, Pick, Huntington, Parkinson disease, as well as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease). The pathogenetic mechanisms in the determination of this group of disorders are explored with an emphasis on the impairment of post-synthetic chaperone correction. The central role of a number of such protein products is discussed. In particular the pathobiochemical mechanisms concerning the formation of beta-amyloid, alpha and beta synucleins, scrapie isoform of the prion protein are presented. A new diagnostic principle allowing the early and specific diagnosis of the conformation diseases protein via amplification techniques is presented. These methods compete in sensitivity with the PCR methods and shows promises for effective treatment. In conclusion, beta-pathies are considered a suitable example for the modern concept of cluster and prototype diagnosis in medicine and especially in clinical neurosciences.


Geetha B.,Anna University | Ganesan K.,PSG College of Technology
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

An investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different percentage (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of red mud with A356 cast alloy subject to T6 Heat treatment. A356 Alloys of appropriate composition were cast into sand moulds by stir casting techniques with the addition of different percentage of red mud. The metal matrix composites were subjected to homogenization for 24hours at 500o and solution treatment for 12hours at 540 o C after natural ageing at room temperature for 24hours, artificial ageing was carried out at different temperature (100o,200 o,300 o and 400oC) and different timing (2,4,6, and 8hours). Tensile, Hardness and wear properties were determined by standard tests. During artificial ageing, the ultimate tensile strength and hardness were found to increase with ageing temperature; the maximum being attained at peak aged condition. After peak ageing temperature the ultimate tensile strength and hardness found to be decreased. The ageing time is having less significant effect on ultimate strength. The rate of ultimate strength is higher at initial ageing temperature then started reducing gradually the decrease in ultimate strength might represents over ageing time. The wear properties found to be increase with hardness and ageing temperature and with respect to ageing time the peak age timing which gives highest hardness was found to decrease with increase of the red mud content. The wear rate found to be decreases when the hardness increases. The addition of Red mud resulted in an increase in hardness and tensile strength. The effect of artificial aging on the microstructure is also studied by scanning electron microscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Thangavel K.,Periyar University | Manavalan R.,Anna University
Soft Computing | Year: 2014

Ultrasound imaging is the most suitable method for early detection of prostate cancer. It is very difficult to distinguish benign and malignant nature of the affliction in the early stage of cancer. This is reflected in the high percentage of unnecessary biopsies that are performed and many deaths caused by late detection or misdiagnosis. A computer based classification system can provide a second opinion to the radiologists. Generally, objects are described in terms of a set of measurable features in pattern recognition. The selection and quality of the features representing each pattern will have a considerable bearing on the success of subsequent pattern classification. Feature selection is a process of selecting the most wanted or dominating features set from the original features set in order to reduce the cost of data visualization and increasing classification efficiency and accuracy. The region of interest (ROI) is identified from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images using DBSCAN clustering with morphological operators after image enhancement using M3-filter. Then the 22 grey level co-occurrence matrix features are extracted from the ROIs. Soft computing model based feature selection algorithms genetic algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO) and QR are studied. In this paper, QR-ACO (hybridization of rough set based QR and ACO) and GA-ACO (hybridization GA and ACO) are proposed for reducing feature set in order to increase the accuracy and efficiency of the classification with regard to prostate cancer. The selected features may have the best discriminatory power for classifying prostate cancer based on TRUS images. Support vector machine is tailored for evaluation of the proposed feature selection methods through classification. Then, the comparative analysis is performed among these methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method QR-ACO produces significant results. Number of features selected using QR-ACO algorithm is minimal, is successful and has high detection accuracy. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Dhivya M.,Anna University | Sundarambal M.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2011

In this paper a meta-heuristic optimisation technique, Cuckoo Search (CS) is used to aggregate data in the Sensor Network. In the proposed technique, the least energy nodes are formed as subordinate chains (or) clusters for sensing the data and high energy nodes as Cluster Head for communicating to the Base Station (BS). The modified CS is proposed to get enhanced network performance incorporating balanced energy dissipation and results in the formation of optimum number of clusters and minimal energy consumption. The feasibility of the scheme is manifested by the simulation results on comparison with the traditional cluster based routing methods. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Sekar S.,RMK Engineering College | Saravanan R.,Anna University
International Journal of Exergy | Year: 2011

Vapour Absorption Heat Transformers (VAHT) have shown good potential for upgrading waste heat to useful temperature levels. VAHT can be effectively coupled with Multi Effect Desalination (MED) systems for water purification. In this study an exergetic analysis is carried out for VAHT integrated with MED. A simulation model has been developed to evaluate the exergetic efficiency, exergy losses in the components and exergy balance of the system. The effects of operating parameters such as heat source temperature, sink temperature, effectiveness of solution heat exchanger are evaluated on the performance of the system. Exergy efficiency varies from 11.14% to 35.35% depending upon the temperatures of heat source and sink. It is foundthat the highest exergy loss is in the condenser of VAHT, followed by second effect of MED. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Samidurai R.,Periyar University | Marshal Anthoni S.,Anna University | Balachandran K.,Bharathiar University
Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, the global exponential stability for neutral-type impulsive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is established by utilizing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combining with the linear matrix inequality(LMI) approach. © 2009.


Chitralekha S.B.,University of Alberta | Shah S.L.,University of Alberta | Prakash J.,Anna University
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2010

Valve stiction is one of the most common causes of oscillations in industrial process control loops. Such oscillations can degrade the overall performance of the loop and eventually the final product quality. The detection and quantification of valve stiction in industrial process control loops is thus important. From previous studies in the literature, a sticky valve has been shown to have a distinct signature of the stiction phenomena in its valve positioner data. However, the position of the modulating control valves is seldom available. We consider the problem of estimating the valve position as an unknown input estimation problem. In this work, we propose a novel application of the unknown input estimator in order to estimate the valve position given the process model and the data of the process variable and controller output. Using the estimated valve position, we can detect and also quantify the amount of stiction. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method through simulation examples where a sticky valve is deliberately introduced in the closed loop using a two-parameter stiction model available in the literature. Application of the proposed methodology to a laboratory scale flow control loop is presented. An industrial case study is also presented in which the algorithm accurately detects and quantifies stiction in the level control loop of a power plant. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mani M.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2011

Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. Waste plastic oil (WPO) was tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analysed and compared with diesel fuel (DF) operation. It is observed that the engine could operate with 100% waste plastic oil and can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) was higher by about 25% and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by 5% for waste plastic oil operation compared to diesel fuel (DF) operation. Hydrocarbon was higher by about 15%. Smoke increased by 40% at full load with waste plastic oil compared to DF. Engine fueled with waste plastic oil exhibits higher thermal efficiency upto 80% of the full load and the exhaust gas temperature was higher at all loads compared to DF operation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Suchetha M.,Velammal Engineering College | Kumaravel N.,Anna University
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control | Year: 2013

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a vital sign monitoring measurement of the cardiac activity. One of the main problems in biomedical signals like electrocardiogram is the separation of the desired signal from noises caused by power line interference, muscle artifacts, baseline wandering and electrode artifacts. Different types of digital filters are used to separate signal components from unwanted frequency ranges. Adaptive filter is one of the primary methods to filter, because it does not need the signal statistic characteristics. In contrast with Fourier analysis and wavelet methods, a new technique called EMD, a fully data-driven technique is used. It is an adaptive method well suited to analyze biomedical signals. This paper foregrounds an empirical mode decomposition based two-weight adaptive filter structure to eliminate the power line interference in ECG signals. This paper proposes four possible methods and each have less computational complexity compared to other methods. These methods of filtering are fully a signal-dependent approach with adaptive nature, and hence it is best suited for denoising applications. Compared to other proposed methods, EMD based direct subtraction method gives better SNR irrespective of the level of noises. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nagashanmugam K.B.,JSW Steel Ltd | Srinivasan K.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology | Year: 2011

An activated carbon has been prepared from gingelly oil cake (GOC) by zinc chloride treatment and its Cr(VI) removal capacity is compared with that of commercial activated carbon (CAC). The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and adsorbents dose for Cr(VI) removal has been studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models are tested to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents calculated from Langmuir isotherm is found to be 62.5 mg/g and 25.13 mg/g for zinc chloride treated gingelly oil cake carbon (ZTGOC) and CAC respectively. R2 values show that both Langmuir and Freundlich models fit well to explain the adsorption phenomenon for ZTGOC and CAC. The kinetic data fits best to pseudo-second order model. FT-IR analysis has been used to obtain information on the nature of possible interaction between carbon adsorbents and metal ions. SEM images confirm the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto these adsorbents through morphological observations. Thermodynamic study shows the feasibility of process and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. The carbon adsorbents have also been tested for the removal of Cr(VI) from chrome plating wastewater and are found to remove Cr(VI) effectively.


Ravikumar P.,Tamil University | Prakash D.,Anna University
Building Simulation | Year: 2011

The present paper aims to investigate the characteristics of airflow inside the room with insect proof screens by employing computation fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Insect proof screens attached to the window openings were simulated by porous media approach. The simulated pressure drop across the insect proof screen was compared with the experimental result and is having a good agreement with a maximum error of 8.77% for the air velocity of 0.15 m/s. The insect proof screen significantly reduces the airflow rate and increases the indoor air temperature by 3°C. The effect of different window sizes and porosity of the insect proof screen is included for the study of thermal comfort index, predicted mean vote (PMV). From the PMV contours, center portion of the room and portions nearer to the windows are identified as comfort zones. © Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Vedaraman N.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Puhan S.,Veltech Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Velappan K.C.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2011

In this study palm biodiesel was prepared from palm oil by transesterification and subsequently different blends (B20, B30, and B40) with diesel were prepared and tested in a standard diesel engine. From the engine test result, B20 was found to be an optimum blend ratio based on engine performance and emissions. The test result shows that the exhaust emissions such as CO and HC are reduced with B20 by 28% and 30%, respectively, compared to diesel. The NOX emissions are almost the same as diesel fuel. In order to reduce NOX emission, a small quantity of different additives namely methanol, ethanol, distilled water, and diethyl ether were added to B20 and evaluated in a standard diesel engine for performance and emissions characteristics. Among all the additives with B20, B20 with 2% distilled water shows the lowest NOX emission and this may be due to lower combustion temperature compared to other additives. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Kavitha G.,Anna University
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2010

In this work, an attempt has been made to identify optic disc in retinal images using digital image processing and optimization based edge detection algorithm. The edge detection was carried out using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique with and without pre-processing and was correlated with morphological operations based method. The performance of the pre-processed ACO algorithm was analysed based on visual quality, computation time and its ability to preserve useful edges. The results demonstrate that the ACO method with pre-processing provides high visual quality output with better optic disc identification. Computation time taken for the process was also found to be less. This method preserves nearly 50% more edge pixel distribution when compared to morphological operations based method. In addition to improve optic disc identification, the proposed algorithm also distinctly differentiates between blood vessels and macula in the image. These studies appear to be clinically relevant because automated analyses of retinal images are important for ophthalmological interventions. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dell'Atti L.,Anna University
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: In literature, most of the published data regarding prostatic abscess (PA) are case reports, whereas there is no standardization of the diagnostic and therapeutic routines. The purpose of this study is a new classification of ultrasound imaging of PA with clinical features correlation.MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the ultrasound database archives and performed a MEDLINE® research of the peer reviewed literature on diagnosis and case reports of PA using the terms "prostate and abscess".RESULTS: PA can be classified into five Types: Type I - PA is present focally in a prostate lobe (≤ 10 mm). Type II - PA is present in a prostate lobe (> 10 mm) and/or partially overcrosses the border of the midline prostatic glandular. Type III - PA is present in both glandular lobes form of multifocal areas (≤ 10 mm). Type IV - PA is present in both glandular lobes form of multifocal areas (> 10 mm). Type V - PA involving intra or extraprostatic structures (bladder, urethra, seminal vesicles and prostatic capsule). The different ultrasound imaging and diagnostic criteria are listed for each type and subtype.CONCLUSIONS: The sonographic pattern of PA is usually characteristic and easily differentiated from other glandular lesions. The purpose of the study was to associate the use of TRUS to a clinical standardized classification in order to facilitate PA diagnosis and localization directing the clinician treatment to the correct management and adequate therapeutic treatment.


Viswanathan G.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Gopalakrishnan S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Siva Ilango S.,Anna University
Water Research | Year: 2010

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kolappan B.,Anna University
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

The Banking sector has been growing without leaps and bounces and catering to the needs of various segments of the society. In recent scenario, the financial institutions have been making rapid straights by using IT as a platform and endeavoring to scale higher heights. An attempt has been made in this examination to inspect various groundbreaking instruments that have been introduced by public sector Banks. It has been attracted many foreign banks to India, thereby opening up new markets, new product development and efficient delivery channels for the banking industry and Financial Institutions. The IT allows Public Sector banks to create business building’s lobby without having to hire manpower for manual operations. The branches are running on the concept of 24 X 7 employed, made possible by the use of Tele-banking, ATMs, Internet banking, and Mobile banking and E - banking. This IT Technology driven delivery channels are being used to reach out to huge number of customers at lower cost and in most efficient manner. The selected customers of PSBs have felt the positive impact of technological resolutions implemented by PSBs. The customers of PSBs of today have a virtual list of options far as delivery linkages are concerned and all these are the benefits of Information Technology. © Research India Publications.


Sampath M.B.,Anna University | Mani S.,PSG College of Technology | Nalankilli G.,PSN Institute of Technology and Science
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2011

Clothing comfort is an important aspect for any garment used for sportswear and leisurewear. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body surface so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. Hence, wetting and wicking properties are critical aspects during wearing of clothes. Polyester micro-fibers have twin characteristics of durability and comfort. The usage of continuous filament micro-denier polyester yarn for sportswear and leisurewear clothing has a practical significance in clothing comfort. In this study, polyester filament yarn were taken and made into single jersey knitted fabrics. Five different fabrics were made from 150 denier polyester yarns constituting different number of filaments, namely, 34 filaments, 48 filaments, 108 filaments, 144 filaments, and 288 filaments. Moisture management finish was applied to the five types of single jersey knitted fabrics and the effect of filament fineness on comfort characteristics of moisture management finished polyester knitted fabrics was analyzed to achieve suitability for making sportswear. From the tests, it was observed that the fabric containing 108 filaments in yarn gives better wetting, higher wicking, and optimum moisture vapor transmission. A new test method was introduced to find out the transverse wicking behavior of the fabrics. Filament fineness and surface area of yarn play a vital role in deciding the comfort characteristics of the fabric, as also moisture management finish treatment which enhances it. © The Author(s) 2011.


Chandrasekaran K.,Anna University
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research | Year: 2012

Hyperglycemia or alcoholism can lead to impaired liver functions. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is elevated in hyperglycemia or alcoholism and plays a critical role in generating oxidative stress in the cell. In the present study, we have used VL-17A cells that overexpress the alcohol metabolizing enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP2E1] to investigate the toxicity due to ethanol (EtOH) plus high glucose. Toxicity was assessed through viability assay and amount of acetaldehyde adduct formation. Oxidative stress parameters included measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and malondialdehyde adduct formation. Apoptosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V- Propidium iodide staining, and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The effects of antioxidants and specific inhibitors of ADH and CYP2E1 on cell viability and ROS levels were also studied. When present together, EtOH plus high glucose-treated VL-17A cells exhibited greater oxidative stress and toxicity than other groups. Apoptosis was observed in liver cells treated with the toxins, and the EtOH plus high glucose-treated VL-17A cells exhibited apoptosis to the largest extent. A distinct and graded increase in CYP2E1 level occurred in the different groups of VL-17A cells. Further, antioxidants or inhibitors of ADH and CYP2E1 were effective in decreasing the observed oxidative stress and toxicity. The combined oxidative insult due to alcohol plus high glucose leads to greater liver injury, which may prove to be a timely warning for the injurious effects of alcohol consumption in diabetics. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.


Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Samidurai R.,Periyar University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study the global exponential stability of time-delayed stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses and Markovian jumping parameters. A generalized activation function is considered, and traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of activation functions are removed. We obtain a new set of sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensures the global exponential stability of the unique equilibrium point for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses. The Lyapunov function method with the Itô differential rule is employed for achieving the required result. Moreover, a numerical example is provided to show that the proposed result improves the allowable upper bound of delays over some existing results in the literature. © 2010 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Sheik Ismail L.,Aeronautical Development Agency | Velraj R.,Anna University | Ranganayakulu C.,Aeronautical Development Agency
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, etc. are profusely available without any limitation. Heat exchanger is a device to transfer the energy from one fluid to other fluid for many applications in buildings, industries and automotives. The optimum design of heat exchanger for minimum pumping power (i.e., minimum pressure drop) and efficient heat transfer is a great challenge in terms of energy savings point of view. This review focuses on the research and developments of compact offset and wavy plate-fin heat exchangers. The review is summarized under three major sections. They are offset fin characteristics, wavy fin characteristics and non-uniformity of the inlet fluid flow. The various research aspects relating to internal single phase flow studied in offset and wavy fins by the researchers are compared and summarized. Further, the works done on the non-uniformity of this fluid flow at the inlet of the compact heat exchangers are addressed and the methods available to minimize these effects are compared. © 2009.


Narendrakumar A.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Thygarajah K.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2012

The proposed system utilizes the concept of multi hop communication in wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs). On the other hand, the single hop communication leads to more power dissipation in the nodes at the time of transmitting sensed data. The proposed system rectifies the above mentioned problem with the multi hop communication among the finite number of nodes to determine the distance for transferring information from source node to base station using the Fuzzy logical method. In this paper the proposed scheme a Fuzzy based High Quality Link Set Routing (FHQLSR) which selects the high quality level of relay node and evaluates the quality of link in each node by using RNP and ETX parameters. Our proposed method shows that FHQLSR improves the overall reliability, scalability and stability of the network. In a nutshell, the multi hop communication leads the better solution for saving the transmission energy in the wireless environment. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Kumar K.P.V.,Anna University | Pillai M.S.N.,Noorul Islam University
Journal of Materials Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The anticorrosion characteristics of the seeds of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) fruits on carbon steel in acid medium were examined with weight loss data and subsequently thermodynamic factors such as heat of adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface (Q), change in entropy (ΔS), change in free energy of the reaction (ΔG), corrosion rate (CR) and energy of activation for corrosion reaction of carbon steel (E) were also evaluated. Adsorption isotherm was plotted to study the adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface with increasing concentration of the inhibitor. The functional groups responsible for inhibition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Electrochemical parameters were evaluated through the potentiodynamic Tafel polarization and impedance spectral studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs were recorded to investigate the change in surface morphology. The complete study reveals the efficiency of seed extract of P. guajava as a safe, ecofriendly and alternate corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acid medium. © 2011 The Chinese Society for Metals.


Manimaran G.,Saveetha Engineering College | Kumar M.P.,Anna University
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2013

The present study investigated the optimization of grinding AISI 316 stainless steel by the Taguchi and grey relational analysis under the three environments of dry, conventional, and cryogenic cooling. The performance characteristics considered are, the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra), and grinding force (Ft). Experiments were conducted with Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide) and Sol-Gel (SG) grinding wheels under different cutting conditions, such as work speed, depth of cut, and cooling environments. An orthogonal array L18 is used for the experimental design. The optimum levels of the machining parameters were predicted from the grey relational grade derived from the grey relational analysis. The optimization results indicate that grinding with the SG wheel under cryogenic cooling gives a better performance. The cooling environment is the most significant factor for effective grinding performance. The surface roughness reduced by 4.9%, MRR improved by 20%, and the grinding forces reduced by 2.2% realized from the confirmation experiment. The optimal results show that the Taguchi-Grey relational analysis was successful in improving the grinding performance. Copyright © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gunasekaran K.,SRM University | Annadurai R.,SRM University | Kumar P.S.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zinc sulfide (ZnS), various concentrations of Cu2+ (0.25%-1.25%)-doped ZnS and ZnS:Cu2+ nanoparticles capped with various surfactants have been successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation method in ambient air at 80 ËšC. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-visible absorption (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were noticeably blue-shifted from the bulk material. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of a cubic phase for all samples. The average size of the particles ranged from 3.2 to 5.3 nm. The TEM analysis showed that the particles were highly monodispersed and spherical in shape. Particles with increased Cu2+ concentrations had a red shift in their PL emission spectra. Enhanced PL emissions were observed for surfactant-capped particles. The experimental results indicate that, as expected, the PL spectrum confirms the presence of Cu2+ ions in the ZnS nanoparticles. © 2012 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Chidambaram L.A.,Annamalai University | Ramana A.S.,Sri Sai Ram Engineering College | Kamaraj G.,Annamalai University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Power shortage and unstable power supply remain serious problems. Conventional cooling technologies that utilize harmful refrigerants consume more energy and cause peak loads leading to negative environmental impacts. As the world grapples with the energy and environmental crisis, there is an urgent need to develop and promote environmentally benign sustainable cooling technologies. Solar cooling is one such promising technology, given the fact that solar energy is the cheapest and widely available renewable energy that matches the cooling load requirements. Thermal storage systems are essential to overcome the disadvantage of the intermittent nature of solar energy and variation in cooling demand. The enhanced utilization of solar energy and other consequences of thermal storage integrated systems have gained the attention of researchers in the recent years. This paper reviews research articles in the field of solar cooling techniques, solar collectors, storage methods and their integration, along with performance improvement studies reported using thermal stratification and cascaded thermal storage systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Balamurugan B.,Kalasalingam University | Thirumarimurugan M.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Kannadasan T.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Kannadasan T.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

The main objective of this work is to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of the effluent containing reactive textile dye by microbial method. Anaerobic digestion has the potential to break down complex refractory organic compounds so that they may be further degraded aerobically or to completely mineralize them. An anaerobic digestion technique was applied to synthetic reactive red 2 dye cotton textile effluent aiming at the dye degradation. Halophilic and halotolerant bacterial culture Halomonas variabilis and Halomonas glaciei were used for degradation in batch-mode static condition. The temperature was kept constant at 30°C using CO2 incubator. Maximum degradation was achieved within 144h of experimental run. Degradation studies were made by determining COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Statistical analysis showed that the BOD and COD reduction rate were optimal in the concentration of 1297mg L-1 for the time duration of nearly 100h. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sharon H.,NEC Corp | Karuppasamy K.,Anna University | Soban Kumar D.R.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Sundaresan A.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

Used palm oil collected from different restaurants in Tirunelveli region of south India was converted into methyl esters (biodiesel) by transesterification. Biodiesel produced from used palm oil was blended with diesel by different volume proportions (25%, 50% and 75%). Biodiesel and its blends were tested in a DI diesel engine at constant speed by varying loads (between 20% and 100%) to analyze its performance, emission and combustion profile. The results obtained were compared with diesel fuel. B25 and B50 showed performances similar to diesel fuel. Smoke density of B100 and B75 were lower than diesel by 19% and 10% at full load. At full load measured CO emission for B100 and B75 were 52.9% and 35.2% lower than diesel HC emission for B100 and B75 were 38.09% and 19.05% lower than diesel. NO X emission was higher for all biodiesel blends. B75 showed lower amount of emissions throughout the test. Ignition delay for B100, B75, B50 and B25 were 2.1°, 1.9°, 1.7° and 1° lower than diesel. Combustion profile was smoother and no knocking was experienced while operating with biodiesel blends. B50 produced peak cylinder pressure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Babuponnusami A.,Adhiparasakthi Engineering College | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014

The increase in the disposal of refractory organics demands for newer technologies for the complete mineralization of these wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a promising technology for the treatment of such wastewaters and this study presents a general review on such processes developed to decolorize and/or degrade organic pollutants. Fundamentals and main applications of typical methods such as Fenton, electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton, sono-Fenton, sono-photo-Fenton, sono-electro-Fenton and photo-electro-Fenton are discussed. This review also highlights the application of nano-zero valent iron in treating refractory compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Rajakumar S.,Anna University | Ravindran D.,National Engineering College
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

This paper presents an approach for the determination of aerodynamic performance characteristics of horizontal-axis wind turbines. The optimum twist of a windmill blade is examined on the basis of elementary blade-element theory. For a given wind speed and blade angular velocity, it is shown that the maximum power efficiency is achieved when the blade is twisted according to a program that depends upon the variation of the sectional lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack. Results for a typical airfoil cross-section show that the optimum angle of attack and optimum twist angle of the blade improves the performance of the wind turbine.Based on Glauert's solution of an ideal windmill along with an exact trigonometric function method, analytical closed-form equations are derived and given for preliminary determination of the optimum chord and twist distributions. The variation of the angle of attack of the relative wind along blade span is then obtained directly from a unique equation for a known rotor size and refined blade geometry. Particular attention was paid to the axial flow and tangential flow induction factors and to the models for the representation of the lift and drag coefficients. A comparison was also made between the mathematical model presented in the paper and those considered in the literature.The mathematical code produced a power coefficient curve which showed that notwithstanding further increases in rotational velocity a constant maximum power value was reached even as wind velocity increased. This means that as wind velocity varies there will always be a rotational velocity of the turbine which maximizes its coefficient. It would be sufficient therefore to formulate the law governing the variation in rotational velocity as it varied with wind velocity to arrive at a power coefficient that is always the same and its maximum. A case study including the design of wind turbine, performance analysis with various assumption and CFD analysis of airfoils. The airfoils NACA 4410 and NACA 2415 are taken into consideration for evaluating this proposed approach. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained by other investigators. It is shown that the approach used in this study is efficient and saves much of the computational time as compared with the commonly used iterative procedures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Venkitaraj K.P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Selvakumar P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Chandrasekar M.,Anna University
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2012

In this experimental work, a fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics through a uniformly heated circular tube using Al 2O 3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is presented. For this we synthesized Al 2O 3-Cu nanocomposite powder in a thermo chemical route that involves a hydrogen reduction technique and then dispersed the prepared hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope to confirm the chemical composition, to determine the particle size and to study the surface morphology. The convective heat transfer experimental results showed a maximum enhancement of 13.56% in Nusselt number at a Reynolds number of 1730 when compared to Nusselt number of water. The experimental results also show that 0.1% Al 2O 3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor when compared to 0.1% Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor are in good agreement with the experimental data. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Paulraj D.,RMD Engineering College | Swamynathan S.,Anna University | Madhaiyan M.,TeleData Technology Solutions Ltd
Enterprise Information Systems | Year: 2012

Web Service composition has become indispensable as a single web service cannot satisfy complex functional requirements. Composition of services has received much interest to support business-to-business (B2B) or enterprise application integration. An important component of the service composition is the discovery of relevant services. In Semantic Web Services (SWS), service discovery is generally achieved by using service profile of Ontology Web Languages for Services (OWL-S). The profile of the service is a derived and concise description but not a functional part of the service. The information contained in the service profile is sufficient for atomic service discovery, but it is not sufficient for the discovery of composite semantic web services (CSWS). The purpose of this article is two-fold: first to prove that the process model is a better choice than the service profile for service discovery. Second, to facilitate the composition of inter-organisational CSWS by proposing a new composition method which uses process ontology. The proposed service composition approach uses an algorithm which performs a fine grained match at the level of atomic process rather than at the level of the entire service in a composite semantic web service. Many works carried out in this area have proposed solutions only for the composition of atomic services and this article proposes a solution for the composition of composite semantic web services. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Magendrana T.,SRM University | Sanjeevi S.,Anna University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2014

This paper reports the results of a study to differentiate iron ores in terms of their grades, using thehyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) image data, covering a mineralized belt in the Noamundi area, easternIndia. The study involves hyperspectral data collection, pre-processing (reduction of atmospheric andsolar flux effects), generation of spectral curves from the image for the iron ore deposits, extraction ofkey spectral parameters and linear spectral unmixing for mapping iron ore abundance. Spectral curves foriron ore deposits extracted from the Hyperion image pixels exhibit strong absorption at 850-900 nm and2150-2250 nm wavelengths, which is typical of iron ores. The strength of the absorption features in thecontinuum removed spectra varies spatially in the image around the mining areas, indicating differencesin composition/grade of the iron ores. Spectral parameters such as the depth, width, area and wavelengthposition of the absorption features, derived from image spectra in the 850-900 nm and 2150-2250 nmregions, correlate well with the concentration of iron-oxide and alumina (gangue) in the ore samplesobtained from the mine face. Well defined correlations are evident between the concentration of ironoxide and (i) the depth of NIR absorption feature (R2= 0.883); (ii) the width of NIR absorption feature(R2= 0.912); and (iii) the area of the NIR absorption feature and (R2= 0.882). Further, the linear spectralunmixing resulted in an iron ore abundance map which, in conjunction with the image- and laboratory-spectra, helped in assessing the grades of iron ores in the study area. Thus, this study demonstrates thefeasibility of discriminating grades of iron ores based on spectral information derived from spacebornehyperspectral imagery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hema M.,Anna University
Journal of environmental science & engineering | Year: 2011

Removal of cadmium from wastewater using activated carbons prepared from Cocos nucifera (coconut) and Azadirachta indica (neem) oilcakes-an agricultural solid by-product was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH, agitation time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose on the cadmium sorption in coconut oil cake activated carbon (COCAC) and neem oil cake activated carbon (NOCAC). The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic model and the equilibrium adsorption data fit well with Temkin isotherm model. The adsorption capacity 'b' calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 188.68 mg/g for COCAC and 23.7 mg/g for NOCAC. The percent removal of Cd(II) in COCAC increased in pH from 2 to 5, and remained constant up to pH 8, increasing the percent removal with increasing pH for NOCAC. Desorption studies were performed with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. It was found that quantitative recovery of the metal ion is possible. It was also observed that the mechanism of adsorption seems to be ion exchange. Reuse of both carbons were carried out for five cycles at optimum conditions. Adsorption efficiency of carbons was reduced from 99 to 89% in the case of COCAC and 97 to 86% for NOCAC.


Gurunathan B.,St. Josephs College | Sahadevan R.,Anna University
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2011

The sequential optimization strategy for design of an experimental and artificial neural network (ANN) linked genetic algorithm (GA) were applied to evaluate and optimize media component for L-asparaginase production by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 in submerged fermentation. The significant media components identified by Plackett-Burman design (PBD) were fitted into a second order polynomial model (R 2 = 0.910) and optimized for maximum L-asparaginase production using a five-level central composite design (CCD). A nonlinear model describing the effect of variables on L-asparaginase production was developed (R 2 = 0.995) and optimized by a back propagation NN linked GA. Ground nut oil cake (GNOC) flour 3.99% (w/v), sodium nitrate (NaNO 3) 1.04%, L-asparagine 1.84%, and sucrose 0.64% were found to be the optimum concentration with a maximum predicted L-asparaginase activity of 36.64 IU/mL using a back propagation NN linked GA. The experimental activity of 36.97 IU/mL obtained using the optimum concentration of media components is close to the predicted L-asparaginase activity of the ANN linked GA. © The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer 2011.


Shahabudeen P.,Anna University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014

Mass production system design is a key for the productivity of an organization. Mass production system can be classified into production line machining a component and production line assembling a product. In this paper, the production line assembling a product, which is alternatively called as assembly line system, is considered. In this system, balancing the assembly line as per a desired volume of production per shift is a challenging task. The main objectives of the assembly line design are to minimize the number of workstations for a given cycle time (type 1), to minimize the maximum of the times of workstations for a given number of workstations (type 2), and so forth. Because this problem comes under combinatorial category, the use of heuristics is inevitable. Development of a mathematical model may also be attempted, which will help researchers to compare the solutions of the heuristics with that of the model. In this paper, an attempt is made to present a comprehensive review of literature on the assembly line balancing. The assembly line balancing problems are classified into eight types based on three parameters, viz. The number of models (single-model and multi-model), the nature of task times (deterministic and probabilistic), and the type of assembly line (straight-type and U-type). The review of literature is organized as per the above classification. Further, directions for future research are also presented. © 2014 Springer-Verlag London.


Kumar K.P.,Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology | Sekaran A.S.J.,Anna University
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2014

Natural fibers are used as reinforcing materials for more than 2000 years. The need for natural fibers has been emerged due to its weight saving, cost effective, and environmentally superior alternatives to synthetic fibers in composites. The interest in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites has been increased rapidly, due to high performance in mechanical properties, significant processing advantages, and it also provides a solution to environmental pollution. The main objective of this paper is to review and discuss the natural fibers like banana, aloe vera, kenaf, and sisal fibers and their extraction processes. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Arulmurugan R.,Anna University | Arulmurugan R.,Knowledge Institute of Technology | Suthanthiravanitha N.,Knowledge Institute of Technology
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2015

Harnessing energy from abundant, free sunlight is currently a hot topic within the research community. The availability of inexpensive solar modules has made it possible to harvest solar energy at higher efficiency. Photovoltaic (PV) modules have nonlinear characteristics, and hence, the process of impedance matching is obligatory. Proper impedance matching ensures extraction of the maximum amount of power in a PV scheme. Several algorithms that are used to operate DC to DC converters around the Maximum Power Point (MPP) are reported in the literature. Amongst those algorithms, Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) coupled with other controllers performs well under partial shading conditions. This paper designs a new 5 × 7 optimized FLC-coupled Hopfield Neural Network (NN) maximum tracking technique. A Hopfield NN is used to routinely tune the fuzzy membership function. Entire components of a PV array, a DC-DC buck-boost zeta converter and a designed MPP tracking controller are implemented in a Matlab-Simulink tool to validate the Hopfield NN. The results validate the effectiveness and execution of the Hopfield NN using the optimized fuzzy system. The designed system was successfully tested on an experimental prototype. The experimental values demonstrate the feasibility and improved functionality of the scheme. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


The milk processing and preservation is a fast growing business in developing countries and it is facing problems due to high energy cost and environmental concerns in using conventional energy sources. The energy tapped from renewable energy sources through the technological innovations would be one of the best options to implement the milk preservation strategies at village level. In rural areas, bioenergy is one of the most versatile energy-generating options. Because of the diversity in feed stock and conversion technologies, suitable study is needed to implement renewable energy base technologies to provide a continuous flow of energy services. In this paper, the use of locally available renewable energy sources, in various combinations, to operate a milk chilling plant at village level has been analysed using the Matlab software. The effect of variations in the combination of renewable energy sources on the overall system COP has been studied. The study predicts that the best possible overall system COPs in hilly, rubber cultivation, paddy and seashore regions are 0.26, 0.25, 0.235 and 0.24 respectively. Moreover, suitable combinations identified in the aforementioned regions are Biomass/Gobar gas (0.7:0.3), Biomass/Biogas/Gobar gas (0.7:0.1:0.2), Biogas/Biomass/Gobar gas (0.6:0.15:0.25) and Biomass/Gobar gas/Biogas/Solar (0.5:0.25:0.125:0.125) respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Eiteman M.A.,University of Georgia | Ramalingam S.,Anna University
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2015

Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Sivakumar P.,Anna University | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Anbarasu K.,Tamil Nadu Co Operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd
Fuel | Year: 2012

An anaerobic process for the treatment of spoiled milk from the milk processing industry was investigated. It was carried out in a laboratory scale batch reactor and using the obtained data, it was scaled up to a pilot Anaerobic Sequential Batch Reactor (ASBR). The processes include acclimatization of seed consortia and start up of the reactor under room condition. The batch reactor was studied at different pH, inoculum dosage, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading. The scaled up pilot plant is of 100 L capacity and it was observed continuously for 30 days. At steady state, the efficiency of the pilot plant in removing COD was found to be 92.80%, and it was able to produce biogas volume of 0.311 m 3 for 1 kg COD degradation. The results obtained showed that biogas contained a maximum of 69.18% of methane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Debnatha S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology | Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2011

Thermal resistance and air permeability of needle-punched nonwoven fabric made from jute and polypropylene blends have been studied using the Box and Behnken factorial design to observe the effect of fabric weight, needling density and blend proportion on thickness, thermal resistance, specific thermal resistance, air permeability and sectional air permeability. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis have also been used to understand the relationship and grouping behaviour of the dependent and independent variables. It is observed that the thermal resistance and thickness increase but air permeability and sectional air permeability decrease significantly with the increase in fabric weight at all levels of jute contents. Significant (p < 0.05000) negative correlations r = - 0.67 and r = - 0.61 exist between needling density & thermal resistance and needling density & specific thermal resistance respectively. The highest thermal resistance and specific thermal resistance have been obtained at 430 g/m2 fabric weight and 150 punches/cm2 needling density. All dependent variables are highly influenced by fabric weight (Euclidean distance ~ 560) which is a different cluster identity.


Sangeetha K.,Anna University
International Journal of Software Engineering and its Applications | Year: 2016

In Today's World, the usage of Web is increased in a very fast manner. The User who is surfing the Web always wants to extract the meaningful information from the resources. As the number of user increased, the Web is diffusing day-by-day. To overcome this, Semantic Web Technologies such as Resource Description Framework along with Document Object Model are used to bring the clear answers to user queries by taking advantage of the availability of precise semantics of information in the context of the search engines. The DOM is a language- and platform-independent API designed for working with HTML/XML data. In this paper, the relevant search is processed by using the DOM Segment fusing function with probability ranking algorithm. © 2016 SERSC.


Thyagharajan K.K.,Dean College | Minu R.I.,Anna University
International Journal of Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.


Rajagopalan M.,Anna University
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2010

From the first principles total energy calculations based on full-potential linear augmented plane wave method (FPLAPW), the elastic properties of XPt3 (X=V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are reported here. Theoretical values of Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are estimated from the computed elastic constants. From the analysis of the ratio of shear to bulk modulus, it is found that these intermetallic compounds are ductile in nature except CrPt3, which is brittle. The calculated results are compared with other reported values. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Rajagopalan M.,Anna University | Praveen Kumar S.,Creation Technologies | Anuthama R.,EDS
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2010

From the first principles total energy calculations based on full-potential linear augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW), the elastic properties of Al2X (X=Sc,Y,La,Lu) are reported here. Theoretical values of Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are estimated from the computed elastic constants. From the analysis of the ratio of shear to bulk modulus, it is found that these intermetallic compounds are brittle in nature. The calculated results are compared with other reported values. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rajkumar P.,Anna University
Journal of Technology Management and Innovation | Year: 2010

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report the finding from study on distance traveled by fresh vegetables from farming location to consumer in traditional and organized retailing. The focus is on the five fresh vegetables and final consumer destination is the city of Chennai. Research methodology: The research is primarily exploratory in nature and research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaire with players in the fresh vegetable supply chain viz agents, auctioneers, wholesalers, traditional retailers, organized retailers and customers. Additional data collected thorough secondary source, existing literature on Indian retail. Findings: 'Food miles' is relatively recent concept in the fresh vegetable retailing. Entry of organized retail to India and its exponential growth, specifically in fresh vegetable marketing, has impacted the whole spectrum of supply chain practices. Shorter food miles is an indicator of near sourcing and longer food miles of fresh vegetables is an indicator for agricultural outsource. The result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in case of organized retailers. The capitalization of emerging opportunity by the agribusiness is shift towards outsourcing of agriculture. Research limitations: Being an early work in the area of food mileage of fresh vegetables in Indian context, there is no reference data available related to food mileage. Speed at which fresh vegetable reaching its destination has not been studied as time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study and also scope for further future research. The research study is not finding factors related to the food mileage. © Universidad Alberto Hurtado.


Uma Mageswaran S.,Anna University | Uma Mageswaran S.,Bharath University | Guna Sekhar N.O.,Easwari Engineering College
International Journal of Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

Reactive power is vital for reliability, power quality, transmission line loss and voltage stability. Rapid industrial development makes the power system is stressed. This stressed power system has more loss and low voltage profile, generator has its limitation and could not generate sufficient reactive power, to overcome this situation Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices are used. This paper makes use of one such FACTS device namely STATCOM to relief power system stress by injective adequate reactive power. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used to optimize the STATCOM location and reactive power injection. Test case IEEE-30 bus system is considered for the simulation.


Prasad V.,Anna University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2015

It is well known that metal-oxide arresters (MOAs) do not have the capability of protecting the equipment in extra-high voltage networks, when they face the threats from very fast transients (VFTs). This "inaction" on the part of MOA is mainly brought by stray capacitance, which not only delays the conduction of MOA under VFTs but also brings a nonuniform voltage distribution across its structure and thereby impacts its life, especially, that of its top unit. This phenomenon prompts an urgent take on the factors that threaten the functioning of MOA under VFTs. After performing a thorough review of the studies made earlier, this study focuses on the further improvements required. This paper mainly deals with the accurate calculation of stray capacitance, its adverse impacts on MOA during its conduction phase, voltage distribution across the arrester with the aid of a finite-element method (FEM) and the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP), and, finally, it explores the modifications required to get adequate protection for the equipment exposed to VFTs. © 1986-2012 IEEE.


Naresh Muthu R.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Rajashabala S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Rajashabala S.,Utah State University | Kannan R.,Anna University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

The development of light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite to fuel-cell technology to be fully competitive. The present experimental study reports the hydrogen storage capability of sulfonated poly-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK)-hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) (SPEEK-h-BN) nanocomposite membranes. The nanocomposite membranes are prepared by considering various amount of h-BN (0, 1, 3 and 5 wt. %) by phase inversion technique. The degree of sulfonation of the PEEK (SPEEK) is found to be 65% by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen adsorption studies have been carried out using a Seiverts-like hydrogenation setup. The membranes are characterized by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), CHN-elemental analysis and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). It is observed that the SPEEK-5% h-BN membrane performs better than pure SPEEK membrane, has maximum storage capacity of 2.98 wt. % at 150 °C and the adsorbed hydrogen has an average binding energy of 0.38 eV. The TGA study shows the dehydrogenation behavior of hydrogenated SPEEK-h-BN nanocomposite membrane and it is found to be in the temperature range of 214-218 °C for SPEEK-5% h-BN membrane. © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Shrikrishnan S.,Raman Research Institute | Sankaran K.,Raman Research Institute | Sankaran K.,Anna University | Lakshminarayanan V.,Raman Research Institute
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

In this work, we have explored the potential of electrochemical impedance technique to follow the kinetics of nonspecific adsorption of enzymes on to a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercapto benzoic acid (3-MBZ) formed on gold electrodes. We have also studied kinetics of enzyme-substrate reactions on the immobilized surface using this technique. During the adsorption process, the surface coverage is measured using the imaginary component of the impedance at a given frequency, which was found to follow Langmuir adsorption kinetics. The adsorbed enzyme was then allowed to interact with different concentrations of its substrate and the resulting reaction was followed in real time. Changes in the imaginary component of the impedance at various substrate concentrations have been found to follow Michelis-Menten kinetics. The results show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful technique that can be used to follow enzymatic reactions on surfaces in real time. Our results also suggest that this technique has the potential to emerge as an effective immunosensor tool that can be utilized for a large range of enzyme systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Baskar G.,St. Josephs College | Renganathan S.,Anna University
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

The sequential optimization strategy of design of experiments and back propagation algorithm of artificial neural network-linked genetic algorithm were used to find the significant fermentation media components and optimum concentration for maximum L-asparaginase production by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 in submerged fermentation. Components such as L-proline, sodium nitrate, L-asparagine and glucose were identified as significant fermentation media components using Plackett-Burman design. The central composite design was used to fit the second-order polynomial model describing the effect of significant media components on L-asparaginase production with coefficient of determination (R 2) 0.973. A nonlinear model was developed with high coefficient of determination (R 2) 0.997 using incremental back propagation algorithm of neural network. The high value of coefficient of determination for artificial neural network model justified an excellent correlation between variables and L-asparaginase activity and found to be more efficient than the second-order polynomial model of central composite design. Hence, the optimum concentration of the significant media components was determined using artificial neural network-linked genetic algorithm. The predicted optimum concentration of the media components was L-proline 1.7% (w/v), sodium nitrate 1.99% (w/v), L-asparagine 1.38% (w/v) and glucose 0.65% (w/v) with an experimentally confirmed L-asparaginase activity of 40.86 IU mL -1. Copyright © 2010 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Kannan D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Pachamuthu S.,Anna University | Nurun Nabi M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Hustad J.E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lovs T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2012

In this work addition of ethanol to high viscosity jatropha methyl ester (JME) through port injection is investigated in order to determine its effect fuel viscosity reduction on diesel engine performance. In addition to viscosity alteration, the impact of ethanol addition on combustion characteristics such as combustion duration, ignition delay and emissions levels from diesel engines fuelled with blends of ethanol, diesel and JME is studied in particular. It is found that blending of oxygenated fuels with diesel modifies the chemical structure and physical properties which again alter the engine operating conditions, combustion parameters and emissions levels. However, the injection of only 5% ethanol through port injection allows for a total of 25% blending of biofuels into diesel yet keeping the fuel characteristics close to that of conventional diesel. However, both experimental and numerical results show that ethanol addition in JME blended diesel results in a slight increase in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency for the same power outputs as that of conventional diesel fuel. Also, the combustion characteristics with ethanol addition include improved maximum in-cylinder peak pressure, cumulative heat release (CHR) rate of heat release (ROHR), in-cylinder peak temperature and combustion duration. Regarding emission characteristics the experimental results show significant reduction in smoke, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions with extended oxygen mass percentage in the fuel at higher engine loads. However, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions are found to increase at high loads although the common tradeoff between smoke and NOx is found to be more prominent for the oxygenated fuels. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Venkitaraj K.P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Selvakumar P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Chandrasekar M.,Anna University
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2012

A comparison of thermal characteristics of Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids in transition flow through a straight circular duct fitted with helical screw tape inserts was made in this study. The helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios Y=1.78, 2.44 and 3 were used in the experimental study using 0.1% volume concentration Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluid. The average enhancements in Nusselt number for water with twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 were 156.24%, 122.16% and 89.22% respectively when compared to plain tube. The average increase in Nusselt number corresponding to the twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 were 166.84%, 128.67% and 89.22% respectively for Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. In the case of CuO/water nanofluid, the enhancements in Nusselt number were 179.82%, 144.29% and 105.63% for twist ratios 1.78, 2.44 and 3 respectively. Thermal performance analysis based on the constant pumping power criteria shows that helical screw tape inserts give better thermal performance when used with CuO/water nanofluid than with Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ramasamy V.,Annamalai University | Suresh G.,Annamalai University | Meenakshisundaram V.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Ponnusamy V.,Anna University
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2011

The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th and 40K) contents and mineral characteristics have been analyzed for the different depth sediment samples of Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard and its relation to specific minerals. To know the complete radiological characteristics, the radiological indices have been calculated and compared with recommended values. In an FTIR study, the extinction coefficient and crystallinity index is calculated to find the relative distribution of major minerals and the crystallinity of quartz, respectively. Both horizontal and vertical distributions of radionuclides and major minerals are studied. Multivariate statistical analyses (cluster and factor) were carried out to determine the relationship between the radioactivity and the minerals. Statistical analyses suggest that the kaolinite is the major mineral to increase the level of radioactivity in the river sediments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yogalakshmi K.N.,Anna University
Bioresource technology | Year: 2010

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a promising technological option to meet water reuse demands. Though MBR provides effluent quality of reusable standard, its versatility to shock loads remains unexplored. The present study investigates the robustness of MBR under sodium chloride shock load (5-60 g/L) conditions. A bench scale aerobic submerged MBR (6L working volume) with polyethylene hollow fiber membrane module (pore size 0.4 microm) was operated with synthetic wastewater at steady state OLR of 3.6g COD/L/d and HRT of 8h. This resulted in 99% TSS removal and 95% COD and TKN removal. The COD removal during the salt shock load was in the range of 84-64%. The TSS removal showed maximum disturbance (88%) with a corresponding decrease in biomass MLVSS by 8% at 60 g/L shock. TKN removal was reduced due to inhibition of nitrification with increasing shock loads. It took about 4-9 days for the MBR to regain its steady state performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ganapathy R.,Anna University
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2014

A simple mathematical theory is proposed to investigate the development of the flow field which is the response of a fluid to the buoyancy force due to the existence of a temperature gradient in a hemispherical fluid-saturated porous medium, assuming the validity of the Brinkman model. The induced flow is assumed to be slow, and Stokes approximation is invoked. It is shown, at all times, the induced fluid motion occurs in the form of eddies on either side of the axis of symmetry. In the steady state, the behavior of the fluid motion on the free surface is similar to that of axial fluid flow. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Vishnu Priyan S.,Ganadipathy Tulsis Jain Engineering College | Srivatsa S.K.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2014

JPEG is one of the widely used image formats in digital image processing. The analysis and the discovery of JPEG Image compression methods contribute a major significant part in digital images forensic examination. In recent years, the JPEG images can be compressed several times such as single, double and multiple times, but if the compression is applied to same image again and again without estimation of the quantization results, it becomes very complicated to detect JPEG image compression results. Since same quantization matrix is used for several number of compression process, the results of quantization has to be analyzed in each step of compression to solve the above problem. Moreover, error values in the quantized matrix and resizing of the image samples are not carried out effectively. In order to overcome these problems, in this research work, compressed images are resized using improved seam covering method and estimation of quantization matrix results for single and double DCT compression methods using Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) to investigate the error values. From FNN, the quantization matrix result is examined in DCT compression methods in order to differentiate the singly and doubly compressed images, which results quantization error values in the compression methods. Wide-ranging of experiments shows that the proposed DCT compression with FNN have higher detection rate for double and single JPEG compression successfully when compared with the existing DCT compression methods extensively. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.-All rights reserved.


Vidya Sagar V.B.R.,MindTree Ltd | Abirami S.,Anna University
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2014

Requirements analysts consider a conceptual model to be an important artifact created during the requirements analysis phase of a software development life cycle (SDLC). A conceptual, or domain model is a visual model of the requirements domain in focus. Owing to its visual nature, the model serves as a platform for the deliberation of requirements by stakeholders and enables requirements analysts to further refine the functional requirements. Conceptual models may evolve into class diagrams during the design and execution phases of the software project. Even a partially automated conceptual model can save significant time during the requirements phase, by quickening the process of graphical communication and visualization. This paper presents a system to create a conceptual model from functional specifications, written in natural language in an automated manner. Classes and relationships are automatically identified from the functional specifications. This identification is based on the analysis of the grammatical constructs of sentences, and on Object Oriented principles of design. Extended entity-relationship (EER) notations are incorporated into the class relationships. Optimizations are applied to the identified entities during a post-processing stage, and the final conceptual model is rendered. The use of typed dependencies, combined with rules to derive class relationships offers a granular approach to the extraction of the design elements in the model. The paper illustrates the model creation process using a standard case study, and concludes with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach for the requirements analysis. The analysis is conducted against both standard published models and conceptual models created by humans, for various evaluation parameters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Rajkumar P.,Anna University
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

The oxidation of pentaamminecobalt(III) complexes of α-Amino acids by Perdisulphuric acid(PDS) in surfactants medium yielding nearly 100% of carbonyl compounds and 100% Co(II) are ultimate products. In this reaction the rate of oxidation shows first order kinetics each in [cobalt(III)] and [PDS]. The unbound α-Amino acids yield about 100% of carbonyl compound in presence of surfactants. The decrease in UV- Visible absorbance at λ= 502nm for Co(III) complex corresponds to nearly 100% of the initial absorbance. The synchronous C-C bond fission and electron transfer of Co(III) centre. The rate of oxidation of Co(III) complexes of both unbound and bound α-Amino acids are enhanced more in the presence of cationic micelle Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide(CTAB) when compared to the anionic micelle of Sodiumlaurylsulphate (NaLS) and non-ionic micelle of TRITON-X 100. The 1.00 mole of cobalt(III) complexes of α-amino acids reacts with nearly 0.5 mole of PDS, Similarly 1.00 mole of α-amino acids reacts with nearly 1.00 mole of PDS. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.


Sabura Banu U.,B.S. Abdur Rahman University | Uma G.,Anna University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

In this paper, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) based Sensor fault detection and isolation for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is proposed. CSTR is a highly nonlinear process exhibiting stable and unstable steady state at different operating regions. Fault detection (FD) of such a complicated CSTR process is a mind boggling problem. In this paper, an ANFIS based 'dedicated observer' scheme is dealt along with statistical methods for the detection of the fault. The result shows the feasibility of using the proposed method for the detection of sensor faults in CSTR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Prabhu S.M.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry | Year: 2013

This study describes the development of various synthetic co-polymeric resins modified by ethylenediamine such as vinylbenzyl chloride/divinylbenzene- ethylenediamine (VBC/DVB-ED), styrene/ divinylbenzene/vinylbenzylchloride- ethylenediamine (ST/DVB/VBC-ED) and acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/ vinylbenzylchloride-ethylenediamine (AN/DVB/VBC-ED) for the removal of fluoride in water. Fluoride sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode. Among the synthetic resins, AN/DVB/ VBC-ED resin possessed higher defluoridation capacity (DC) than ST/DVB/VBC-ED and VBC/DVB-ED resins. The fluoride removal studies were carried out to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions, different initial fluoride concentration and temperature. The equilibrium data were fitted with isotherms and kinetic models to find the best fit for the sorption process. The sorbents were characterized using FTIR, elemental analysis, BET surface area and SEM with EDAX analysis. Field trial studies indicated that the synthesized resins could be used as effective sorbents for fluoride removal. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rajakumar P.,University of Madras | Sekar K.,Anna University | Venkatesan N.,University of Madras
Synlett | Year: 2012

A series of stilbenophanes having N-arylated carbazole moieties possessing small and large cavities have been synthesized via McMurry coupling of the corresponding dialdehyde derived from N-arylation of carbazole with various dibromide followed by formylation. The electrochemical, photophysical, and complexation properties of all the stilbenophanes with electron-deficient guest molecules like TCNQ, TCNE, and PQT were also carried out at different concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Vijayalakshmi B.,Anna University
3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, ICoAC 2011 | Year: 2011

The three critical resources in any cluster based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Sensor Nodes (SN), Cluster Head (CH) and Base Station (BS). The main job of Cluster Head is to send all the aggregated data collected from multiple sensor Nodes to the Base Station. But before sending the data, the Cluster Head must be perfectly sure about the actual identity of Base Station. If any intruder acts as Base Station and receives the aggregated data the entire security of the network is spoiled. To avoid this, the authenticity of the base station needs to be checked by cluster head before sending any data. Many asymmetric authentication techniques like digital signatures are difficult to implement in resource constraint sensor Nodes. A zero-knowledge proof protocol is a powerful cryptographic system that can be applied in many cryptographic applications and operations such as identification, authentication, key exchange and others, but many of the existing zero knowledge proof of identity involves exponential calculations which are not suitable for WSN. To overcome the limitations of the existing techniques, the proposed protocol provides Zero knowledge proof identity using congruence equations. Here, Triplet simultaneous linear congruence equations are used to subdivide a whole secret into three shares. A part of a secret is used as identity of the base station and stored in it. The Base Station won't reveal the part of secret stored in it to the Cluster Head but the Cluster Head confirms the true identity without getting the actual secret from Base Station. In this scheme, the Cluster Heads need to solve only congruence equations which need only limited computation and memory. When the proposed protocol is compared with existing protocols it shows that it provide instant authentication, with minimum memory utilization and withstand many attacks. © 2011 IEEE.


Swarnalatha A.,St. Josephs College | Shanthi A.P.,Anna University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

Evolvable hardware (EH) is a thriving area of research which uses the genetic algorithm (GA) to construct novel circuits without manual engineering. These algorithms have been widely implemented using software but have not gained an appreciable edge because of the huge computation time involved. This has been a major hindrance to real-time applications. A major speed-up could be achieved by shifting the implementation to hardware. Major issues to be addressed in hardware implementation are scalability, providing flexibility and reduced computational delays. Presented here is the first complete hardware evolution (CHE) based system on programmable chip (SoPC) for EH. The architecture includes the required memory and modules for performing all operations of the algorithm. It is completely built on the configurable logic blocks (CLB) of a single commercial off the shelf (COTS) field programmable gate array (FPGA). The coding is done using Verilog hardware description language (HDL). Xilinx ISE 9.1i has been used for synthesis and simulation. As a proof of concept, the architecture has been synthesized for evolving three combinational circuits. The results show that the architecture is able to cater to evolution with no limit on the number of generations, accompanied with no scaling in the resource utilization. The results present computational delays of the order of a few nanoseconds for this CHE based architecture. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Nesamani K.S.,University of California at Irvine | Subramanian K.P.,Anna University
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

In India the emissions rate and fuel consumption of intra-city buses are estimated using the European driving cycles, which don't represent Indian driving conditions and in-use operation of vehicles. This leads to underestimation or overestimation of emissions and fuel consumption. In this context, this paper offers some insight into the driving characteristics of intra-city buses using a Global Positioning System. The study has revealed that irrespective of road type and time of travel, a higher percentage of time is spent in idle mode. This is primarily due to alighting and boarding of passengers at regular intervals and fixed delays caused by traffic lights. More than 90 percent of trips have an average speed of less than 30 km h -1. This study has also developed an intra-city bus driving cycle for Chennai and compared it with some well-known international driving cycles. It has revealed that Chennai has unique driving characteristics and, therefore, it may not be appropriate to adopt a driving cycle of another country or city. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Blinkhorn J.,University of Cambridge | Achyuthan H.,Anna University | Ajithprasad P.,M. S. University of Baroda
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Point technologies form a key component of Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age industries across the Old World. However, only limited attention has been paid to the appearance of point technologies in the South Asian context. Two recent studies have indicated that the lack of Indian point technologies that are analogous to those known from the African Middle Stone Age and Arabian Middle Palaeolithic presents the basis to reject models for modern human dispersals into India associated with Middle Palaeolithic technologies. This study examines the role point technologies play in the Middle Palaeolithic record of the Thar Desert and situates them within the wider context of South Asia and adjacent regions to the west. A synthesis of existing evidence indicates that points form a key component of Middle Palaeolithic industries in the Thar Desert. New descriptions of Middle Palaeolithic artefacts from the Thar Desert highlight the repeated presence of debitage and façonnage approaches which suggest the use of specific reduction strategies in point production, rather than opportunistic or expedient methods. These results are placed in the wider context of the role points have played in Middle Palaeolithic reduction strategies within South Asia. Given the presence of point technologies in the Thar Desert that are comparable with contemporaneous technologies in North Africa and Arabia, we suggest that Middle Palaeolithic dispersal models cannot be rejected on the basis of their absence. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Padma S.,Salem College | Rajaram M.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2011

Problem statement: FACTS devices play a major role in the efficient operation of the complex power system. FACTS devices such as STATCOM, SSSC and IPFC are in increasing usage. With energy storage systems they have a good control over the real as well as reactive power compensation and transient stability improvement. The design of controller for the SSSC with SMES system is analyzed in this study. Approach: The main variables to be controlled in the power system for efficient operation are the voltage, phase angle and impedance. A SSSC is a series connected converter based FACTS control which can provide a series reactive power compensation for a transmission system. With the addition of energy storage device, in addition to the reactive power compensation the real power exchange is also accomplished. Fuzzy logic controller is designed for the efficient operation of the power system with SSSC integrated with energy storage device. From the power reference the current reference is calculated and the error and change in error in the current are calculated in the controller. Results: A three phase to ground fault is simulated in the test system. A comparative analysis of the PI and fuzzy logic control of SSSC with energy storage system for the rotor angle oscillation damping following the disturbance is done. Conclusion: The fuzzy logic controller works efficiently compared to the conventional PI controller for the SSSC with SMES system. Also with energy storage system in the FACTS devices, the efficient operation of the power system is possible. © 2011 Science Publications.


Rama S.,SSN College of Engineering | Surendra Dilip C.,Anna University | Narayana Perumal R.,SSN College of Engineering
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2014

A software program has been developed on the MATLAB platform, which is useful for studying the nucleation kinetics of crystals grown from solutions. Nucleation parameters such as interfacial energy (σ), metastable zone width (ΔTmax), volume free energy (ΔGv), critical energy barrier for nucleation (ΔG*), radius of the critical nucleus (r*) and nucleation rate (J) of the crystals are determined from classical nucleation theory. The Metastable Zone Width (MZW) of the crystals is explored by using the relation based on solubility and enthalpy of nucleation. A new polynomial equation has been generated by this software program, and the results are checked with the experimental data of crystal growth/formation. Nucleation temperature as a function of supersaturation ratio was successfully evaluated using MZW. The equation relating to the nucleation kinetics and MZW can easily be solved with the help of a newly designed software program in the MATLAB platform. In addition, a program has been developed that highlights changes in nucleation parameters when the supersaturation ratio is changed. A plot of temperature vs energy barrier, nucleation rate and interfacial energy is also drawn. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Saravanan N.,Tata Motors | Puhan S.,Vel Technology Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Vedaraman N.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Vegetable oils and animal fats in their raw form have high viscosities that makes them unsuitable as fuels for diesel engines. Transesterification is one of the well-known processes by which fats and oils are converted into biodiesel. The reaction often makes use of acid/base catalyst. If the material possesses high free fatty acid then acid catalyst gives better results. In the present investigation, Mahua oil having 14% free fatty acid was transesterifed to obtain biodiesel using acid catalysts with different alcohols. The alcohols used were Methanol, Ethanol and Butanol. The objective of using higher alcohol is to find their effect on ester yield. The process optimization was made based on the maximum ester yield. The results show that transesterification with butanol gives a better yield compared to methanol and ethanol. The transesterification results show that higher catalyst concentration by 6-10% Vol. produces biodiesel with lower viscosity, lower specific gravity with a higher yield (short reaction time of 5. hours). The best process condition with butanol was found to be 6% Vol. of sulfuric acid with 150% excess butanol, which gave an yield of around 95.4% in a reaction time of 5. hours. The prepared biodiesels were tested as per the standard and were found to be satisfactory. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Dell'Atti L.,Anna University
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperatively the results of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the detection of morphological, vascularization status of urethral rhabdosphincter (RS) and evaluate the correlation with urinary continence after radical prostatectomy (RP).METHODS: 211 patients who underwent RP were prospectively studied using TRUS scan of the RS thickness. At the end of the examination a study was performed with the use of colour-Doppler for the assessment of the RS vascularity pattern. The level of continence was graded on a 5 point scale as: 1 = complete continence, 2 = 1 pad daily, 3 = 2-3 pads daily, 4 = 4 or more pads daily, and 5 = complete incontinence.RESULTS: It was possible to visualize the rhabdosphincter and its vascularity in all patients. Patients with normal continence (level 1 and 2) showed a sphincter-muscle thickness of 3.5 mm (± 0.4) and a hypoechoic ultrasound pattern. With respect to the other levels 3, 4 and 5 of urinary incontinence RS thickness was 2.8 mm (± 0.5), 2.1 mm (± 0.6), 1.7 (± 0.7) respectively. Incontinence after RP (≥ 3 level) was associated with urethral sphincter deficiency in the great majority of patients. Statistical significant differences were observed in the vascularity between continent and incontinent men in all measured vascularity variables (p < 0.005).CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that RS integrity is a good predictor of urinary continence after RP and this information can be important during the preoperative phase as part of the informed consent.


Venkatesan G.,NIOT | Kulasekharan N.,Saveetha Engineering College | Iniyan S.,Anna University
Desalination | Year: 2013

Two dimensional computational analyses with different turbulence models is carried out for the flow of single phase fluid (air) through curved vane demisters, as used in desalination plants. Computations are performed on a demister geometry, on which experiments were conducted and reported earlier. The experimental data contains local variations of velocity components measured, along chosen lines within the flow domain. Computational fluid dynamics results along these lines for 15 different turbulence models, using Ansys Fluent, were compared with experimental data. Present results indicated that the higher order wall treatment options, like enhanced wall treatment and non-equilibrium wall functions do not yield good predictions for the geometry currently studied. Few turbulence models were found to show better agreement levels, other than the Reynolds stress transport model, which is reported best for this type of geometry. It was found that Spalart-Almaras (SA) model and few variations of k-ε model showed better prediction than other models like k-ω. Considering the merits of accuracy in predicting local flow features in most of the locations, the SA model is recommended for analysis involving curved demister. Similar analysis can be extended for two phase flow through curved vane demisters, to understand the performance and suitability.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Prabhu S.M.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

In this paper, a new kind of approach undertakes for the synthesis of novel chitosan (CS) blended with ethylenediamine (ED) functionalized synthetic polymers viz., acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED) and styrene/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED) for defluoridation of water. Under batch mode, various influencing parameters like shaking time, pH, competitor ions and temperature were optimized. The fluoride removal was reasonably explained using Freundlich, Langmuir and D-R isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters viz., δ. G°, δ. H° and δ. S° indicates the nature of the fluoride sorption with the sorbents. The FT-IR, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis were used to study the fluoride adsorption of CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED and CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED blends. The thermal stability of both the sorbents was tested using TGA/DSC analysis. Studies were also conducted to test the potential application of the prepared polymeric blends for fluoride removal from field water collected from the nearby fluoride endemic area. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Govindharajan T.A.,Anna University
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2015

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a self-contained service with a collection of services. Services communicate with each other using a web service. Web services use a collection of open protocols and standards for communication between different web services and their applications. In today's environment, users are not satisfied with a single web service. To fulfill the users' needs, two or more atomic services must be combined to provide a single complex service. Hence several atomic web services must be orchestrated based on user preference by using a multi-agent system. In the traditional approach, the orchestration of web services is a manual process. The proposed system reduces human intervention and supports the orchestration of atomic web services into a complex service by using a multi-agent system. Therefore, this paper addresses the automatic orchestration by using a multi-agent i.e., two agents. The first agent is used to select an appropriate web service from the available atomic service. The second agent is used to orchestrate the selected web services to form a complex service based on a user's requirement and quality of service (QoS). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Santhanakumar M.,Saveetha Engineering College | Adalarasan R.,Saveetha Engineering College | Rajmohan M.,Anna University
International Journal of Manufacturing Research | Year: 2015

Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is a widely used industrial process for cutting different materials at higher speeds. The capability of PAC to compete with laser cutting has created a significant amount of research attention. The present study was focused towards assessing the quality of cut obtained under different cutting conditions by varying the process parameters like cutting speed, arc current and stand-off distance. The quality of cut was monitored by measuring the surface roughness and kerf width. A new integrated approach of desirability function-based response surface methodology (DRSM) was disclosed for modelling and predicting the optimal cutting condition. The effectiveness of DRSM technique was proved by conducting a confirmation test. A significant improvement was observed in the quality characteristics and an overall P-profile plot of the cut surfaces was also examined to study the enhancement in surface finish. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Renuga S.,Anna University | Renuga S.,Indira Institute of Engineering and Technology | Muthu S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Density functional theory (DFT) computations have become an efficient tool in the prediction of molecular structure, harmonic force fields, vibrational wave numbers as well as the IR and Raman intensities of pharmaceutically important molecule. In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis and detonation properties of (S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) butanamide. The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of (S)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) butanamide were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. Harmonic frequencies of this compound were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-31G(d,p), 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The calculated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compounds were also stimulated utilizing the scaled force fields and the computed dipole derivatives for IR intensities and polarizability derivatives for Raman intensities. The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbital's and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. Heat of formation (HOF) and calculated density were estimated to evaluate detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using DFT calculations. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The observed and calculated wave numbers are found to be in good agreement. On the basis of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Basha S.S.,Anna University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2012

Given non-empty subsets A and B of ametric space, let S:A→B and T :A→B be non-self mappings. Due to the fact that S and T are non-self mappings, the equations Sx = x and T x = x are likely to have no common solution, known as a common fixed point of the mappings S and T . Consequently, when there is no common solution, it is speculated to determine an element x that is in close proximity to Sx and T x in the sense that d(x, Sx) and d(x, T x) are minimum. As a matter of fact, common best proximity point theorems inspect the existence of such optimal approximate solutions, called common best proximity points, to the equations Sx = x and T x = x in the case that there is no common solution. It is highlighted that the real valued functions x→d(x, Sx) and x→d(x, T x) assess the degree of the error involved for any common approximate solution of the equations Sx = x and T x = x. Considering the fact that, given any element x in A, the distance between x and Sx, and the distance between x and T x are at least d(A, B), a common best proximity point theorem affirms global minimum of both functions x→d(x, Sx) and x→d(x, T x) by imposing a common approximate solution of the equations Sx = x and T x = x to satisfy the constraint that d(x, Sx) = d(x, T x) = d(A, B). The purpose of this article is to derive a common best proximity point theorem for proximally commuting non-self mappings, thereby producing common optimal approximate solutions of certain simultaneous fixed point equations in the event there is no common solution. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011.


Ganesh N.,Anna University | Thangasamy S.,Kumaraguru College of Technology
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: This article presents the biggest challenge that the organization faces in transitioning the mindset of the team from that of a waterfall model to an agile thought pattern. Approach: The study is conducted from a real time live project, carried out in a software organization. Results: The software team found a major difference in their work culture resulting in collective ownership, forming a balanced self organized team, getting frequent feedback from the customer and making continuous deliverables. Conclusion: The main finding when implementing an agile software development is to respond to the changing needs or requirements, thereby satisfying the customer needs rather than following a specific set of practice. © 2012 Science Publications.


Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A new biocomposite was prepared by incorporating inorganic ion exchanger namely zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate (ZrWP) into the chitosan biopolymeric matrix. The sorption behaviour of fluoride from aqueous solutions by this ZrWP/chitosan (ZrWPCs) composite has been investigated by batch technique. The fluoride sorption was studied as a function of contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, competing co-ions and temperature. The defluoridation capacity (DC) of the adsorbent was found to be 2025 mgF- kg-1. The composite was characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The kinetics of sorption was found to follow pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The biocomposite was successfully used for the removal of fluoride from the field water taken in a nearby fluoride endemic village. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


In the commercial food sector, preservation and transportation is responsible to avoid the 22% spoilage of the total food production in developing countries like India. To reduce the spoilage, preservation of such produce including milk is needed in remote places. Due to the increased fossil fuel costs, issues in grid extension and environmental concerns, there has been a renewed interest in hybrid renewable energy systems for cooling applications in remote/rural areas. In this paper, the overall thermal performance and economic aspects of a hybrid energy based milk cooling system for hilly terrain have been analysed using the MATLAB software and the appropriate hybrid energy systems has been predicted. The results indicate that the biomass and gobar gas combination can show the overall thermal performance as 0.17-0.23 with lowest Payback period and life cycle cost of 4.5 years and INR 2.8 × 107 respectively. The sensitivity analysis shows that the maximum influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the overall COP, capital cost, running cost and payback period are 6.8, 5.1, 5.3 and 6.1 percentages respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Rajesh K.B.,Anna University | Jaroszewicz Z.,Institute of Applied Optics | Anbarasan P.M.,Periyar University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

The focal field of high NA lens axicon with a binary-phase optical component is calculated by using vector diffraction theory. Numerical results show that for a radially polarized Bessel Gaussian input field, the proposed system generates a subwavelength (0.395λ) longitudinally polarized beam with large uniform depth of focus (approximately 6 λ). © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Arulazhagan P.,University of Suwon | Vasudevan N.,Anna University
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

A halotolerant bacterial strain VA1 isolated from marine environment was studied for its ability to utilize polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under saline condition. Anthracene and pyrene were used as representatives for the utilization of PAH by the bacterial strain. Glucose and sodium citrate were used as additional carbon sources to enhance the PAH utilization. The strain VA1 was able to utilize anthracene (73%) and pyrene (66%) without any additional substrate. In the presence of additional carbon sources (glucose/sodium citrate) the utilization of PAH was faster. PAH was utilized faster by VA1 in the presence of glucose than sodium citrate. The stain utilized 87% and 83% of anthracene and pyrene with glucose as carbon source and with sodium citrate the strain utilized 81% and 76% respectively in 4 days. Urea as an alternative source of nitrogen also enhanced the utilization of PAHs (anthracene and pyrene) by the bacterial strain up to 88% and 84% in 4 days. Sodium nitrate as nitrogen source was not able to enhance the PAH utilization rate. Phenotypic and phlyogenetic analysis proved that the PAHs utilizing halotolerant strain VA1 belongs to Ochrobactrum sp. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Sri Bala Kameswari K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Chitra Kalyanaraman,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Thanasekaran K.,Anna University
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2011

Studies were carried out by the application of ozonation and ultrasonication as pretreatment processes on primary and secondary sludge generated during treatment of tannery wastewater to enhance the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). Further, co-digestion (simultaneous digestion of two or more substrates) studies were carried out in batch reactors using the fleshings (a solid waste generated during the processing of raw hides or skins into finished leather) along with the primary and the secondary sludge wherein biogas generation was compared with and without pre-treated sludge using ozone and ultrasonication processes, respectively. It was found that, application of pretreatment processes enhanced biogas generation by 45% in the case of ozone pre-treated sludge and 53% by ultrasonication processes, respectively, in conjunction with the fleshings. However, considering the optimum contact time required, application of ultrasonication as a pretreatment process was found to be the most appropriate and viable process to enhance the SCOD. This pretreatment process has the potential for implementation in tanneries using the shortest possible ultrasonication time to minimize energy cost when compared with ozonation time. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Senthilkumar M.,Central Ground Water Board | Elango L.,Anna University
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2011

Groundwater modelling is widely used as a management tool to understand the behaviour of aquifer systems under different hydrological stresses, whether induced naturally or by humans. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the Palar River basin, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Groundwater is supplied to a nearby nuclear power plant and groundwater also supplies irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. In order to meet the increasing demand for groundwater for the nuclear power station, a subsurface barrier/dam was proposed across Palar River to increase the groundwater heads and to minimise the subsurface discharge of groundwater into the sea. The groundwater model used in this study predicted that groundwater levels would increase by about 0.1-0.3 m extending out a distance of about 1.5-2 km from the upstream side of the barrier, while on the downstream side, the groundwater head would lower by about 0.1-0.2 m. The model also predicted that with the subsurface barrier in place the additional groundwater requirement of approximately 13,600 m3/day (3 million gallons (UK)/day) can be met with minimum decline in regional groundwater head. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Anbalagan T.,Anna University | Maheswari S.U.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2014

Stock market price forecasting is one of the challenging tasks due to the difficulty in predicting the non-linear and non-stationary time series data. In this paper a Fuzzy Metagraph (FM) based stock market decision making, classification and prediction are proposed for short term investors of Indian stock market. Simple Moving Average (SMA), Exponential Moving Average (EMA), Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) and Relative Strength Index (RSI) are some of the Technical Indicators which are used as input to train the system which is integrated with Fuzzy Metagraph. This approach of incorporating FM with SMA, MACD and RSI would be a new attempt in classification and prediction on share market investment. Stocks listed in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India are used to evaluate the performance of the system. The results obtained from the proposed FM based model are found to be satisfactory with very low risk error. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Nonlinear optical single crystals of lithium potassium sulphate (LPS) have been grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm that the crystal belongs to the hexagonal crystal structure with space group P63. The mechanical behaviour of the grown crystals was studied using Vicker's microhardness tester. Using the Kurtz and Perry method the powder SHG efficiency was found to be 1.7 times that of KDP. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss of lithium potassium sulphate are measured in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures. Some fundamental data such as valance electron plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, and electronic polarizability of the grown crystal were calculated. The photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconductivity nature of the sample.


Sundaramoorthy S.,Velammal College of Engineering and Technology | Shantharajah S.P.,Anna University
Journal of Web Engineering | Year: 2014

Data Mining involves discovery of required potentially qualified content from a heavy collection of heterogeneous data sources. Two decades passed, still it remains the interested area for researchers. It has become a flexible platform for mining engineers to analyse and visualize the hidden relationships among the data sources. Association rules have a strong place in representing those relationships by framing suitable rules. It has two powerful parameters namely support and confidence which helps to carry out framing of such rules. Frequent itemset mining is also termed to be frequent pattern mining. When the combination of items increases rapidly, we term it to be a pattern. The ultimate goal is to design rules over such frequent patterns in an effective manner i.e in terms of time co mplexity and space complexity. The count of evolutionary algorithms to achieve this goal is increasing day by day. Bio Inspired algorithms holds a strong place in machine learning, mining, evolutionary computing and so on. Ant Colony Algorithm is one such algorithm which is designed based on behaviour of biological inspired ants. This algorithm is adopted for its characteristic of parallel search and dynamic memory allocation. It works comparatively faster than basic Apriori algorithm, AIS, FP Growth algorithm. The two major parameters of this algorithm are pheromone updating rule and transition probability. The basic ant colony algorithm is improved by modifying the pheromone updating rule in such way to reduce multiple scan over data storage and reduced count of candidate sets. The proposed approach was tested using MATLAB along with WEKA toolkit. The experimental results prove that the stigmeric communication of improved ant colony algorithm helps in mining the frequent items faster and effectively than the above stated existing algorithms. © Rinton Press.


Suganthi L.,Anna University | Samuel A.A.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Energy is vital for sustainable development of any nation - be it social, economic or environment. In the past decade energy consumption has increased exponentially globally. Energy management is crucial for the future economic prosperity and environmental security. Energy is linked to industrial production, agricultural output, health, access to water, population, education, quality of life, etc. Energy demand management is required for proper allocation of the available resources. During the last decade several new techniques are being used for energy demand management to accurately predict the future energy needs. In this paper an attempt is made to review the various energy demand forecasting models. Traditional methods such as time series, regression, econometric, ARIMA as well as soft computing techniques such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, and neural networks are being extensively used for demand side management. Support vector regression, ant colony and particle swarm optimization are new techniques being adopted for energy demand forecasting. Bottom up models such as MARKAL and LEAP are also being used at the national and regional level for energy demand management. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kavitha K.,Anna University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Targeted drug delivery of 5 fluorouracil enhances effective localization of the drug at gastric cancer to minimize toxic effects and maximize therapeutic index. In the present study, gastro retentive systems of 5 fluorouracil were formulated. The drug 5fluorouracil was mixed with β cyclodextrin to enhance the solubility of the drug (prepared by freeze drying technique in the ratio of 1:1, which showed a higher dissolution profile when compared to other complexes). The granules of 5FU along with other ingredients were prepared by wet granulation technique and were investigated for physical characteristics. The tablet weight, thickness, and pressure were optimized by varying the process parameters. Buoyancy determination was done by beaker method using 100 ml of Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF), at 37°C. Invitro dissolution studies were performed with SGF and the samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically at 266 nm. Curve fitting analysis of the formulations was done to analyze the release pattern of the formulations. The best formula possessed the minimum buoyancy lag time as well as maximum floatation time of 24 hours. Invitro dissolution study showed that formulation FIX with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose as polymer and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent could show maximum release. The kinetic study confirmed that the selected formulations followed zero order release with higuchi pattern. It might be concluded that formulation of floating effervescent tablets of 5 fluorouracil was reproducible and the release could be controlled over an extended period of time. This gastroretentive formulation could target the drug to gastric tumors.


Das A.,Bureau of Energy Efficiency BEE under Ministry of Power Government of India | Balakrishnan V.,Anna University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper has analyzed the case of Moushuni Island at Sundarban of 24 Parganas South of West Bengal, India. The proposition is to find out the possibility of grid-connectivity of Isolated Remote Island which is under rural electrification scheme by hybrid renewable energies under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission of India. In these rural electrification program, grid extension can be the best option if the grid is reliable, the rural community rather big and in proximity to the grid. In many circumstances, a strong case for mini-grids based on hybrid systems can be made. Scattered communities and isolated houses are well served by solar and small hydro (where available) or small wind energy systems. By feeding renewable electricity to the utility grid through the grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system, during time of peak demand, sufficient electrical loads can be shed to prevent turning on a coal or natural gas-fired plant and therefore save CO 2 emissions and potentially energy import costs, replacing fossil fuels. The Social, Economic, and Environmental Benefits can be achieved through this proposition. Also, the Grid Interactive Operation of SPV System at Moushuni Island is tested. Malda district of West Bengal, India is a vision towards smart-grid city towards sustainable future, where rural consumers can upgrade their quality of life through solar energy resource. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dhanapal A.,Sri Ramanujar Engineering College | Rajendra Boopathy S.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2012

Magnesium alloys have gained considerable interest as a structural material for automotive and aerospace applications due to its low-density, high specific strength and good castability. As a consequence, this light alloys have a promising future. The limitation of low corrosion resistance restricts their practical applications. The corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy welds was investigated by Immersion technique. Extruded Mg alloy plates of 6 mm thick of AZ61A grade were butt welded using friction stir welding (FSW) process. The present paper reveals the effect of pH, chloride ion concentration and immersion time on corrosion rate of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy welds in NaCl solution. The corrosion rate was evaluated from weight loss measurements. Furthermore, an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the effect of pH value, chloride ion concentration and immersion time on corrosion rate of AZ61A magnesium alloy welds. The corrosion morphology observation was carried out by optical microscopy and the corrosion products were analyzed by SEM and XRD analysis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Quade J.,University of Arizona | Eiler J.,California Institute of Technology | Daeron M.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Achyuthan H.,Anna University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013

We studied both modern soils and buried paleosols in order to understand the relationship of temperature (T°C(47)) estimated from clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of soil carbonates to actual surface and burial temperatures. Carbonates from modern soils with differing rainfall seasonality were sampled from Arizona, Nevada, Tibet, Pakistan, and India. T°C(47) obtained from these soils shows that soil carbonate forms in the warmest months of the year, in the late morning to afternoon, and probably in response to intense soil dewatering. T°C(47) obtained from modern soil carbonate ranges from 10.8 to 39.5°C. On average, T°C(47) exceeds mean annual temperature by 10-15°C due to summertime bias in soil carbonate formation, and to summertime ground heating by incident solar radiation. Secondary controls on T°C(47) are soil depth and shading. Site mean annual air temperature (MAAT) across a broad range (0-30. °C) of site temperatures is highly correlated with T°C(47) from soils, following the equation:. MAAT(°C)=1.20(T°C(47)0)-21.72(r2=0.92)where T°C(47)0 is the effective air temperature at the site estimated from T°C(47). The effective air temperature represents the air temperature required to account for the T°C(47) at each site, after consideration of variations in T°C(47) with soil depth and ground heating. The highly correlated relationship in this equation should now permit mean annual temperature in the past to be reconstructed from T°C(47) in paleosol carbonate, assuming one is studying paleosols that formed in environments generally similar in seasonality and ground cover to our calibration sites.T°C(47)0 decreases systematically with elevation gain in the Himalaya, following the equation:elevation(m)=-229(T°C(47)0)+9300(r2=0.95)Assuming that temperature varied similarly with elevation in the past, this equation can be used to reconstruct paleoelevation from clumped isotope analysis of ancient soil carbonates. We also measured T°C(47) from long sequences of deeply buried (≤5km) paleosol carbonate in the Himalayan foreland in order to evaluate potential diagenetic resetting of clumped isotope composition. We found that paleosol carbonate faithfully records plausible soil T°C(47) down to 2.5-4km burial depth, or ∼90-125°C. Deeper than this and above this temperature, T°C(47) in paleosol carbonate is reset to temperatures >40°C. We observe ∼40°C as the upper limit for T°C(47) in modern soils from soil depths >25cm, and therefore that T°C(47) >40°C obtained from ancient soil carbonate indicates substantially warmer climate regimes compared to the present, or non-primary temperatures produced by resetting during diagenesis. If representative, this limits the use of T°C(47) to reconstruct ancient surface temperature to modestly buried (<3-4km) paleosol carbonates. Despite diagenetic resetting of Δ47 values, δ18O and δ13C values of the same deeply buried paleosol carbonate appear unaltered. We conclude that solid-state reordering or recrystallization of clumping of carbon and oxygen isotopes can occur in the absence of open-system exchange of paleosol carbonate with significant quantities of water or other phases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Mathew O.C.,Anna University | Rahman A.M.J.Z.,Al Ameen Engineering College
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Telemedicine is the technology in which real time medical data such as medical image and clinical examination has been transmitted to support physicians at remote sites. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has been widely adopted network in the telemedicine application for its reliability, data transmission and scalability. Energy conservation is one of the most significant research areas in MANET, due to limited energy resource offered to the mobile nodes. The difficult task is how to utilize the energy of nodes in an optimal way to improve the network connectivity as long as possible. Compressing the size of such huge amount of medical data with the aggregator nodes makes the improvement in the network lifetime and the bandwidth utilization. Hence this paper proposes a Distributed Energy Adaptation and Data Collection Algorithm (DEA-DCA) based on the Honeycomb routing approach for energy optimization and the performance improvement of the telemedicine application. The DEADCA consists of three phases such as Building a Best Afford Path, Adaptive Data Collection, Path Switching. In each of the phases the energy optimization has been done by accounting such huge amount of medical data transmission. The proposed approach is compared with the existing techniques such as Optimal Path Selection Model (OPSM), Permutation based K-means Clustering" (PKMC) and Honey Comb Routing (HCR) in terms of delay, energy, throughput, and traffic. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Kothandapani M.,Anna University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2015

This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of the peristaltic transport of a Williamson nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel under the action of a thermal radiation parameter. In general, the nanofluids are electrically conducting nature. A model of wall-induced fluid flow within an infinite tapered channel has been developed to simulate the transport phenomena due to asymmetric wall displacements. This problem has plentiful applications. Moreover, it may serve as a model for the intrauterine fluid motion in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus under cancer therapy and drug analysis. The analytical solution has been obtained for the temperature and concentration of the nanofluid. The expressions for the axial velocity, stream function and pressure gradient were also obtained by a regular perturbation technique. Numerical computations have been performed for the pressure rise and the effect of various emerging parameters on the flow characteristics are shown and discussed with the help of graphs. The numerical results shown that the trapped bolus was increased in size and more trapped bolus were also occurred near the right wall with increasing Weissenberg number and thermophoresis parameter but that got decreased for large values of local temperature Grashof number. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramesh S.,Salem College | Karunamoorthy L.,Anna University | Palanikumar K.,Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2012

Titanium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, biomedical applications and they are used in corrosive environments. In this study, the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness in turning of titanium alloy has been investigated using response surface methodology. The experimental studies were conducted under varying cutting speeds, feed and depths of cut. The chip formation and SEM analysis are discussed to enhance the supportive surface quality achieved in turning. The work material used for the present investigation is commercial aerospace titanium alloy (gr5) and the tool used is RCMT 10T300 - MT TT3500 round insert. The equation developed using response surface methodology is used for predicting the surface roughness in machining of titanium alloy. The results revealed that the feed was the most influential factor which affect the surface roughness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Krishnamoorthy A.,Sathyabama University | Rajendra Boopathy S.,Anna University | Palanikumar K.,Sri Sairam Institute of Technology | Paulo Davim J.,University of Aveiro
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2012

Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite materials have potential applications in various domains. In machining, drilling is essentially required to join different structures. But CFRP drilling poses many problems that decrease the quality of holes. In this paper, Taguchi's L 27 orthogonal array is used to perform drilling of CFRP composite plates. To improve the quality of the holes drilled, the optimal combination of drilling parameters is chosen using grey relational analysis. Grey fuzzy optimization of drilling parameters is based on five different output performance characteristics, namely, thrust force, torque, entry delamination, exit delamination and eccentricity of the holes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to find the percentage contribution of the drilling parameters and found that feed rate is the most influential factor in drilling of CFRP composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rani S.P.J.V.,Anna University
International Journal of High Performance Systems Architecture | Year: 2015

This paper intends to propose a pipelined design of floating point-based self tuning controller (STC) with on-chip process parameter estimator using recursive least square (RLS) algorithm used for real time control applications. The parameter estimation algorithm runs continuously to allow the model of the system to be updated at each sample interval as changes occur in the process and the algorithm estimates the unknown process parameters recursively based on the minimisation of the least squares error. The estimated parameters are validated with actual parameters of first and second discrete single input single output (SISO) linear processes. The proposed pipelined design of STC is analysed with the second order process. The process is controlled by RST controller and its parameters are identified with minimum degree pole placement technique. The design is implemented in very high-speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and is tested using Virtex IV device 4VLX200ff1513. The maximum operating frequency of pipelined design of STC is 146.735 MHz. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Bhakkiyalakshmi E.,SRM University | Sireesh D.,SRM University | Rajaguru P.,Anna University | Paulmurugan R.,Stanford University | Ramkumar K.M.,SRM University
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2015

The pathogenic processes involving in the development of diabetes range from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The major contributing factor for excessive β-cell death includes oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage, which creates an imbalance in redox homeostasis. Yet, β-cells have evolved adaptive mechanisms to endure a wide range of stress conditions to safeguard its potential functions. These include 'Nrf2/Keap1' pathway, a key cellular defense mechanism, to combat oxidative stress by regulating phase II detoxifying and antioxidant genes. During diabetes, redox imbalance provokes defective Nrf2-dependent signaling and compromise antioxidant capacity of the pancreas which turnout β-cells to become highly vulnerable against various insults. Hence, identification of small molecule activators of Nrf2/Keap1 pathway remains significant to enhance cellular defense to overcome the burden of oxidative stress related disturbances. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism behind Nrf2 activation and the impact of Nrf2 activators in diabetes and its complications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Muralidhar B.A.,Anna University
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2015

This study investigates the thermal and viscoelastic properties of flax preform reinforced epoxy composites. Plain woven flax fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were used as reinforcements and flax preforms reinforced epoxy composites were produced using hand lay-up method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax woven and knitted preforms. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a higher storage modulus for woven preform reinforced composite compared to knitted preform reinforced composites. The storage modulus was found to decrease with temperature in all cases. Loss modulus showed shifts in the (Tg) compared to virgin epoxy, with the addition of flax preforms as reinforcing phase, which indicate that preforms plays an important role with respect to Tg. Single tan δ peaks were observed for all the composite samples tested. The tan δ peak height was maximum for virgin epoxy matrix, indicating that there is a large degree of mobility, thus good damping behaviours. However, lower peaks were observed for both woven and knitted preform reinforced composites. With respect to the viscoelastic properties the rigidity and endurance of the fibres are highly affected by thermal treatment at temperatures above 70℃ and up to 100℃. © The Author(s) 2013.


Ershadh M.,Anna University
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters | Year: 2015

This article proposes a comprehensive study for designing an antenna for ultra wide band (UWB) communications. The techniques involved for designing an antenna, the need for its use and effects of those techniques on the UWB performance of the proposed antenna are investigated to develop an intuition and to gain an insight into the antenna design. The work studies the design methodologies and constitutes a design procedure. This way of studying the design methodologies for designing an UWB antenna is proposed as a novel approach in this article, as it gives a clear insight into the UWB antenna design. Various aspects of the UWB characteristics of the proposed antenna are shown as comparison with an analogous classic design to view the improvement in each and every aspect of the essential parameters of the UWB. The presented results show that an overall improvement in the UWB performance is achieved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Prakash J.,Anna University | Patwardhan S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Shah S.L.,University of Alberta
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2011

Recursive state estimation of constrained nonlinear dynamical system has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. For nonlinear/non-Gaussian state estimation problems, particle filters have been widely used (Arulampalam et al. [1]). As pointed out by Daum [2], particle filters require a proposal distribution and the choice of proposal distribution is the key design issue. In this paper, a novel approach for generating the proposal distribution based on a constrained Extended Kalman filter (C-EKF), Constrained Unscented Kalman filter (C-UKF) and constrained Ensemble Kalman filter (C-EnkF) has been proposed. The efficacy of the proposed state estimation algorithms using a particle filter is illustrated via a successful implementation on a simulated gas-phase reactor, involving constraints on estimated state variables and another example problem, which involves constraints on the process noise (Rao et al. [10]). We also propose a state estimation scheme for estimating state variables in an autonomous hybrid system using particle filter with Unscented Kalman filter as a proposal and unconstrained Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) as a proposal. The efficacy of the proposed state estimation scheme for an autonomous hybrid system is demonstrated by conducting simulation studies on a three-tank hybrid system. The simulation studies underline the crucial role played by the choice of proposal distribution in formulation of particle filters. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Suresh S.,Anna University
Materials Physics and Mechanics | Year: 2012

Single crystals of Meta nitroaniline (mNA) were grown successfully by slow evaporation technique. The as-grown crystal was clear, transparent and the size of the crystal attained was 8 x 4 x 3 mm 3 within a period of 3 weeks. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their orthorhombic system. An attempt was made to calculate polarizability by Penn analysis and compare with the traditional method and results are tabulated. The optical properties of the grown crystal were calculated from UV-transmission spectrum analysis. Dielectric constant studies were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry powder technique. © 2012, Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering.


Suresh S.,Anna University
Materials Physics and Mechanics | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the theoretical study on the density of the hydroxyapatite (HAp). The solid state dielectric properties such as valence electron, plasma energy, Penn gap and Fermi energy were also evaluated for the HAp using the empirical relation. These estimated values were utilized to report the electronic polarizability and dielectric susceptibility of the HAp. © 2012, Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering.


Sridhar S.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: The framework for segmenting calculi in ureter and bladder using ultrasound images is proposed in this study. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, urethra or in urinary bladder. The extraction of calculi in medical images is a difficult task as no standard algorithms are available. This poses a serious a problem for successful diagnosis of calculi disease. The proposed technique is specific for the extraction of calculi in ureter and bladder. This constitutes the first stage in the successful treatment of calculi disease. Approach: An algorithm is proposed to detect calculus based on the shadow it casts in ultrasound image. Calculi are present in ultrasound images as bright spots. But noise in the image also can be bright spots. So it is easy to misinterpret the presence of noise as calculi. The proposed framework thus has two phases. In phase one, five standard algorithms are modified and are used to segment the bright spots present in the ultrasound images using the intensity profile. Calculi are having intensity in the range of 10-40. So all the potential calculi as well as the noise that appear as bright spots are segmented in phase one. In phase two,a validation procedure is used to validate the presence of calculi using its acoustic shadow property in the ultrasound images. Results: Ultrasound images of twenty-seven ureteric and bladder calculi patients are used for testing the framework. The detected calculi by the proposed framework are validated against a group of experts. The Performance of the proposed method is thoroughly investigated and the accuracy of the framework is determined. The framework incorporating automated seed selected region growing algorithm is able to detect the calculi with the efficiency of 78.57%. Conclusion: The extracted calculi can further be analyzed for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for taking decision about the treatment procedures. The proposed system is helpful for clinicians as a decision support tool. This system can also be useful as educational aid for assisting or decision making in the treatment of calculus disease. © 2012 Science Publications.


Soundararajan S.,Velammal Institute of Technology | Bhuvaneswaran R.S.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: Load balancing and network congestion are the major problems in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) routing. Most of the existing routing protocols provide solutions to load balancing or congestion or fault-tolerance, individually. Approach: We propose congestion controlled adaptive multi-path routing protocol to achieve load balancing and avoid congestion in MANETs. The algorithm for finding multi-path routes computes fail-safe multiple paths, which provide all the intermediate nodes on the primary path with multiple routes to destination. The fail-safe multiple paths include the nodes with least load and more battery power and residual energy. When the average load of a node along the route increases beyond a threshold, it distributes the traffic over disjoint multi-path routes to reduce the traffic load on a congested link. Results: The proposed work is implemented in NS2 and the performance metrics like throughput, packet delivery ratio, delay and overhead are measured and compared with existing protocol. Conclusion/Recommendations: Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently solves the problem of load balancing, network congestion and fault tolerance The proposed algorithm can alos be applied over any multipath routing protocol. © 2012 Science Publications.


Victer Paul P.,Pondicherry University | Jayakumar S.K.V.,Pondicherry University | Dhavachelvan P.,Pondicherry University | Baskaran R.,Anna University
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2012

Replica Management is a key issue to reduce the bandwidth consumption, to improve data availability and to maintain data consistency in large distributed systems. Global Replica Management (GRM) means to maintain the data consistency across the entire network. It is preferable particularly for multi-group distributed systems. On the other hand, GRM is not favorable for many applications because a very large number of message passes is needed for replica management processes. In this paper, in order to reduce the number of message passes needed to achieve the efficient GRM strategy, an interconnection structure called the Distributed Spanning Tree (DST) has been employed. The application of DST converts the peer network into logical layered structures and thereby provides a hierarchical mechanism for replication management. It is proved that this hierarchical approach improves the data availability and consistency across the entire network. In addition to these, it is also proved that the proposed approach reduces the data latency and the required number of message passes for any specific application in the network. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bhanumathi V.,Anna University | Dhanasekaran R.,Syed Ammal Engineering College
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: The main idea is to design an energy efficient algorithm for reducing the amount of overhearing based on RSS value in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET). Approach: A cross layer framework is designed by combining the physical, MAC and network layer. RSS value is taken from the physical layer and it is used for finding the Mobility Parameter (MP). MP value determines the level of overhearing and rebroadcast probability. The energy conservation is achieved by integrating the 802.11 PSM with DSR. In 802.11 PSM, all the nodes are in low power sleep state, but the disadvantage here is unconditional overhearing. So, a conditional overhearing mechanism is proposed based on mobility parameter to reduce the energy consumption. This mechanism reduces energy consumption but at the same time, the node mobility results in more stale routes in route cache of DSR over a period of time. This occurs due to the lack of route cache updation. In the proposed design, RSS value determines whether to select the link or not prior to the route discovery process. Results: Simulation results are compared for Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and energy consumption. MP based conditional overhearing shows a 3.2% PDR improvement. It achieves a 20% power saving, if the pause time crosses 300 sec. For the packet injection rate of 2 packets/sec, under no mobility condition, it utilizes 50 joules lesser energy consumption compared to Random Cast. Conclusion: The NS-2 simulation results reveal that the proposed work is energy efficient by reducing the amount of overhearing and also it eliminates the stale routes compared to the classical methods. © 2012 Science Publications.


Banu J.F.,Sathyabama University | Ramachandran V.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: The quality of Voice over IP applications is decided by the main factors like network capacity and technologies such as codec type, Packet Loss Concealment (PLC) and Forward Error Correction (FEC). Approach: In MPLS networks multiple Label Switched Paths (LSP) are established between MPLS ingress and egress nodes to enhance the network performance and QoS for subscribers. To enhance the Quality of Service, Multipath adaptive packet dispersion is proposed for voice applications in IP networks. Results: The trigger handler is proposed to check the balanced load in the system. If the network condition becomes unbalanced, the adaptive packet scheduler classifies the flows and routed to the best shortest paths with the help of proposed packet dispersion technique. Conclusion: The VoIP traffic is routed along the most adequate path that has enough resource to meet a given target QoS. Simulation results are reported to show the efficiency of the proposed technique for effective VOIP flows. © 2012 Science Publications.


Sathyadevi G.,Anna University
International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology, ICRTIT 2011 | Year: 2011

The healthcare industry collects a huge amount of data which is not properly mined and not put to the optimum use. Discovery of these hidden patterns and relationships often goes unexploited. Our research focuses on this aspect of Medical diagnosis by learning pattern through the collected data of hepatitis and to develop intelligent medical decision support systems to help the physicians. In this paper, we propose the use of decision trees C4.5 algorithm, ID3 algorithm and CART algorithm to classify these diseases and compare the effectiveness, correction rate among them. Thus, the CART derived model along with the extended definition for identifying (diagnosing) hepatitis disease provided a good classification accuracy based model. © 2011 IEEE.


Satheshkumar A.,Tea Research Institute | Senthurpandian V.K.,Anna University | Shanmugaselvan V.A.,Tea Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted during April and May of 2011 in Valparai, Coonoor and Gudalur (Tamil Nadu, India) to determine the residues of bifenazate in black tea. From this study, residue levels of bifenazate at different harvest intervals, persistence, dissipation pattern during processing, rate constant and half-life values were calculated. Residues of bifenazate dissipated exponentially after spraying and at Gudalur trial, on the 16th day after application residues were below the maximum residue level of 0.02 mg/kg set by the European Union. However, no residues were detected in the tea brew. Regression lines drawn for bifenazate showed that it followed first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 1.03 to 1.36 days for bifenazate and a pre-harvest interval of 16 days is suggested. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kumar K.,Anna University | Gunasekaran N.,Prathuyusha Institute of Technology and Management
2011 - International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Computing and Networking Technologies, ICSCCN-2011 | Year: 2011

In this paper a simple structure of Ultra Wideband (UWB) antenna is proposed. The antenna is designed on FR4 substrate and fed with 50 ohms microstrip line. The designed antenna uses the V shaped slot configuration on the trapezium shaped patch with partial curved ground plane. The antenna exhibits a -10 dB return loss bandwidth over the entire frequency band. The proposed antenna has bandwidth of 9.2 GHz from 2.3 GHz up to 11.5 GHz range. By this way, the antenna can achieve wideband characteristic and very small size. This paper discusses the antenna parameters such as return loss, radiation pattern and power gain. Having wideband characteristic, compact and planar structure, the antenna is suitable for UWB wireless communication applications. Details of the proposed antenna design, simulated and measured results are presented and discussed © 2011 IEEE.


Mukesh Kumar P.C.,Anna University | Kumar J.,Erode Builder Educational Trusts Group of Institutions | Suresh S.,Indian National Institute of Engineering
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, the heat transfer and friction factor of a shell and helically coiled tube heat exchanger using Al2O3 / water nanofluid at 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.8% particle volume concentration were tested. The test was conducted under laminar flow condition at 5100 < Rei < 8700. It is found that the overall heat transfer coefficient, inner heat transfer coefficient and experimental inner Nusselt number are 24%, 25% and 28%, respectively, higher than water at 0.8% particle volume concentration of nanofluid. It is observed that the presence of nanoparticles further intensify the formation of secondary flow and proper mixing of fluid when nanofluid passes through the helically coiled tube. Apart from further flow intensification, higher thermal conductivity of nanofluid and random movement of nanoparticles contribute to the enhanced heat transfer coefficient. Also found that the friction factor increases over particle volume concentration and this is due to increased nanofluid viscosity while increasing particle volume concentration. © 2013 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sasilatha T.,Anna University | Raja J.,SSN College of Engineering
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the modified design, and implementations of single ended and differential mode low noise amplifiers targeted for wireless sensor network applications. Key issues in wireless sensor network receivers are discussed and the existing circuit level implementations of low noise amplifiers are compared. Emphasis was placed on observing device reliability constraints at low power to maximize the life time of the wireless sensor nodes. The proposed single ended and the differential LNA can operate at 2.4 GHz and dissipates a power of 22.6 and 30.3μW, respectively, from a 1 V supply. The noise performance at input, output and the frequency response is presented. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Manimaran G.,Saveetha Engineering College | Pradeep Kumar M.,Anna University
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2013

The ineffectiveness of conventional coolants and their adverse impact on the environment have led to the use of cryogenic LN2 (liquid nitrogen) as an alternative coolant, which is effective in reducing the grinding zone temperature, and providing better lubrication, in addition to being a clean technology. The sol-gel (SG) alumina grinding wheel, with a self-sharpening characteristic, is used for the experiment. The grinding experiments were conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel under the three environments of dry, wet and cryogenic cooling. The Cryogenic coolant delivers a reduction of about 32% in the grinding forces, 30-49% improvement in the surface roughness, and 45-49% lesser temperature even at higher material removal rates. Cryogenic cooling produces fewer surface defects compared to dry and wet cooling. The effects of the LN2 delivery pressure on the machining zone, in terms of the grinding forces, surface roughness, and grinding zone temperature, were also studied. © 2013 Politechnika Wrocławska.


Pugazhendhi S.C.,Anna University
ICHVE 2012 - 2012 International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application | Year: 2012

Liquid dielectrics play a major role in the insulation system used in high voltage equipments. The most commonly used liquid dielectric is transformer oil which serves the dual purpose as insulation and a coolant. It also acts as insulation between the conductingparts and as an arc quenching medium. Moreover the breakdown strength of the paper and the pressboard insulation depends on the properties of the oil in which it is impregnated. Therefore investigations have been attracted towards the development of nano fluids with better thermal and dielectric properties. In this work, ceramic nano particles are chosen because of their electrical insulating property. Because of higher relative permittivity Zirconia(ZrO2) and Titania(TiO2) nano particles are used here. The dielectric and thermal properties are measured for different concentrations of nanofillers. AC and Impulse breakdown voltage measurements were performed as per IS 6792:1972 and IS 11697:1986 respectively. The specific resistivity and the dielectric dissipation factor measurement were carried with reference to IS 6103:1971 and IS 6262:1971. The kinematic viscosity and flash point are measured as per IS 1448 Part-25:1970 and IS 1448 Part-21:1970 respectively. © 2012 IEEE.


Kanimozhi R.,Anna University | Selvi K.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

In electric power system, the line stability indices adopted in most of the instances laid stress on variation of reactive power than real power variation of the transmission line. In this paper, a proposal is made with the formulation of a New Voltage Stability Index (NVSI) which originates from the equation of a two bus network, neglecting the resistance of transmission line, resulting in appreciable variations in both real and reactive loading. The efficacy of the index and fuzzy based load flow are validated with IEEE 30 bus and Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) 69 bus system, a practical system in India. The results could prove that the identification of weak bus and critical line in both systems is effectively done. The weak area of the practical system and the contingency ranking with overloading either line or generator outages are found by conducting contingency analysis using NVSI.


Joice C.S.,Saveetha Engineering College | Paranjothi S.R.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Kumar V.J.S.,Anna University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2013

Brushless DC (BLDC) motor drives are becoming more popular in industrial, traction applications. This makes the control of BLDC motor in all the four quadrants very vital. This paper deals with the digital control of three phase BLDC motor. The motor is controlled in all the four quadrants without any loss of power; in fact energy is conserved during the regenerative period. The digital controller dsPIC30F4011, which is very advantageous over other controllers, as it combines the calculation capability of Digital Signal Processor and controlling capability of PIC microcontroller, to achieve precise control. © 2012 IEEE.


Nanthagopal P.A.,Anna University | Sukanesh R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
IET Image Processing | Year: 2013

A computer software system is designed for segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography images. In this study, the authors present a method to select both dominant run length and cooccurrence texture features of wavelet approximation tumour region of each slice to be segmented by a support vector machine (SVM). Two-dimensional discrete wavelet decomposition is performed on the tumour image to remove the noise. The images considered for this study belong to 208 tumour slices. Seventeen features are extracted and six features are selected using Student's t-test. This study constructed the SVM and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers with the selected features. The classification accuracy of both classifiers are evaluated using the k fold cross validation method. The segmentation results are also compared with the experienced radiologist ground truth. Quantitative analysis between ground truth and the segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy and segmentation error. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying tumour slices efficiently and accurately. The experimental results show that the proposed SVM classifier is able to achieve high segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by sensitivity and specificity. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.


Ramadoss P.,Pondicherry Engineering College | Nagamani K.,Anna University
Computers and Concrete | Year: 2013

The complete stress-strain behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete in compression is needed for the analysis and design of structures. An experimental investigation was carried out to generate the complete stress-strain curve of high-performance steel fiber reinforced concrete (HPSFRC) with a strength range of 52-80 MPa. The variation in concrete strength was achieved by varying the water-to-cementitious materials ratio of 0.40-0.25 and steel fiber content (Vf = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% with l/d = 80 and 55) in terms of fiber reinforcing parameter, at 10% silica fume replacement. The effects of these parameters on the shape of stress-strain curves are presented. Based on the test data, a simple model is proposed to generate the complete stress-strain relationship for HPSFRC. The proposed model has been found to give good correlation with the stress-strain curves generated experimentally. Inclusion of fibers into HPC improved the ductility considerably. Equations to quantify the effect of fibers on compressive strength, strain at peak stress and toughness of concrete in terms of fiber reinforcing index are also proposed, which predicted the test data quite accurately. Compressive strength prediction model was validated with the strength data of earlier researchers with an absolute variation of 2.1%. Copyright © 2013 Techno Press.


Purushothaman K.,St Peters Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2010

This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using orange oil obtained from orange peel. The combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine were studied using orange oil and diethyl ether (DEE). DEE was inducted as an ignition improver through the induction manifold, and orange oil was injected into the engine through a conventional fuelling device as a primary fuel. The test results indicate that the performance of the orange oil-DEE fuel was better than that of diesel fuel. The peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were found to be higher for the orange oil-DEE fuel than those of diesel fuel. The hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission levels in the engine exhaust increased with orange oil-DEE compared with those of diesel fuel. The smoke and NO x emissions were lower with orange oil-DEE compared with diesel fuel. It is concluded that a diesel engine operated using orange oil-DEE gives simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions with better performance. © IMechE 2010.


Shankar T.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Shanmugavel S.,Anna University | Karthikeyan A.,Vellore Institute of Technology
International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation | Year: 2013

In wireless sensor network (WSN) the sensors are spread in a particular area for monitoring the certain events like environmental monitoring, medical monitoring, surveillance, security applications and many others. But the main concern is related to the lifetime of network that depends on the battery or energy unit of sensor nodes. Many algorithms are being developed to overcome this problem. One of fundamental and efficient method is clustering among those. The work reported herein investigates energy efficient algorithms for WSN. This paper proposed modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HAS) for cluster head selection in WSN, which is seen to provide better performance than direct transmission, fundamental clustering protocol Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), and Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). The performance metrics like network lifetime, throughput and total energy consumption have been analysed and compared for the above mentioned algorithms. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Sathishkumar G.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2011

Nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5-xCdxFe 2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The lattice constant increases with increasing Cd content. X-ray calculations indicate that there is deviation in the cation distribution in the nanostructured spinel ferrite. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease for the samples with Cd content up to x=0.2. However the dielectric constant rises for x=0.3. This is due to an increase in the hopping process at the octahedral (B sites). The dielectric constant increases with increase in temperature, indicating a thermally activated hopping process. The DC resistivity increases with Cd content up to x=0.2 and decreases for Cd content x=0.3. The maximum magnetization of all the samples decreases with increase in Cd content. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Babu K.S.J.,Anna University | Vijayalakshmi D.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice | Year: 2013

In modern civilization, water distribution network has a substantial role in preserving the desired living standard. It has different components such as pipe, pump, and control valve to convey water from the supply source to the consumer withdrawal points. Among these elements, optimal sizing of pipes has great importance because more than 70% of the project cost is incurred on it. Unfortunately, optimal pipe sizing falls in the category of nonlinear polynomial time hard (NP-hard) problems. Hence, solid research activities march on because of two facts, namely, importance and complexity of the problem. The literature revealed that the stochastic optimization algorithms are successful in exploring the combination of least-cost pipe diameters from the commercially available discrete diameter set, but with the expense of significant computational effort. The hybrid model PSO-GA, presented in this paper aimed to effectively utilize local and global search capabilities of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), respectively, to reduce the computational burden. The analyses on different water distribution networks uncover that the proposed hybrid model is capable of exploring the optimal combination of pipe diameters with minimal computational effort. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Debnath S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2012

In this article, the effects of fabric weight, fiber cross-sectional shapes (round, hollow, and trilobal), and presence of reinforcing material on the compression properties (initial thickness, percentage compression, percentage thickness loss, and percentage compression resilience) under dry and wet conditions of polyester needle-punched industrial nonwoven fabrics are presented. It has been found that initial thickness of the fabric decreases under wet condition for both with and without reinforcing materials. The percentage thickness loss values are higher under wet condition in case of samples with reinforcing material compared to samples without reinforcing material. In the presence of reinforcing material, the trilobal cross-sectional fabric samples show the highest increase in thickness loss under wet condition followed by round and hollow cross-sectional polyester needle-punched nonwoven samples. Compression resilience is the highest in case of round cross-sectional fabric without reinforcing material under wet condition than fabric with reinforcing material. The initial thickness increases, and percentage compression and thickness loss decrease with the increase in fabric weight irrespective of fiber cross-sectional shapes both in dry and wet conditions. The initial thickness, percentage compression, and percentage compression resilience of the fabric decrease but percentage thickness loss increases under wet condition compared to the dry condition irrespective of the fiber cross-sectional shape. Compared to other cross-sectioned polyester samples, the hollow cross-section samples undergo very less consolidation under wet condition due to their consolidated structure. There is a drastic drop in compression resilience and increase in thickness loss under wet condition than in dry state irrespective of the fiber cross-sectional shape. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Single crystals of the nonlinear optical material glycine thiourea were grown by the slow evaporation technique. The crystal structure and lattice parameters were determined for the grown crystal by the single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Single crystal XRD revealed that the material crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system. Optical studies have been carried out and it was found that the tendency of transmission observed from the specimen with respect to the wavelength of light, is practically more suitable for opto-electronic applications. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity of the compound were calculated at different temperatures and frequencies, to analyze the electrical properties. The photoconductive behavior of the material is also investigated and the results are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Shanmugasundaram O.L.,Anna University | Mahendra Gowda R.V.,VSB Engineering College
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2012

This article deals with development and characterization of cotton and organic cotton flat knit bandages for wound healing. Bioploymers such as chitosan-sodium alginate, sodium-calcium alginate, and their mixtures were coated on the bandage and subjected to Fourier transform-infrared and scanning electron microscope analysis. Bacteria present in infected wound samples were identified using different bio-chemical methods. Three antibiotic drugs were selected based on the antibiotic sensitivity test and incorporated into the polymer-coated samples to improve the antibacterial and wound healing properties. Further, the antibacterial activities of the samples were evaluated against the identified bacteria in the wound for about 4 days. The strongest antibacterial activity was found in chitosan-sodium alginate-calcium alginate coated with chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride drug-loaded cotton and organic cotton samples. Hence, these bandages are suitable for quick wound healing process. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Jayapriya J.,Anna University | Ramamurthy V.,PSG College of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

One of the bottlenecks to performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) has been the low electron transfer from bacterial cell membrane or membrane organelle to anode. In this study, the effect of phenazines, a class of secondary metabolites was examined on the power generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2474 catalysed MFC with graphite electrodes. Different metal salt-doped graphite epoxy composite electrodes (MS-GECE) were tested in phenazine supplemented MFC. With Cu2+-GECE as anode in oxychloraphin and tubermycin supplemented MFC, power density generated was 7831±112.5 and 2096.5±11.8μW/m2 respectively. However, the addition of native phenazines (pyocyanin and pyorubin) which are normally produced by the bacteria was not very helpful in performance of the MFC. Also, the addition of these phenazines inhibited the growth of bacteria as well. Thus, choice of an appropriate secondary metabolite can have a positive influence as a mediator of electron transfer in the working of MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Govindaraji A.,Presidency College at Chennai | Mahalingam A.,Anna University | Uthayakumar A.,Presidency College at Chennai
Optics and Laser Technology | Year: 2014

In this paper, we present a study of numerical simulations for all-optical dark soliton switching in nonlinear directional couplers with gain additions in two waveguides whilst considering intermodal dispersion and its higher-order effects. The effects of possible combinations of gain addition in the bar channel as well as in the cross channel of the nonlinear couplers are theoretically presented. In addition, the consequence of second-order coupling coefficient dispersion based on coupled mode theory for dark soliton switching is numerically depicted. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Flat solar photovoltaic (PV) modules are widely being used in domestic and industrial buildings for meeting the electric power demands. Higher operating temperatures of these PV modules result in lower electrical power yield and conversion efficiency. Hence, to counteract the drawback of reduced power output, an active or passive cooling system is often required for controlling the temperature of PV module during its operation. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the literature on various thermal regulation techniques used to control the temperature of the PV panel. The mechanism of cooling and the challenges involved in the construction of various cooling techniques are also reported. © 2014, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Blinkhorn J.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Achyuthan H.,Anna University | Petraglia M.,University of Oxford | Ditchfield P.,University of Oxford
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

The Thar Desert marks the transition from the Saharo-Arabian deserts to the Oriental biogeographical zone and is therefore an important location in understanding hominin occupation and dispersal during the Upper Pleistocene. Here, we report the discovery of stratified Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Katoati in the north-eastern Thar Desert, dating to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and the MIS 4-3 boundary, during periods of enhanced humidity. Hominins procured cobbles from gravels at the site as evidenced by early stages of stone tool reduction, with a component of more formalised point production. The MIS 5c assemblages at Katoati represent the earliest securely dated Middle Palaeolithic occupation of South Asia. Distinctive artefacts identified in both MIS 5 and MIS 4-3 boundary horizons match technological entities observed in Middle Palaeolithic assemblages in South Asia, Arabia and Middle Stone Age sites in the Sahara. The evidence from Katoati is consistent with arguments for the dispersal of Homo sapiens populations from Africa across southern Asia using Middle Palaeolithic technologies.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Reitz R.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Duraisamy G.,Anna University
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2015

This article covers key and representative developments in the area of high efficiency and clean internal combustion engines. The main objective is to highlight recent efforts to improve (IC) engine fuel efficiency and combustion. Rising fuel prices and stringent emission mandates have demanded cleaner combustion and increased fuel efficiency from the IC engine. This need for increased efficiency has placed compression ignition (CI) engines in the forefront compared to spark ignition (SI) engines. However, the relatively high emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by diesel engines increases their cost and raises environmental barriers that have prevented their widespread use in certain markets. The desire to increase IC engine fuel efficiency while simultaneously meeting emissions mandates has thus motivated considerable research. This paper describes recent progress to improve the fuel efficiency of diesel or CI engines through advanced combustion and fuels research. In particular, a dual fuel engine combustion technology called "reactivity controlled compression ignition" (RCCI), which is a variant of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is highlighted, since it provides more efficient control over the combustion process and has the capability to lower fuel use and pollutant emissions. This paper reviews recent RCCI experiments and computational studies performed on light- and heavy-duty engines, and compares results using conventional and alternative fuels (natural gas, ethanol, and biodiesel) with conventional diesel, advanced diesel and HCCI concepts. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Muthuramalingam T.,SRM University | Mohan B.,Anna University
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2015

Since the thermal energy produced in electrical discharge machining process is due to the applied electrical energy, it is very important to enhance the electrical process parameters to improve the process efficiency. The present study discusses about having an overview of the EDM process, modeling of process parameters, and influence of process parameters such as input electrical variables, pulse shape, and discharge energy on performance measures such as material removal rate, surface roughness and electrode wear rate. This study also discusses about controlling the electrical process parameters, and empirical relationships between process parameters and optimization of process parameters in EDM process. From the review results, it has been observed that the efficacy of the machining process can be improved by electrical process parameters, and only less attention has been given for enhancing such parameters. © 2014 Politechnika Wrocławska.


Ayou D.S.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bruno J.C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Saravanan R.,Anna University | Coronas A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper presents an overview of the absorption cycles proposed in the literature for producing combined power and cooling. The dual output nature of these cycles makes it difficult to evaluate their performance so the various criteria used in the literature are presented and discussed. A combined system that simultaneously produces power and cooling can adapt to the whole range of energy demand - from only power to only cooling - with intermediate operation modes producing different ratios of power and cooling. This type of cycle uses highly concentrated ammonia vapour in the expander which can be expanded to a very low temperature without condensation and uses an absorption-condensation process instead of the conventional condensation process. The main advantage of these configurations is that they enable low-grade heat such as solar energy or waste heat to be used. The most suitable combined power and cooling systems for applications characterised by small-to-medium power and cooling capacities seem to be those that are directly derived from high-performance absorption chiller cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Gandhi K.I.,Anna University
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2016

There is a big revolution and discussion regarding the education system of the students pursuing engineering education in highly populated countries. Educating Engineers is a highly motivating as well as a challenging task. However, the students from diverse environment perceive the lecturing of the Teachers at different levels. This paper discusses the importance of student's preference in initiating a cognitive based learning environment for engineering education. This includes the evolution in reversing the teaching mode for industrial perspective courses such as the ''System Analysis and Design'' course which is pursued by students across various engineering disciplines. Similarly, Software Engineering relates to analyzing and building software systems. Object-Oriented Analysis & Design focuses on the analysis and design of software systems as related objects.ACoordinated Cognitive Thinking (CCT) model to evaluate the cognitive behavior of the students has been proposed so as to analyze the requirements of the students towards Software Engineering related courses. The need for cognitive based learning is assessed through Need For Cognition (NFC) scale with the focus on software system analysis and development. The response is evaluated through wearable sensor technology. Experimental results of around 70 students pursuing the Object-Oriented Analysis course have been taken into consideration. The results obtained revealed the fact that there should be a renaissance in engineering education by continuously reviving the teaching methodology for engineering students. © 2016 TEMPUS Publications.


Shanmugasundaram O.L.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2012

The present work deals with the development and characterisation of cotton and organic cotton based bandage using 40s Ne yarn. The physical properties such as areal density, air permeability and stiffness of fabrics have been measured. Chitosan-sodium alginate polymer, calcium-sodium alginate polymer and their mixture have been coated separately on the gauze structure to improve its antibacterial and wound healing property. The drugs such as tetracycline hydrochloride (250 mg), chloramphenicol (250 mg) and rifampin (250 mg) have been immobilized on the polymer coated fabrics to increase the rate of wound healing and antibacterial activity. Further, the antibacterial activity of the drug loaded and polymer coated samples has been evaluated against S.aureus and Proteus bacteria. The results show excellent antibacterial activity.


In today's commercial world, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is playing a significant role in preventing the computer from power failure. Inverter is one of the essential components of UPS that performs DC-AC conversion. In this process, there is a possibility of generation of harmonic peaks because majority of the power utilities are nonlinear loads. In UPS powered by a multilevel inverter, the harmonics can be eliminated by an optimal selection of switching angles. In this study, the authors propose a hybrid technique to entirely eliminate the harmonics. The proposed hybrid technique utilises an iterative technique and fuzzy logic for the optimal selection of switching angles. A hybrid evaluation technique is used to evaluate the optimum switching angles that are obtained from the iteration as well as the fuzzy logic. The proposed technique is tested with a three-level H-bridge inverter and the resultant fundamental and harmonics voltage are analysed. The experimental result shows the efficiency of the proposed technique in eliminating the harmonics that are generated by the inverter. The proposed technique is implemented in MATLAB and its performance is evaluated using diverse test results. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Loganathan P.,Anna University | Golden Stepha N.,St Peters Engineering College
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

The present paper deals with the analysis of heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid on continuously moving plate with suction or injection. The plate is moving with a constant velocity in the fluid which is considered as gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium. The radiative heat flux and viscous dissipation are taken into account in the energy equation. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been transformed into system of ordinary differential equation and solved numerically by fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The velocity, microrotation, temperature, concentration, skin-friction, rate of heat and mass transfer are shown graphically. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Karthik R.,National Engineering College | Sree Renga Raja T.,Anna University
IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering | Year: 2012

In this paper, the behavior of various critical parameters of transformer oil is interpreted with a view to enhancing its life time. Systems abnormalities such as excess loading, switching, and ambient conditions are responsible for the accelerated aging and sudden failure of transformer. The level of insulation plays a significant role in the life expectancy of the transformer. The diagnostics of the critical parameters for the defined ranges of aging of transformer oil attempts to determine the level of insulation and serve to ensure its efficient operation. The approach includes formulation of suggestions for determining the insulation level of the power transformer. © 2012 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.


Sivakumar D.,Anna University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A significantly large volume of effluent is generated during the manufacture of sugar and contains high amount of pollution load. The effluent from sugarcane industry is disposed off on land moves into the wider environment through a number of routes and the soil itself retains the various contaminants in the effluent to a greater or lesser extent depending on the physical nature of the soil. The analysis of contaminant transport through soil used to design of industrial wastewater treatments and disposal systems. This paper discussed the adsorption and diffusion of cations calcium, magnesium, sodium and anions chloride and sulphate by the sorption diffusion permeameter under different hydraulic retentions time of 3 min, 13 min, 27 min and 58 min with a constant diffusion flow rate of 3.6 L/h. In this study, less percentage error found between observed adsorption and diffusion coefficients from the experiments at different hydraulic retentions time and optimum adsorption and diffusion coefficients from the experiments at optimum hydraulic retentions time of 30 min for calcium, magnesium, sodium, choloride and sulphate. The results of regression analysis implied that the adsorption and diffusion coefficients obtained from the equation for cations and anions were good recognizing with the experimental results. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.


Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

This paper presents some novel results on robust stabilization and H ∞ control design for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with time-varying delays. The GRNs under consideration are subject to stochastic noise, time-varying, and norm bounded parameter uncertainties. By constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional that contains some novel triple summation terms, we propose a state feedback gene controller to guarantee that the considered GRN is mean-square asymptotically stable about its equilibrium point for all admissible uncertainties. The other issue is to design a H ∞ feedback gene controller so that the GRN is robustly stable with a prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level for all admissible uncertainties and for all delays to satisfy both the lower bound and upper bound of the interval time-varying delay. The obtained conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified via the LMI toolbox. Finally, the control scheme has been implemented in a gene network model to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the obtained results. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.


Lawrence M.,Anna University | Thomas Joseph Prakash J.,Hh The Rajah S College
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 1 mol%. There is a change in unit cell. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of glycine into CTS crystal. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones. The dopant increases the hardness value of the material. The grown crystals were also subjected to thermal and NLO studies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Prakash J.,Anna University | Patwardhan S.C.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Shah S.L.,University of Alberta
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2010

In this work, we develop a state estimation scheme for nonlinear autonomous hybrid systems, which are subjected to stochastic state disturbances and measurement noise, using derivative free state estimators. In particular, we propose the use of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF), which belong to the class of particle filters, and unscented Kalman filters (UKF) to carry out estimation of state variables of autonomous hybrid system. We then proceed to develop novel nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) schemes using these derivative free estimators for better control of autonomous hybrid systems. A salient feature of the proposed NMPC schemes is that the future trajectory predictions are based on stochastic simulations, which explicitly account for the uncertainty in predictions arising from the uncertainties in the initial state and the unmeasured disturbances. The efficacy of the proposed state estimation based control scheme is demonstrated by conducting simulation studies on a benchmark three-tank hybrid system. Analysis of the simulation results reveals that EnKF and UKF based NMPC strategies is well suited for effective control of nonlinear autonomous three-tank hybrid system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dhanapal R.,Anna University | Visalakshi P.,PSG College of Technology
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Healthcare monitoring based intelligent systems have acquired great consideration in the research field nowadays because the benefits is not only for the patient but also for sports person, aged person, home makers and driver community. Health care for driver community becomes an essential one since the road accidents may arise because of driver's ill condition like heart stroke while driving, high blood pressure working without rest, etc. Therefore, if an intelligent medical care system has been obtainable at a reasonable cost, it can be utilized for drivers' community to precede certain precautionary; hence road accidents might be minimized. In this paper, a real time health care monitoring system with effective SEA Protocol communication and reliable sensors has been designed and implemented to observe the health condition from time to time and irregular measures are conveyed to nearby health care providers. The basic purpose of the system is to observe the driver's physical parameters such as temperature, heartbeat, etc., using sensors and if the value tends to be abnormal then it will transmitted via Zigbee based MANET. Additionally, this system uses the ultrasonic sensor, GPS module and the automatic distance measurement to process an effective data communication in MANET. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Rajalakshmi K.,Anna University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the antimicrobial potential and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of selected commonly used Siddha formulations against respiratory pathogens. Methods: The most frequently and clinically used Siddha formulations for respiratory infections, namely Gowri chinthamani (R1), Sivanar amirtham (R2), Poorana chandrodayam (R3), Thalaga parpam (R4), Pavala parpam (R5), and Vasantha kusumasura mathirai (R6) were screened for antimicrobial activity against microbial type culture collection strains of Neisseria mucosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus niger, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Tetracycline and fluconozole were used as positive control for bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The zone of inhibition and the MICs were determined. Results: Among these formulations, Sivanar amirtham (R2) and Pavala parpam (R5) showed microbial sensitivity against all the above tested respiratory pathogens. The drug Sivanar amirtham (R2) showed higher zone of inhibition when compared to the control tetracycline. Conclusion: The study, therefore, supports the clinical claims of Siddha formulations to have potent antimicrobial activity and offer profound therapeutic benefits in respiratory infections. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


Naayagi R.T.,Anna University | Forsyth A.J.,University of Manchester | Shuttleworth R.,University of Manchester
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper contributes to the steady-state analysis of the bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter by proposing a new model that produces equations for rms and average device currents, and rms and peak inductor/transformer currents. These equations are useful in predicting losses that occur in the devices and passive components and aid in the converter design. An analysis of zero-voltage switching (ZVS) boundaries for buck and boost modes while considering the effect of snubber capacitors on the DAB converter is also presented. The proposed model can be used to predict the converter efficiency at any desired operating point. The new model can serve as an important teaching-cum-research tool for DAB hardware design (devices and passive components selection), soft-switching-operating range estimation, and performance prediction at the design stage. The operation of the DAB dc-dc converter has been verified through extensive simulations. A DAB converter prototype was designed on the basis of the proposed model and was built for an aerospace energy storage application. Experimental results are presented to validate the new model for a 7kW, 390/180V, 20kHz converter operation and the ZVS boundary operation. © 2012 IEEE.


Jeraldine Viji A.,Mailam Engg College | Aruldoss Albert Victoire T.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014

This paper presents novel control strategy of a three-phase four-wire unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). It is used to improve power quality in distribution system. The UPQC is realized by the integration of series and parallel active power filter (SAPF and PAPF) sharing a common dc bus capacitor. The realization of parallel APF and series APF are carried out using a three-phase, three legs voltage source inverter (VSI) with split capacitor. In both APFs the fundamental source voltages and currents are extracted by synchronous reference frame technique. SAPF connected with the supply by series transformer. The secondary of series transformer is affected by load side short circuits. This paper also explains the control circuit for protection of series transformer against over voltage and over current. PAPF connected with the system by series inductance. The performance of the applied control algorithm of shunt active filter with series active filter is evaluated in terms of power-factor correction, load balancing, and mitigation of voltage and current harmonics in a three-phase four-wire distribution system for non-linear load, unbalanced supply and load conditions. Sinusoidal PWM current controller, modulated hysteresis current controller are used for generation of switching pulses to series and parallel APFs. The two control algorithm is simulated by use of MATLAB/Simulink-based environment and the obtained results validated through experimental study with the UPQC hardware prototype. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Joselin Herbert G.M.,Noorul Islam University | Iniyan S.,Anna University | Amutha D.,Bethlahem Institute of Engineering
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to sustain a modern economic and social development. Renewable energy applications have brought about significant changes in the Indian energy scenario. The identification and efficient use of various renewable energy resources are the thrust areas in energy development. Wind energy is one of the most environment friendly, clean and safe energy resources. The wind energy will continue to be the biggest renewable energy sector in any country in terms of both installed capacity and total potential. This paper reviews some important factors and techniques to be considered for wind turbine installations such as the wind energy resource assessment techniques, environmental factors, grid integration factors, control strategies, impact of offshore wind turbines and hybrid energy technologies, hydrogen production techniques, feed-in tariff mechanism, modeling of wind turbine components including generators, performance improvement techniques. The cost and economic feasibility of the wind energy conversion system as well as the control strategies of wind turbine generators have also been discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Lakshmi Narayana Rao G.,QIS Institute of Technology | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2014

The present work explores the possibility of simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke of a stationary CI (compression ignition) engine fuelled with biodiesel blend. Fuel injection timing is retarded which resulted in lower NOx emission with an increased smoke intensity. NOx emission of the biodiesel at the standard and retarded injection timing was predicted with the help of developed correlations and the same was compared with the NOx emission experimentally determined. It was observed that the predicted NOx emission of biodiesel is comparable with the experimentally determined. Fuel injection pressure was increased at the retarded injection timing and its effect on NOx and smoke emission was investigated. It was observed that the increase in smoke intensity resulting from the retarded injection timing was reduced significantly by increasing the fuel injection pressure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Bhaskar K.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2014

In the present work, an attempt was made to reduce NOx and PM using partially premixed charge compression ignition (PPCCI) combustion of diesel fuel with external mixture formation technique and fish oil methyl ester (FOME) blend in the main injection. Not much work has been done related to the usage of bio-diesel (Methyl esters of edible, non-edible oils, and animal fats) in the PPCCI combustion mode. Diesel fuel was injected into the intake manifold to form homogeneous pre-mixture beforehand and the pre-mixture is burnt in the cylinder with the balance quantity of fuel directly injected into the cylinder by a conventional injection system. To obtain homogeneous mixture, diesel fuel was injected in the intake manifold using a solenoid-operated injector controlled by Electronic Control Unit (ECU). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technique was adopted to control the start of combustion (SOC). Experiments were conducted with 10%, 20%, and 30% EGR for premixed ratio (Rp) 25% and results are compared with conventional diesel fuel operation. It is observed that diesel manifold injection and FOME blend in main injection results in better mixture preparation and lower emissions. Due to homogenous lean operation, significant reduction in NOx and PM are achieved with the PPCCI combustion mode at Rp 25% and EGR 20% in the FOME-Diesel mode of operation.


Gomathi B.,Bharathiar University | Sakthivel P.,Anna University
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Health care data analytic software is playing a crucial role in several hospital management systems for analyzing the medical reports, patient details, cost and so on. The health care Software systems needs to consecutively improve their functionality and performance for avoiding the threats and issues in the hospital environment. For enhancing the functionality of the system, a developer should have the knowledge about the particular software that is gained by using the Information Retrieval (IR) process. This IR process consumes time to produce the information and also have certain irrelevant information which leads to create some of the problem in software enhancement. For overcoming these flaws in the proposed system, enhancement of the information retrieval process is done with the help of data fusion technique. To ensure the best performance, the resources are collected from various sources and this is called as data fusion. The data fusion integrates the different sources in three stages namely data association, estimation of the data and decision fusion. Data association is done with the help of the Multi Target Data Association, which is identifying the correlation between data. Then the estimation is performed by using particle filter that is used to remove the noise and irrelevant data from the source. Finally, the decision fusion is done with the help of omnibus model which used to decide and integrate the different sources. From the integrated data the Information Retrieval process is improved by using the ABC Weighted based Fuzzy Retrieval approach. The weighted value of the information is indexed by using the ABC weighted model in terms of the supreme, moderate and relative importance. This index value related information is retrieved by using the fuzzy set and membership value of the fuzzy set. Thus, the proposed system improves the information retrieval process and the performance is evaluated with the help of information gain and precision. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Sivakumar D.,Anna University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

An extensive use of solid-waste landfills for disposal of municipal and industrial wastes have prompted increased attention to groundwater pollution caused by leachate generated in such landfills. The potential for groundwater contamination by leachate has necessitated engineering designs for landfills. The quantity of leachate generated from the solid waste and the movement of water through the solid waste depends on water input and the solid-waste characteristics. This paper dealt with the experimental investigations using the laboratory solid-waste leaching column to estimate the total leachate volume/leachate flow for unsaturated and saturated conditions. The hydraulic properties of the solid waste like initial moisture content, field capacity, permanent wilting point, saturation moisture content, effective void ratio, saturation hydraulic conductivity and saturation suction pressure were determined from the small-scale laboratory experiments, which are the input for analytical model study of leachate flow/total leachate volume for both unsaturated and saturated conditions. The result of analytical model study was compared with the results of experimental investigations. Comparisons of measured and computed total leachate volume/leachate flow using Darcy's law showed reasonable agreement. © 2012 CEERS, IAU.


Ganesan K.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Murali K.,Anna University
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2014

In recent years, a large number of discrete chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them encounter some problems such as lack of robustness and security. In this paper, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on eight-dimensional (nonlinear) chaotic cat map. Encryption of image is different from that of texts due to some intrinsic features of image such as bulk data capacity and high redundancy, which are generally difficult to handle by traditional methods. In traditional methods the key space is small and the security is weak. The proposed algorithm tries to address these problems and also tries to enhance the encryption speed. In this paper an eight dimensional chaotic cat map is used to encrypt the intensity values of pixels using lookup table method thereby significantly increasing the speed and security of encryption. The proposed algorithm is found to be resistive against chosen/known-plaintext attacks, statistical and differential attacks. © 2014 EDP Sciences and Springer.


Babuponnusami A.,Adhiparasakthi Engineering College | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

This study presents the degradation of phenol by the photoelectro-Fenton method using nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads. The effect of nZVI loading, H2O2 concentration, pH, and initial phenol concentration on phenol degradation and chemical oxygen demand reduction was studied. The scanning electron microscope images of the nZVI beads were used to analyze their morphology, and their diameters were in the range of 500-600 μm. The concentration of nZVI in the beads was varied from 0. 1 to 0. 6 g/L. Fe2+ leakage of 1 and 3 % was observed with 0. 5 and 0. 6 g/L of nZVI, respectively, and the observed beads' fracture frequency was 2 %, which confirmed the stability of the beads. The optimum operating conditions that arrived for better degradation were 0. 5 g/L of nZVI, pH 6. 2, and 400 mg H2O2/L. The treatment of effluent by this method increased the biodegradability index of the effluent, and the degradation data were found to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Kanna T.,Bishop Heber College | Vijayajayanthi M.,Anna University | Lakshmanan M.,Bharathidasan University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

We derive a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system as the evolution equation for propagation of N-dispersive waves in weak Kerr-type nonlinear medium in the small-amplitude limit. The mixed- (bright-dark) type soliton solutions of a particular (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent LSRI system, deduced from the general multicomponent higher-dimensional LSRI system, are obtained by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method. Particularly, we show that the solitons in the LSRI system with two short-wave components behave like scalar solitons. We point out that for an N-component LSRI system with N>3, if the bright solitons appear in at least two components, interesting collision behavior takes place, resulting in energy exchange among the bright solitons. However, the dark solitons undergo standard elastic collision accompanied by a position shift and a phase shift. Our analysis on the mixed bound solitons shows that the additional degree of freedom which arises due to the higher-dimensional nature of the system results in a wide range of parameters for which the soliton collision can take place. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Ramasamy R.P.,Anna University | Maliyekkal S.M.,Vellore Institute of Technology
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this article we have demonstrated the formation of chitosan-gold hydro gels that collapse in time. The mechanism for the formation and collapse in time is proposed. The gels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), rheometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The formation of the gels is hypothesised to be due to the electrostatic interaction between the AuCl 4 - and the NH3 + in the protonated chitosan. The collapse of the gel is attributed to the reduction of Au(iii) to Au nanoparticles on the chitosan surface. The formation and the subsequent collapse of the gel were unique to gold under the experimental conditions. A model is proposed for the formation and the collapse of the gel. We coin the term "self collapsing gels" for these kinds of gels. The gels were tested for their abilities to be used for the encapsulation of drugs using insulin. This self collapsing nature of the gels combined with biocompatibility may benefit drug delivery research as encapsulants for the controlled release of drugs. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2014.


Muthusamy S.,Kumaraguru College of Technology | Venkatachalam S.,Anna University
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

A feasible biosorption process for the removal of Cr(vi) and Zn(ii) ions from single and binary solutions onto a defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) was investigated. The maximal biosorption capacities of Cr(vi) and Zn(ii) ions in single metal solutions were found to be 166.60 mg g-1 and 123.45 mg g-1, respectively. Due to the internal competition effect, the biosorption capacity of Cr(vi) and Zn(ii) ions in the binary system was reduced to 125.10 mg g-1 and 83.30 mg g-1, respectively. Experimental data were well described by Freundlich isotherm. Kinetic studies were also preformed and the rate kinetics was followed with pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), entropy (ΔS°) and enthalpy (ΔH°), were estimated in both single and binary systems, which showed that biosorption on the DPOC was of exothermic nature. In the column study, biosorption of metals using single and binary solutions was fitted well by the Thomas model. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Sakkaravarthi K.,Bishop Heber College | Kanna T.,Bishop Heber College | Vijayajayanthi M.,Anna University | Lakshmanan M.,Bharathidasan University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Muthuramalingam T.,SRM University | Mohan B.,Anna University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

Convention Taguchi method deals with only single response optimization problems. Since the electrical discharge machining process involved with many response parameters, Taguchi method alone cannot help to obtain optimal process parameters in such process. In the present work, an endeavor has been made to derive optimal combination of electrical process parameters in electro erosion process using grey relational analysis with Taguchi method. This multi response optimization of the electrical discharge machining process has been conducted with AISI 202 stainless steel with different tool electrodes such as copper, brass and tungsten carbide. Gap voltage, discharge current and duty factor have been used as electrical excitation parameters with different process levels. Taguchi L27 orthogonal table has been assigned for conducting experiments with the consideration of interactions among the input electrical process parameters. Material removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness have been selected as response parameters. From the experimental results, it has been found that the electrical conductivity of the tool electrode has the most influencing nature on the machining characteristics in EDM process. The optimal combination of the input process parameters has been obtained using Taguchi-grey relational analysis. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Maya D.,Anna University
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Telemedicine is one of the techniques applied during the disaster recovery to offer medical information, health care services to the patients via wireless networks. The serviceability of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) at the time of disaster recovery is well-known. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are consists of mobile nodes which are operates on limited battery supply. Transmission of huge medical data with limited battery power of nodes needs an energy efficient routing to ensure the quality of service (QoS) of MANETs. Nowadays, cluster based routing protocols are well known methods for prolonging MANETs lifetime Hence, this paper proposes an Absolute Replication Aware joint energy efficient (ARAJEE) routing for telemedicine communication using MANET. This approach consists of two phases such as energy aware node categorization, and joint data collection. Initially, the optimal number of clusters head has been elected relied upon the energy level of the nodes and node connectivity, where some of the isolated nodes can be resulted. An energy aware node categorization has been processed to select the appropriate forwarding nodes in order to optimize the energy consumption in the network. A non-replicated data collection and compression at the cluster heads has been performed to reduce the energy in huge medical data transmission and bandwidth consumption. The proposed ARAJEE approach increases the network lifetime than the existing energy efficiency methods in MANET. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Tamizharasan T.,P.A. College | Senthil Kumar N.,Anna University
International Journal of Simulation Modelling | Year: 2012

In this research work an attempt has been made to minimize flank wear of uncoated carbide inserts while machining AISI 1045 steel by finite element analysis. Tool wear is the predominant factor that causes poor surface finish and is responsible for the dimensional accuracy of the machined surface. The quality of component produced decides the effectiveness and competitiveness of any manufacturing industry. In this analysis, the effect of tool geometries on performance measures of flank wear, surface roughness and cutting forces generated are evaluated. Three levels of cutting insert shape, relief angle and nose radius are chosen. Taguchi's Design of experiment (DOE) is used to design the experiments. For three parameters and three levels a suitable L 9 Orthogonal array is selected. Based on the designed experiment, simulation analysis is carried out using DEFORM-3D, a machining simulation and analysis software and the output quality characteristics are analysed by statistical techniques like Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A validation finite element simulation is conducted with the obtained optimum tool geometry, which is also verified experimentally. It is observed that the performance of the determined tool geometry provides satisfactory results.


Durairaj M.,Tagore Engineering College | Gowri S.,Anna University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

Micro turning is a process by which micro components can be produced.This paper deals with CNC Micro turning of Inconel 600 alloy with titanium carbide coated tool. Machining is done in DT-110 integrated multiprocessor micro machine tool.Micro turning is carried out with full factorial experiments with various combinations of cutting parameters such as speed (25,31, and 37 m/min), feed (5,10, and 15 um/rev) and depth of cut (30,50 and 70 um). For every set of experiments, the output parameters such as the tool wear and the surface roughness are measured. Non-linear regression model is used to represent relationship between input and output variables and a multi-objective optimization method based genetic algorithm is used to optimize the cutting parameters in turning process such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. Two conflicting objectives such as tool wear and surface roughness are simultaneously optimized. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


The unique characteristics of the composite materials for the specific requirements makes these materials more popular in a variety of applications such as aerospace, automotive (pistons, cylinder liners, bearings), and structural components, resulting in savings of material and energy. In this paper aluminium alloy Al6061 was reinforced with TiB2 particles by stir casting method. Metal matrix composites produced by stir casting method have more advantages compare with other methods. Experiments were conducted by varying weight fraction of TiB2 (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%), while keeping all other parameters constant. The wear mechanism was studied through worn surface and wear analysis as well as microscopic examination of the wear tracks. This study revealed that the addition of TiB2 improves the wear resistance of aluminium composites. The results showed that increasing the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, wear resistance and hardness caused by the percentage of TiB2 present in the samples. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Rajaram M.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

The Matrix Converter (MC) is well known for its diverse advantages and applications but the output characteristics are adversely affected by the input voltage disturbances because there is no energy storage elements present in the dc link. Hence the matrix converter fed drive performance is affected. In this paper, Internal Model Control (IMC) based controller which is capable of achieving perfect set point tracking and disturbance rejection is proposed for compensating the voltage disturbances and load disturbances of matrix converter fed vector controlled Induction Motor (IM) drives. Modeling of matrix converter with input voltage disturbances and parameter estimation of IMC based speed and current controllers for vector controlled induction motor drive are described in this paper. The simulation results validate the input voltage disturbance rejection and improved dynamic performance of matrix converter fed induction motor drive obtained using IMC based controller. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kaliamoorthy S.,Anna University | Paramasivam R.,College of St. Joseph
Thermal Science | Year: 2013

The study is aimed at investigating the effects of engine parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder 5.2 kW diesel engine. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments based on Taguchi. Five parameters, namely, power, static injection pressure, injection timing, fuel fraction, and compression ratio were varied at four levels and the responses brake power, fuel economy, and emissions were investigated. The optimum values of the response could be predicted using signal - noise ratio and optimum combination of control parameters were specified. Results of confirmation tests showed good agreement with predicted quantities. A compression ratio of 17.7, blend of 20% karanja biodiesel, an injection pressure of 230 bar, injection timing of 27° before top dead centre and at 70% load were found to be optimal values for the karanja biodiesel blended diesel fuel operation in the test engine.


Research on Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism has been very well documented in literature. Besides the involvement of CYP2E1 in alcohol metabolism as illustrated through the studies discussed in the chapter, recent studies have thrown light on several other aspects of CYP2E1 i.e. its extrahepatic expression, its involvement in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions; and CYP2E1 mediated carcinogenesis and modulation of drug efficacy. Studies involving these interesting facets of CYP2E1 have been discussed in the chapter focusing on the recent observations or ongoing studies illustrating the crucial role of CYP2E1 in disease development and drug metabolism.


Kumudini Devi R.P.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

In the deregulated power system, effective management of transactions, to meet the active power requirements of the consumers can be done through pool and bilateral/multilateral markets. One of the main functions of ISO in a day ahead market is assessment of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) and updating this value in Open Access Same time Information Systems (OASIS). The market participants use the value of ATC for their transaction planning. Hence it is essential to estimate ATC accurately with lesser computation time. This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine based method for ATC estimation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use SVM for ATC estimation. Two methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses the real power demands and the source bus injections as inputs to SVM model. The second method uses few indices as inputs to estimate ATC. The proposed methods are tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) and IEEE 118 bus system. The results are compared with Repeated Power Flow (RPF) results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Valan Rajkumar M.,Anna University | Manoharan P.S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Solar Energy | Year: 2013

This paper presents the control for three-phase multilevel cascaded H-bridge inverter for photovoltaic (PV) system. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is capable of extracting maximum power from the PV array connected to each DC link voltage level. The MPPT algorithm is solved by perturbation and observation method (P&O). Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm uses a simple mapping to generate gate signals for the inverter. The location of the reference vector and time are easily determined. The adjustments of modulation index and phase angles are synthesized onto field programmable gate array (FPGA) by means of hardware description language (VHDL). A digital design of the generator SVPWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on FPGA. This is done to achieve high dynamic performance with low total harmonic distortion (THD). Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the implemented SVPWM control for PV system in terms of THD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hariharan S.,Motortestcenter AB | Murugan S.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Nagarajan G.,Anna University
Fuel | Year: 2013

Tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) can be derived from waste automobile tyres by different methods and it can be used as a fuel blended with diesel in a diesel engine. In the present work, a study was made to use Tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis oil as a fuel in a diesel engine with the help of an ignition improver. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke DI diesel engine using TPO as a main fuel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the DI diesel engine were investigated and compared with the conventional diesel fuel (DF). Diethyl ether (DEE) was admitted along with intake air at three flow rates viz 65 g/h, 130 g/h and 170 g/h. Results indicated that the engine performs better with lower emissions when DEE was admitted at the rate of 170 g/h with TPO. It was observed that NO x emission in TPO-DEE operation reduced by 5% compared to diesel fuel operation. HC, CO and smoke emissions were higher for TPO-DEE operation by 2%, 4.5% and 38% than diesel mode. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Joseph Fernandus M.,Srinivasan Engineering College | Senthilkumar T.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University | Rajakumar S.,Annamalai University
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The main difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg) and aluminium (Al) alloys lies in the existence of formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region. However diffusion bonding is a suitable process to join these two materials. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, holding time and surface roughness of the bond specimen play a major role to determine the joint strength. In this investigation an attempt was made to develop empirical relationships to predict the lap shear strength and bonding strength of diffusion bonding of AZ31B magnesium and AA6061 aluminium alloys, incorporating above said parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimise the diffusion bonding process parameters to attain the maximum shear strength and bonding strength of the joint. From this investigation, it is found that the bonds fabricated with the bonding temperature of 430 °C, bonding pressure of 13.84. MPa, holding time of 32.50. min and surface roughness of 0.12 μm exhibited maximum shear strength and bonding strength of 49.39 and 70.04. MPa respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


The present study has aimed to investigate the effective transdermal delivery of anti-fungal miconazole nitrate (MN) by formulating as nanoemulsion (NE). The NE was prepared by spontaneous emulsification technique and the corresponding gel was prepared using carbopol 934. Clove oil, tween 20 & ethanol were chosen as oil, surfactant & cosurfactant respectively after optimization. The ratio of surfactant and cosurfactant (Smix), oil and Smix were optimized as 1:1. The NE's were coded as F1 to F4 and the corresponding gel as F1(G) to F4(G). The NE's were characterized in vitro for transparency, drug content, compatibility, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, pH, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis, drug release, release kinetics and stability studies. In vitro skin permeation and antifungal assay were conducted for F4 (G) and compared with a marketed preparation. Transparent NE of narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential, pH and viscosity were obtained. TEM revealed the formation of discrete nanosized (247.5nm-511nm) droplets. Maximum drug loading and compatibility of the drug with excipients were obtained. NE F3 had produced a maximum drug release of 94.8%±2.6% upto 8h. The gel F3 (G) has yielded a significant MN permeation of 93.7%±2.1% in 12h across the cellulose acetate membrane compared with marketed gel permeation of 42.9%±1.8%. The release process followed higuchi kinetics and fickian diffusion mechanism (n<0.5). Anti-fungal assay for F3 (G) revealed higher % zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans compared to marketed sample. The NE was stable at room temperature and effectively delivered MN transdermally compared with the marketed gel. © 2015, SPB Pharma Society. All rights reserved.


Kalaiselvi D.,Queen Marys College | Jayavel R.,Anna University
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2012

A semi-organic nonlinear optical L-proline dimercuricchloride (LPDMC) material has been synthesized. LPDMC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by a slow cooling method. Good quality single crystals of size 19×6×3 mm 3 have been grown over a period of 3 weeks. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the cell parameters. The title compound crystallizes in the triclinic system with a noncentrosymmetric space group P1 and with unit-cell parameters a=7.2742(4) Å, b=9.4472(5) Å, c=10.4767(6) Å, α=108.621(3)°, β=107.260(2)°, γ=97.353(2)° and volume=631.51(6) Å 3. Optical and dielectric properties of the crystals have been studied. The thermal stability of the crystals was determined by thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the crystals was obtained by the classical powder technique using a Nd:YAG laser and it is found to be 2.5 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Senthil Rajan A.,Mohamed Sathak Polytechnic Kilakarai | Raja K.,Anna University | Marimuthu P.,Syed Ammal Engineering College
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

In this field a multi basin solar still is, used to heighten the productivity. The concept of integrating the multi basin still with biomass heat source is introduced in this research area. In the multi basin still heat exchanger is placed at the bottom end of the watershed region. The heat exchanger is connected to the biomass boiler heat source to create heat energy. This system increases the water temperature in the sword and also increases the productivity in the blade. The upper watershed is separated into small stepped basins. So the flat plate collector and stepped basin are used to increase the turnout in this work. The heat from lower basin is used by the upper basin for desalination. Experiments are conducted with various water depths. In this work the solar still behaves like a capacitor. A conventional still is fabricated and run parallel with the experimental setup for comparison. Sensible heat storage materials such as cement blocks, sand, glass eggs are added to the tail end and top basins to increase water temperature. Latent heat storage materials such as water, wax are introduced in the material body of small pellets to increase productivity. Biomass such as wood, wood wastes, palm wastes is tried in this workplace. A higher productivity is obtained for sensible storage materials when compared to latent heat storage. Theoretical analysis is performed by using RSM (response surface methodology) well agrees with experimental values. The efficiency of the system is compared with conventional still. Experiments are conducted in once flow mode, continuous stream mode and solar modes. Output from RSM are compared with experimental values for error analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ganesh C.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Patnaik S.K.,Anna University
JVC/Journal of Vibration and Control | Year: 2012

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are useful in applications such as process control, robotics, industrial automation, aerospace, electric vehicles etc. due to such advantages as the elimination of rotor losses and magnetizing current. Wider usage of BLDC motors demands optimum position control for high efficiency, accuracy and reliability. For an accurate position control, the estimation of moment of inertia and friction coefficient of the motor with load is essential. This paper incorporates the computation of the moment of inertia and friction coefficient of a BLDC motor with load at different load settings and emphasizes that load has an appreciable effect on the dynamic performance of the system. To obtain the optimum position control, a proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) controller is employed and tuned using the PARR method. Artificial neural networks are used for computing the moment of inertia and friction coefficient of a BLDC motor with load and PID controller parameters at various load settings. Simulation results of the position control system are obtained at different load settings. From the results, it is evident that the PID controlled position control system responds to the desired position with minimum rise time, settling time and peak overshoot and is in dependent of load settings. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Koilraj M.,St. Josephs College | Sundareswaran V.,Anna University | Vijayan S.,SSN College of Engineering | Koteswara Rao S.R.,Tagore Engineering College
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The joining of dissimilar Al-Cu alloy AA2219-T87 and Al-Mg alloy AA5083-H321 plates was carried out using friction stir welding (FSW) technique and the process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L16 orthogonal design of experiments. The rotational speed, transverse speed, tool geometry and ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter were the parameters taken into consideration. The optimum process parameters were determined with reference to tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal value of tensile strength was confirmed by conducting the confirmation run using optimum parameters. This study shows that defect free, high efficiency welded joints can be produced using a wide range of process parameters and recommends parameters for producing best joint tensile properties. Analysis of variance showed that the ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter is the most dominant factor in deciding the joint soundness while pin geometry and welding speed also played significant roles. Microstructural studies revealed that the material placed on the advancing side dominates the nugget region. Hardness studies revealed that the lowest hardness in the weldment occurred in the heat-affected zone on alloy of 5083 side, where tensile failures were observed to take place. © 2012.


Selvan T.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Nagarajan G.,Anna University
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2013

The present work is concerned with the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of vegetable oil esters with varying saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition tested in a stationary direct injection compression ignition engine. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are long-chain carboxylic acids that usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms and have no double bonds. Unsaturated fatty acids resemble SFAs, except that the chain has one or more double bonds. SFAs have all the hydrogen that the carbon atom can hold and therefore have no double bond between the carbon atoms. The biodiesels were derived from Pongamia, Ricebran, Sunflower, and Palm oil, respectively. The results show that Pongamia biodiesel gives a higher brake thermal efficiency (33.36% when compared to diesel, which has 32.57%) slightly higher Oxides of Nitrogen [NOX] and reduced carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC), and smoke emissions when compared to diesel and other biodiesels. The cetane number for Pongamia oil, Ricebran oil, Sunflower oil, Palm oil, and diesel are 52, 50, 51, 56, and 48, respectively. The higher cetane number reduces ignition delay and also reduces NOX emissions when compared to other esters that have a greater unsaturated fatty acid composition. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Sangeetha K.N.,University of Madras | Lakshmi B.S.,Anna University | Niranjali Devaraj S.,University of Madras
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac hypertrophy is a global concern leading to an increase in the morbidity and mortality of patients, with the signalling mechanism associated with them still unclear. The present study attempts to understand the metabolic syndrome-associated cardiac hypertrophy through an in vitro model using external stimuli well known for inducing metabolic disorders, i.e. dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid. DEX (0.1 and 1 μM) promoted cardiac hypertrophy in H9C2 cells at 4 days of treatment as evidenced through increased cell size and protein content. A significant induction in foetal gene reprogramming was observed, confirming the establishment of hypertrophy. Moreover, the hypertrophic response at 4 days was perceived to be physiological at 0.1 μM and pathological at 1 μM based on α-MHC and IGF1R expression, but complete inhibition in the PKB/AKT expression confirmed it to be pathological hypertrophy at both the concentrations (0.1 and 1 μM). The present study reports for the first time the mechanistic insights into DEX-mediated hypertrophy. It is hypothesized to be orchestrated through the activation of AT1R that is involved in the alteration of the cardiac isoform of SERCA2 expression perturbing the calcium homeostasis. This leads to the activation of calcineurin B, independent of NFAT involvement, which in coordination with ROS induces the activation of JNK of the MAPK signalling. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Thirumoorthy P.,Anna University | Murali K.R.,Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2011

PbS thin films were deposited for the first time using the pulse electrodeposition technique at different duty cycles in the range of 9 to 50% and at room temperature using lead nitrate and sodium thiosulphate. The thickness of the films increased from 0.5 to 1.0 μm with increase of duty cycle. The films were polycrystalline and exhibited cubic structure. The band gap of the films deposited at 50% duty cycle is 0.42 eV. The resistivities of the films decreased from 0.9 to 0.5 × 10 5 ohm cm as the duty cycle increased. Films with grain size in the range of 20 to 35 nm were deposited. Films with refractive index varying in the range of 4.45-3.75 with increase of wavelength were obtained. Films with higher photosensitivity and higher detectivity compared to earlier reports were obtained. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dell'Atti L.,Anna University
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter.RESULTS: 11 out of 64 patients (17.2%) who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3%) were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7%) were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79). During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%). Concerning the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326) between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group.CONCLUSIONS: In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.


Ashokan M.,National Institute of Ocean Technology | Latha G.,National Institute of Ocean Technology | Ramesh R.,Anna University
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2015

Ocean ambient noise time series data were measured in shallow waters off the East coast of India from 09/12/2011 to 20/01/2012 and off the West coast of India from 16/05/2012 to 03/07/2012 at around 30 m ocean depth using hydrophones placed at 15 m depth in the mid water column. The measurements of wind and rain were recorded by an anemometer and precipitation type rain gauge mounted on a buoy. The objective of this work is to analyse the ambient noise caused by rain and determining the rain parameters such as rain drop size, rain fall rate, terminal velocity, impact angle, etc. This is the first time such open sea measurements of noise have been made in Indian seas along with environmental parameters and influence of rain on ambient noise field is studied. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arulazhagan P.,University of Suwon | Vasudevan N.,Anna University | Yeom I.T.,University of Suwon
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The biodegradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene by a halotolerant bacterial consortium isolated from marine environment was investigated. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading bacterial consortium was enriched from mixture saline water samples collected from Chennai (Port of Chennai, salt pan), India. The consortium potently degraded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (> 95%) at 30g/L of sodium chloride concentration in 4 days. The consortium was able to degrade 39 to 45% of different polycyclic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration. Due to increase in salinity, the percent degradation decreased. To enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation, yeast extract was added as an additional substrate at 60g/L NaCl concentration. After the addition of yeast extract, the consortium degraded > 74% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration in 4 days. The consortium was also able to degrade PAHs at different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ppm) with 30 g/L of NaCl concentration. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading halotolerant bacterial consortium consists of three bacterial strains, namely Ochrobactrum sp., Enterobacter cloacae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.


Ramanujam R.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Muthukrishnan N.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Raju R.,Anna University
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing | Year: 2011

This paper presents the detailed experimental investigation on turning Aluminium Silicon Carbide particulate Metal Matrix Composite (Al-SiC -MMC) using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) 1600 grade insert. Experiments were carried out on medium duty lathe. A plan of experiments, based on the techniques of Taguchi, was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to investigate the machining characteristics of MMC (A356/10/SiCP). The objective was to establish a correlation between cutting speed, feed and depth of cut to the specific power and surface finish on the work piece. The optimum machining parameters were obtained by Grey relational analysis. Finally, confirmation test was performed to make a comparison between the experimental results and developed model and also tool wear analysis is studied. © KSPE and Springer 2011.


Kumar M.S.,Anna University
International Journal of Automotive Technology | Year: 2011

Gerotor pumps are widely used in the automotive industry for engine oil lubrication, due to their high volumetric efficiency and smooth pumping action. In many cases, the lubricating oil from the sump is mixed with contaminants, such as dust and tiny solid particles, or becomes thickened, due to aging. These problems will lead to critical situations, such as increased noise, enhanced wear and erosion, and poor lubrication of the engine. These critical situations were studied by conducting a detailed CFD integrated investigation on a gerotor pump's performance at different operating conditions in three phases, and the results are presented in this paper. In first phase, a CFD model of a gerotor pump was developed with a dynamic mesh for the rotary movement of both the inner and outer rotors. The effects on pump flow rate of important parameters, such as rotor speed, fluid viscosity and number of ports, were simulated using non-contaminated oil at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 140oC. The relationship between flow rate and pressure at different rotor speeds was predicted and validated with test data for further parametric study. The pressure ripples at different time steps were measured at different angular positions of the rotors to examine the model accuracy. It was found that the flow rate increased and pressure pulsation, as well as flow recirculation, was reduced when ports were added to the cover plate. A suction pipe with a strainer was added for the second phase to capture the undesired changes in flow behavior, such as cavitation, which is caused by negative suction at the inlet region of pump. A suitable size for the inlet suction pipe for this pump was chosen after performing tests to characterize the flow behavior with single and double ports. Next, the relationship between pressure drop and strainer porosity was determined using different porosity values for the strainers. In the final phase, oil with different concentrations of solids was simulated to measure the effect of solid particles on flow rates and pressure losses. It was observed that the intensity of the recirculation was reduced at the suction end at the higher concentration of 0. 04%, due to particle inertial effects. It was also found that particle size distribution affected the overall efficiency and pressure head of the pump. © 2011 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Balasubramanian D.,Pachaiyappas College | Murugakoothan P.,Pachaiyappas College | Jayavel R.,Anna University
Journal of Crystal Growth | Year: 2010

A new organic compound of bis-glycine maleate was synthesized in the alkaline medium of 10% ammonium hydroxide solution. The bulk single crystals of Bis-Glycine Maleate (BGM) have been grown by slow cooling method. The grown crystals were characterized by employing single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, optical absorption spectral studies and thermo gravimetric analysis. The microhardness studies confirmed that the BGM has a fairly high Vicker's hardness number value (41 kg mm-2) in comparison to other organic NLO crystals. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the crystal measured by Kurtz-Perry powder method using Nd:YAG laser is found to be comparable to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Frequency dependent dielectric studies were carried out along the major growth axis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Devika N.T.,Anna University | Jaffar Ali B.M.,Pondicherry University
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2013

The vascular endothelium, the intima of blood vessels, coordinately interacts with several biochemical factors expressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent endogenous vasodilator. The present study investigated the regulation of eNOS by multiple molecular signal transduction pathways, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and shear stress which are implicated in the process of angiogenesis and vascular remodelling respectively. In response to signal transduction upstream by VEGF-A and shear stress, different signalling pathways mediated by kinases and intracellular calcium potentiates eNOS activation leading to nitric oxide release. Our study revealed a distinct pattern of eNOS activation driven by VEGF-A and shear stress, maintaining the signalling specificity of the respective pathways. A transient response to eNOS activation was observed under VEGF-A and shear stress stimulus when mediated by calcium dependent cascades, whereas a sustained response was produced by calcium independent vascular signalling kinases. Furthermore, we found that the basal arterial shear stress enhanced eNOS activity when stimulated synergistically even at low VEGF-A levels which might be utilized to facilitate specific endothelial cell functions. Moreover, our study revealed that the presence of PI3K imparted transient behaviour to PLCγ1 supporting the hypothesis that regression and formation of tube structures are mediated by PLCγ1 and PI3K respectively in endothelial cells. This fact is corroborated by the absence of transient behaviour when PI3K is inhibited. We therefore obtained subtle insights into the control mechanism governing the role of specific signalling proteins which are obligate for the regulation of endothelial cell function and the consequent modulation of the nitric oxide release pattern. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Babuponnusami A.,Adhiparasakthi Engineering College | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

This study compares the performance of Fenton, electro-Fenton, sono-electro-Fenton and photo-electro-Fenton treatment methods on the degradation of phenol. The effect of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, current density, initial phenol concentration and solution pH was studied. The results showed better performance with simultaneous utilization of UV irradiation and electrolysis with Fenton's reagent. Degradation efficiency was observed in the order: photo-electro-Fenton>sono-electro-Fenton>electro-Fenton>Fenton. Even though complete degradation of phenol was observed with photo-electro-Fenton and sono-electro-Fenton processes, photo-electro-Fenton process showed complete removal of phenol and 64.19% of mineralization within 30min, whereas in the case of sono-electro-Fenton process, no phenol was detected after 40min and the mineralization observed at optimum conditions was 67.93%. Fenton and electro-Fenton processes required more time for phenol degradation and mineralization. The phenol degradation kinetics was studied and compared for all the processes. The results showed higher rate constant values for sono-electro-Fenton (k ap=0.0683min -1) and photo-electro-Fenton (k ap=0.0934min -1) processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bhaskaran B.,UK Met Office | Ramachandran A.,Anna University | Jones R.,UK Met Office | Moufouma-Okia W.,UK Met Office
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

Regional climate models are becoming increasingly popular to provide high resolution climate change information for impacts assessments to inform adaptation options. Many countries and provinces requiring these assessments are as small as 200,000 km2 in size, significantly smaller than an ideal domain needed for successful applications of one-way nested regional climate models. Therefore assessments on sub-regional scales (e.g., river basins) are generally carried out using climate change simulations performed for relatively larger regions. Here we show that the seasonal mean hydrological cycle and the day-to-day precipitation variations of a sub-region within the model domain are sensitive to the domain size, even though the large scale circulation features over the region are largely insensitive. On seasonal timescales, the relatively smaller domains intensify the hydrological cycle by increasing the net transport of moisture into the study region and thereby enhancing the precipitation and local recycling of moisture. On daily timescales, the simulations run over smaller domains produce higher number of moderate precipitation days in the sub-region relative to the corresponding larger domain simulations. An assessment of daily variations of water vapor and the vertical velocity within the sub-region indicates that the smaller domains may favor more frequent moderate uplifting and subsequent precipitation in the region. The results remained largely insensitive to the horizontal resolution of the model, indicating the robustness of the domain size influence on the regional model solutions. These domain size dependent precipitation characteristics have the potential to add one more level of uncertainty to the downscaled projections. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Damodharan S.,Sathyabama University | Raghavan D.,Anna University
International Arab Journal of Information Technology | Year: 2015

The decisive plan in a large number of image processing applications is to take out the significant features from image data, in which a description, interpretation, or understanding of the scene can be provided by the machine. The segmentation of brain tumor from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is a vital, but time-consuming task performed by medical experts. In this paper, we have presented an effective brain tumor detection technique based on Neural Network (NN) and our previously designed brain tissue segmentation. This technique hits the target with the aid of the following major steps, which includes: Pre-processing of the brain images., segmentation of pathological tissues (Tumor), normal tissues (White Matter (WM) and Gray Matter (GM)) and fluid (Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)), extraction of the relevant features from each segmented tissues and classification of the tumor images with NN. As well, the experimental results and analysis is evaluated by means of Quality Rate (QR) with normal and the abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images. The performance of the proposed technique is been validated and compared with the standard evaluation metrics such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for NN, K-NN classification and bayesian classification techniques. The obtained results depicts that the classification results yields better results in NNs when compared with the other techniques. © 2015 Zarka Private Univ. All rights reserved.


Cappariello A.,Regenerative Medicine Unit | Maurizi A.,University of LAquila | Veeriah V.,University of LAquila | Veeriah V.,Anna University | Teti A.,University of LAquila
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

Much has been written recently on osteoclast biology, but this cell type still astonishes scientists with its multifaceted functions and unique properties. The last three decades have seen a change in thinking about the osteoclast, from a cell with a single function, which just destroys the tissue it belongs to, to an "orchestrator" implicated in the concerted regulation of bone turnover. Osteoclasts have unique morphological features, organelle distribution and plasma membrane domain organization. They require polarization to cause extracellular bone breakdown and release of the digested bone matrix products into the circulation. Osteoclasts contribute to the control of skeletal growth and renewal. Alongside other organs, including kidney, gut, thyroid and parathyroid glands, they also affect calcemia and phosphatemia. Osteoclasts are very sensitive to pro-inflammatory stimuli, and studies in the '00s ascertained their tight link with the immune system, bringing about the question why bone needs a cell regulated by the immune system to remove the extracellular matrix components. Recently, osteoclasts have been demonstrated to contribute to the hematopoietic stem cell niche, controlling local calcium concentration and regulating the turnover of factors essential for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. Finally, osteoclasts are important regulators of osteoblast activity and angiogenesis, both by releasing factors stored in the bone matrix, and secreting "clastokines" that regulate the activity of neighboring cells. All these facets will be discussed in this review article, with the aim of underscoring The Great Beauty of the osteoclast. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Balachandran P.,Anna University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

Health care is necessary for the sustenance of human life and well-being. But the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The wastes generated from the healthcare units are hazardous and can cause delirious biological effects. In India there are an estimate of 2.7 lacs small scale healthcare units (which includes nursing homes, pathological laboratories, etc.).The waste generated collectively nears 63% of the total biomedical waste generated in India (On an annual basis). Most of the small scale units, do not have many departments/divisions and the generation of waste is small and normally they do not have treatment facility for the bio-medical waste due to financial incapability. Thus most of the units dump the waste along the municipal wastes. This can cause adverse effects such as providing waste dumping sites as breeding grounds for the microorganisms contained in the wastes (Biological test sample wastes). This issue calls for a Common Integrated facility for treatment of these wastes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


The importance of developing effective assays to diagnose, monitor and evaluate human lymphatic filariasis has been emphasized by the World Health Organization. Presently, few immunodiagnostics are available for filarial monitoring programmes. The Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) SXP-1 parasite protein, with 84% homology to Brugia malayi (Bm) SXP-1, was found to be highly immunogenic. WbSXP-1 is one among the diagnostic candidate molecules that were used for developing a rapid-antibody-flow-through diagnostic kit for filariasis. Studies were initiated with the aim of developing monoclonal antibodies against recombinant WbSXP-1 and prospective applications for the detection of both circulating Wb and Bm antigens in serum samples from infected individuals. The monoclones 1A6C2 of subclass IgG1k, and 2A12F8 of class IgM, specifically detected Wb and Bm microfilaria isolated from patients and did not show cross-reactivity with other filarial recombinant antigens. We anticipate that this work will address the problems faced in the rapid diagnosis of human lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas in developing countries.


Vijai Anand S.K.,Anna University
2010 IEEE International Conference on Communication Control and Computing Technologies, ICCCCT 2010 | Year: 2010

A pulmonary nodule is the most common sign of lung cancer. The proposed system efficiently predicts lung tumor from Computed Tomography (CT) images through image processing techniques coupled with neural network classification as either benign or malignant. The lung CT image is denoised using non-linear total variation algorithm to remove random noise prevalent in CT images. Optimal thresholding is applied to the denoised image to segregate lung regions from surrounding anatomy. Lung nodules, approximately spherical regions of relatively high density found within the lung regions are segmented using region growing method. Textural and geometric features extracted from the lung nodules using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is fed as input to a back propagation neural network that classifies lung tumor as cancerous or non-cancerous. The proposed system implemented on MATLAB takes less than 3 minutes of processing time and has yielded promising results that would supplement in the diagnosis of lung cancer. ©2010 IEEE.


Nachiappan S.,St. Josephs College | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

This study presents the reduction of textile effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) by sonolysis, sorption, sono-sorption and sono-Fenton-sorption methods. Eco-friendly, cost effective, easily available tea waste activated using sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, ultrasound irradiation (US), formaldehyde followed by US, and sodium hydroxide followed by US was used as an adsorbent. Better activation was obtained with formaldehyde followed by US treatment and this was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images obtained and Boehm titration. The effect of sorbent dosage, particle size and initial pH of the effluent on COD reduction was studied. The sono-Fenton-sorption with 50mg/L of Fe(II) and 400mg/L of H2O2 offered a maximum COD reduction of 95.5%. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics was used to fit the data obtained with sono-sorption and sono-Fenton-sorption. The analysis of adsorption mechanism revealed that the intra-particle diffusion coefficient was enhanced by several folds by the incorporation of ultrasound. The changes in morphology of the sorbent before and after sono-Fenton-sorption were analyzed using SEM images. The changes in surface functional groups of the sorbent before and after sono-Fenton-sorption were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Boehm titration. This novel hybrid treatment enhanced the biodegradability (BOD/COD) of the waste water from 0.31 to 0.71. The ecotoxicity test using disk diffusion method showed that the treated effluent was less toxic than untreated one. It was found that, the tea waste can be reused up to three cycles effectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Single crystals of a nonlinear optical material, zinc thiourea chloride were grown by the slow evaporation technique. The crystal structure and lattice parameters of the grown crystal were determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal XRD revealed that the material crystallized in a orthorhombic crystal system. Optical studies were carried out and it was found that the tendency of transmission observed from the specimen, with respect to the wavelength of light, is practically more suitable for opto-electronic applications. The optical band gap is found to be 4.30 eV. Optical constants such as the band gap, refractive index, reflectance, extinction coefficient and real (É"r) and imaginary (É"i) components of the dielectric constant and electric susceptibility were determined from the UV-vis-NIR spectrum. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of zinc thiourea chloride were measured in the different frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures. Further, electronic properties, such as valence electron plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the grown crystal have been estimated. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Prasad Rao N.,Structural Engineering Research Center |