Chennai, India
Chennai, India

Anna University , formerly Perarignar Anna University of Technology , is a technical university in Tamil Nadu, India. It's been ranked 6th best university in India. The university encompasses within it one of the oldest technical institutes in the world and has a history spanning 220 years . It was renamed 'Anna University' on 4 September 1978 as a unitary university, named after C. N. Annadurai. It became an affiliating university in 2001, absorbing about 250 engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu. Between 2007 and 2010, it was split into six universities, namely, Anna University, Chennai, Anna University, Chennai - Taramani Campus, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Tiruchirappalli, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Coimbatore, Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Tirunelveli, and Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Madurai. On September 14, 2011, a bill was passed to merge back the universities. Anna University has once again become a single affiliating university for engineering colleges all over Tamil Nadu from August 1, 2012. The university departments include College of Engineering, Guindy campus, Madras Institute of Technology - Chromepet campus, ACT campus and SAP campus. Wikipedia.

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In this study, aluminum honeycomb core sandwich structures was investigated to find the effect of various structural parameters like cell size, cell wall thickness and core height for the low velocity impact test. The effect of these structural parameters on the response characteristics like energy absorption, impact force and honeycomb core density are determined individually by using statistical analysis based on Taguchi’s DOE. But this conventional Taguchi method deals with optimization problems only with a single response at a time. Since the sandwich structure is involved with many response parameters, the Taguchi method alone cannot be useful to obtain optimal process parameters. In the present work, an attempt has been made to derive optimal combination of structural parameters in a honeycomb core sandwich structure using grey relational analysis along with the Taguchi method. Also by using analysis of variance the significant structural parameters were determined. Results show that the most influencing structural parameters considering multiple response characteristics are cell wall thickness followed by cell size. The core height has the very least/negligible effect compared to cell size and cell wall thickness. The optimum combination of the input parameters was found using Taguchi-grey relational analysis. These findings were confirmed with the results of statistical analysis by plotting the main effect plots and Anova results. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

VinothKumar S.,Madanapalle Institute of Technology & Science | PradeepKumar M.,Anna University
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals | Year: 2017

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-established machining option for manufacturing geometrically complex or hard material parts that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional machining processes. In this research work, investigations were carried out on the machining of AISI D2 tool steel under conventional EDM and cryogenically cooled EDM process (CCEDM). The input process parameter such as current (Ip), pulse on time (Ton) and gap voltage (V) were investigated and the output responses like electrode wear ratio, metal removal rate and surface roughness were explored. Experiments were conducted using L18 orthogonal array in EDM machine. Experimental results showed reductions in the electrode wear of 16% over CCEDM process. A grey relational analysis was used to solve the EDM process with multi performance characteristics to optimize EDM parameters. © 2017 The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM

Sumithra S.,Anna University | Jaya N.V.,Anna University
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism | Year: 2017

The preparation and characterisation of core–shell magnetic nanostructure with nickel oxide (NiO) core and silica (SiO2) as shell has been reported. Nanoparticles of bare NiO were produced by co-precipitation technique, and silica was coated on NiO using the standard Stober’s protocol. Structural and metal oxide vibrations analysed with X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) confirm the formation of core–shell nanostructures. Spherical morphology of the samples was initially observed in SEM, and core–shell nature was further confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. Ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopic studies reveal a strong interaction between core and shell materials which leads to a significant alteration in the optical absorption. A distinct bluish green emission observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies. Coating of SiO2 on NiO was found to amend the magnetic behaviour of core–shell system, and this change in magnetic ordering was explained on the basis of typical interfacial effects between the core–shell structures. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Yuvaraj N.,Anna University | Pradeep Kumar M.,Anna University
Machining Science and Technology | Year: 2017

This article describes the experimental investigation of abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting on AA5083-H32 aluminum alloy. In this study, the influence of varying the jet impingement angles and abrasive mesh sizes with different water jet pressures, on the output parameters for the AWJ cutting of the aluminum alloy, was analyzed. The experimental results found that the output parameters, namely, the depth of penetration, top kerf width, kerf taper ratio, surface roughness, and abrasive contaminations, were strongly influenced by the combined effect of oblique jet impingement angles and abrasive mesh sizes on AWJ. Also, it is noticed that oblique jet impingement angles have more influence on the output cutting responses than the normal jet impingement angle, and consequently, each abrasive mesh size has an influence on the different output responses for the AWJ cutting of AA5083-H32. Scanning electron microscope and microhardness tester were used to examine the different cutting regions of the kerf wall surfaces. The Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was used to confirm the amount of silicon particles embedded in the AWJ cut surfaces. The adequacy checking of the experimental data for the AWJ cutting performance models has been analyzed through the residual plots using the statistical software. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Nancy J.Y.,Anna University | Khanna N.H.,Anna University | Arputharaj K.,Anna University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: In healthcare domain, clinical trials generate time-stamped data that record set of observations on patient health status. These data are liable to missing values since there are situations, where the patient observations are neither done regularly nor updated correctly. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to impute missing values in an unevenly spaced clinical time-series data by proposing a tolerance rough set induced bio-statistical (TRiBS) framework. The proposed framework adopts an inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolation technique and improves it using the concept of tolerance rough set (TR) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). METHOD: To interpolate an unknown data point, the classical IDW interpolation suffers from two major drawbacks: first, in selecting the known data points and second, choosing an optimal influence factor. TRiBS framework overcomes the first limitation using TR and the second using PSO. TR derives the dependent attributes for each attribute using non-missing records. The nearest significant set is then generated for each missing value based on its attribute dependencies. The PSO technique fixes the weights for the data in a nearest significant set by finding an optimized influence factor. The obtained significant set and its influence factor are used in IDW computations to impute missing value. RESULT: The proposed work is experimented using clinical time series dataset of hepatitis and thrombosis patients. However, the proposed system can support other clinical time series dataset with minor domain specific changes. CONCLUSION: The performance of the imputed results proves the effectiveness of TRiBS. Experimental evaluation with the classifiers such as neural networks, support vector machine (SVM) and decision tree have shown an improvement in the classification accuracy when a missing data is pre-processed with the proposed framework. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Nair V.,Anna University | Achyuthan H.,Anna University
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2017

The Vellayani lake, located on the west coast, Kerala, South India, is a natural fresh water lake. In order to understand the source and nature of the sediments; thirteen lake floor sediment samples were collected from the Vellayani lake at different intervals along the S-N transects covering the entire surface area of the lake. Textural studies indicate that lake floor sediments are dominant in sand (55.39%) followed by clay (30.57%) and silt (14.04%) fractions. Coarse components are dominant at the inlet ofthe stream into the lake. The geochemical content of the sediments reveals low SiO2, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 content while TiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 are high when compared with Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and Upper Continental Crust (UCC) values. SiO2 is high in coarse fractions while Al2O3 is strongly associated with fine sediments. Major oxide contents supported by Rare Earth Element (REE) data reveal a distinct negative Eu anomaly reflecting a dominant cratonic origin of the sediments. Detailed geochemical data indicate a mixed source, predominantly, the lateritic soils, sedimentary and metamorphic bedrocks exposed around the lake and in the catchment area. © 2017, Geological Society of India.

Gayathri K.S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Easwarakumar K.S.,Anna University | Elias S.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2017

Designing an activity recognition system that models various activities of an occupant is the fundamental task in creating a smart home. Activity Recognition (AR) modeling, has witnessed a comprehensive range of research, that focuses independently on probabilistic approaches and on ontology based models as well. The research presented in this paper introduces an innovative approach in AR system design that integrates probabilistic inference with the represented domain ontology. Data obtained from sensors are uncertain in nature and mapping uncertainty over ontology will not yield good accuracy in the context of AR. The proposed system augments ontology based activity recognition with probabilistic reasoning through Markov Logic Network (MLN) which is a statistical relational learning approach. The proposed system utilizes the model theoretic semantic property of description logic, to convert the represented ontology activity model to its corresponding first order rules. MLN is constructed by learning weighted first order rules that enable probabilistic reasoning within a knowledge representation framework. The experiments based on datasets obtained from smart home prototypes illustrate the effectiveness of integrating probabilistic reasoning over domain ontology and the result analysis shows enhanced recognition accuracy in comparison with existing approaches. © 2017.

Senthil Kumar M.,Anna University | Nataraj G.,Anna University | Arul Selvan S.,Anna University
Fuel | Year: 2017

This paper presents a comprehensive study on the influence of different high octane fuels (such as eucalyptus oil, ethanol and methanol) on combustion behaviour of a Mahua oil based dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was modified and tested under dual fuel mode of operation. Initially the engine was run using neat diesel (ND), neat Mahua oil (NMO) as fuels. In the second phase, the engine was operated in dual fuel mode by using a specially designed variable jet carburettor to supply the high octane fuels. Engine trials were made at 100% and 40% loads (power outputs) with varying amounts of high octane fuels up to the maximum possible limit. Results indicated significant improvement in combustion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise in dual fuel operation with all the inducted fuels mainly at 100% load. The ignition delay was found to be higher for all the inducted fuels as compared to single fuel operation for both loads. The combustion duration reduced in dual fuel operation as compared to NMO operation at 100% load but increased at 40% load. Significant improvement in heat release rate was observed in the premixed combustion phase in dual fuel operation as compared to single fuel mode of operation. The optimal energy share for the best combustion behaviour was found to be 44.6%, 27.3% and 23.2% respectively for eucalyptus oil, ethanol and methanol at 100% load. Eucalyptus oil showed the best among the inducted fuels in raising the cylinder peak pressure and heat release rate with reduced ignition delay and combustion duration. In general, dual fuel operation showed inferior combustion behaviour at 40% load for all the inducted fuels. © 2017

Brindha A.,Anna University | Sivakumar T.,Anna University
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2017

Herein, we report the synthesis of nitrogen and sulphur co-doped TiO2/rGO nano composites (NST/x%-rGO, x = 2.5, 5, 7.5 & 10%) by facile single step hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological analyses of the synthesized composites were made by XRD, IR, XPS, SEM and TEM, while optical properties were studied by Raman and DRS-UV spectrophotometric techniques. Charge separation efficiency and the extent of recombination were investigated by EIS and photoluminescence (PL) studies. Photodegradation efficiency was evaluated by the de-colorization of congo red (CR), methylene blue (MB) and reactive orange 16 (RO16) dyes. For comparison purpose, TiO2/rGO (GT) and nitrogen, sulphur co-doped TiO2 (NST) were also synthesized, characterized and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated and compared. NST/5%-rGO exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of all the three dyes under visible light. Improved optical absorption property and increased life time of the photogenerated charge carriers have been observed. Trapping experiments with different quenchers suggested that superoxide radicals (O2[rad]−) were highly responsible for the degradation process compared to other species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH[rad]) and photogenerated holes (h+). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Shanmughapriya T.,Anna University | Swamynathan S.,Anna University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

In the world of Internet, the number of users and applications has been increasing unprecedentedly, as well as the complexity of interactions. Users communicate directly as well as through applications and the services that each of them in turn invoke. In this fast increasing complexity, users not only share their personal information intentionally to gain a benefit, but does inadvertently end up giving away much more information than what they will willingly give, compromising privacy requirement of not only themselves but that of their contacts as well. The outcomes of earlier studies swing from too simple postulation of tradeoff between secrecy and benefit of sharing, to too complex definitions, both of which makes privacy enforceability practically hard in the current and future scenarios, while preserving universality. This paper provides a way for theoretically capturing the complex relationship of interpersonal information communication by providing a framework within which any systems interpersonal information and its communication can be dynamically modeled but yet its applicability is not restricted to only a subset of application contexts or locations or time. This model provides the necessary theoretical foundation for analyzing the different user requirement attributes like sharing and secrecy, whose complex interplay makes up for the notion of Privacy. From simple clear evidence of presenting the relationship between sharing and secrecy, to the ability of this framework to capture dynamic user and group behavior within a system is presented. This paper also lays the road ahead of how this model can be used to predict user aspirations and arrive at privacy policy specifications for any given system. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017.

Suresh Kumar K.R.,Anna University | Kalaiselvam S.,Anna University
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2017

This study presents the experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of palmitic acid embedded with cupric oxide nanoparticles with the mass proportions ranging from 0.3 to 0.8%. This kind of nanoparticle-embedded phase change material (NEPCM) is used for room heating and various solar heating applications. Aqueous precipitation method has been used to synthesize CuO nanoparticles, and the X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of nanoparticles. Chemical reliability has been studied by testing the physical interaction between PCM and NEPCM through FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope have been used to study the morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry analysis have been used to study the latent heat and thermal stability of the NEPCM. Heat transfer characteristic study has shown that the melting time got reduced by 8.93, 16.87, and 24.72% with the addition of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8% of CuO nanoparticles, respectively, compared with the pure PCM. Similarly, the solidification time was reduced by 11.71, 19.90, and 27.59% with the addition of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mass% of nanoparticles, respectively. LFA 467 laserflash flash diffusivity apparatus has been used to measure the thermal conductivity, and the enhancement in thermal conductivity has been confirmed by the reduction in phase change time. The results have confirmed that the CuO-palmitic acid NEPCM is a potential alternative for building heating and other solar heating applications. © 2017 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

Ibrahim M.,Anna University | Subramanian A.,Anna University | Anishetty S.,Anna University
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2017

Prevotella is part of the oral bacterial community implicated in periodontitis. Pan genome analyses of eight oral Prevotella species, P. dentalis, P. enoeca, P. fusca, P. melaninogenica, P. denticola, P. intermedia 17, P. intermedia 17-2 and P. sp. oral taxon 299 are presented in this study. Analysis of the Prevotella pan genome revealed features such as secretion systems, resistance to oxidative stress and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems that enable the bacteria to adapt to the oral environment. We identified the presence of type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. fusca and P. intermedia strains. For some VgrG and Hcp proteins which were not part of the core T6SS loci, we used gene neighborhood analysis and identified putative effector proteins and putative polyimmunity loci in P. fusca and polymorphic toxin systems in P. intermedia strains. Earlier studies have identified the presence of Por secretion system (PorSS) in P. gingivalis, P. melaninogenica and P. intermedia. We noted the presence of their homologs in six other oral Prevotella studied here. We suggest that in Prevotella, PorSS is used to secrete cysteine proteases such as interpain and C-terminal domain containing proteins with a “Por_secre_tail” domain. We identified subtype I-B CRISPR-Cas system in P. enoeca. Putative CRISPR-Cas system subtypes for 37 oral Prevotella and 30 non-oral Prevotella species were also predicted. Further, we performed a BLASTp search of the Prevotella proteins which are also conserved in the red-complex pathogens, against the human proteome to identify potential broad-spectrum drug targets. In summary, the use of a pan genome approach enabled identification of secretion systems and defense mechanisms in Prevotella that confer adaptation to the oral cavity. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Subramanian N.,Anna University
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2015

Objective: A simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Lincomycin hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Method:This method is based on the reaction of Lincomycin hydrochloride with 1 ml of 1% w/v 3-methyl 1, 2 benzthiazolinehydrazide hydrochloride reagent (MBTH reagent) in presence 1% w/v ferric chloride solution, to yield a green colour. This colour has a characteristic light absorption in the visible region, with absorption maximum 463nm. This method is validated for their linearity, accuracy and precision, recovery and ruggedness according to the ICH guidelines. Results: The methods obey beers law in the concentration range of 1 to 5 μg/ml, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the methods varied from0.301 to 0.293.The intra and inter batch accuracy (%recovery) and precision (%RSD) ranged from 0.811 to 0.705 and 0.258 to 0.854 respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is applied to pharmaceutical formulation with acceptable accuracy and precision without any interference from commonly used excipients and additives. The results obtained were statistically validated and found to be reproducible. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Nagarajan V.,Anna University
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2017

Data-intensive applications produce huge amounts of data that need to be stored, analyzed, and interpreted. A data grid serves as a cost-effective infrastructure for solving these data-intensive applications. Existing scheduling strate- gies are best suited for handling compute-intensive applications, although they lack in performance while handling data- intensive applications. In this work, a novel mechanism of incorporating cognitive science in a data grid is proposed for scheduling data-intensive workows. A unique model is derived in which a cognitive engine (CE) is built into the middleware of the data grid. The intelligent agents present in the CE handle the request for data sets and use the LTP algorithm (learning, thinking, and perception) to effectively schedule the tasks using three phases. The CE also finds a unique solution for placing data sets dynamically nearer to the execution site based on network resource considerations by reducing the waiting time and data availability time for I/O-intensive jobs. The performance of the CE is validated by simulation and compared with that of existing scheduling strategies. The results of the simulation show that CE optimizes the data availability time, waiting time, data transfer time, and makespan. © 2017 TÜBITAK.

Sankaramoorthy M.,Lathamathavan Engineering College | Veluchamy M.,Anna University
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2017

This paper presents a multiobjective optimization methodology to optimally place a STATCOM in electric power distribution networks. The combination of multiobjective ant colony optimization (MACO) and the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA) is proposed to minimize the power loss and total cost. The main intention of this analysis is to optimally place the STATCOM at multiple locations such as the transmission side, middle, and load side. Identifying the type and location of the STATCOM is a combinatorial optimization problem in power systems. In order to overcome this problem, the combination of hybrid MACO and BFOA algorithms is applied in this analysis to minimize the total cost and power loss. The total cost of the overall network is calculated by using system average interruption duration index and[ system average interruption frequency index metrics. Moreover, the BFOA is used in this paper to minimize the power loss during distribution, which is adequate in searching for the optimal solution. The problem of reducing power losses in distribution systems through the BFOA approach is described here for a 5-bus system. Test results of a 5-bus network show that the proposed MACO with BFOA method can efficiently ensure the power loss and total cost minimization. © 2017 TÜBITAK.

Rajavel R.,Anna University | Thangarathinam M.,Anna University
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences | Year: 2017

One of the major challenges in cloud computing is the development of a service-level agreement (SLA) negotiation framework using an intelligent third-party broker negotiation strategy. Current frameworks exploit various negotiation strategies using game theoretic, heuristic, and argumentation-based approaches for obtaining optimal negotiation with a better success rate (negotiation commitment). However, these approaches fail to optimize the negotiation round (NR), total negotiation time (TNT), and communication overhead (CO) involved in the negotiation strategy. To overcome these problems, certain researchers have exploited trade-off, concession, and behavioral learning strategies with varying degrees of sacrifices (reductions) in their concerned proposal generation. Such sacrifices can prevent negotiation break-off and optimize the negotiation strategy to an extent with fewer NRs, less TNT, and less CO. It maximizes the utility value and the success rate. To further optimize the negotiation strategy and prevent negotiation break-off, a bulk negotiation behavioral learning (BNBL) approach is proposed. This approach uses the reinforcement learning negotiation strategy to provide varying degrees of sacrifice for obtaining an optimal result. Hence, the proposed automated dynamic SLA negotiation framework (ADSLANF) using the BNBL approach will reduce the NRs, TNT, and CO. It also significantly maximizes the utility value and success rate (SLA commitment) among negotiation parties such as service consumers and service providers. © 2017 TÜBITAK.

Preethishri R.S.,Anna University | Selvi K.K.,Anna University
1st IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, ICPEICES 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper, a Photovoltaic module fed Push Pull converter is proposed. The push pull converter does the effective utilisation of the renewable energy-Solar energy. A push pull converter possesses certain distinctive features such as low transformer flux, high power density and reduced cost. The solar photovoltaic module supplies input to the push pull converter obtained from the sun's energy and along with it the MPPT controller is also connected. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is analysed for this converter and also when the filter is connected to this converter the harmonics gets reduced. The output obtained from the photovoltaic module is used for certain applications of solar energy such as powering lighting facilities for rural homes, traffic signals, lighthouses, battery charging. The push-pull converter enhances the efficiency of the power system. The proposed photovoltaic module push pull converter focuses upon using the renewable energy in an efficient way without polluting the environment and also on the technological upliftment of PV module applications. © 2016 IEEE.

Prakash T.,TNEB Ltd. Chennai | Kumar V.S.,Anna University
1st IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, ICPEICES 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper presents a novel scheme for selection of signals for Wide area monitoring and control of power system. The twin problem of placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) for observability and placement of dynamic controllers for controllability are solved separately using different techniques. The selected signals are applied as input and output respectively for the centralized Wide area controller. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based coherency identification method has been adopted for selection of signals for observability, while a novel attempt has been made to apply the method of dimension reduction by Sequential Orthogonalisation (SO) for the selection of signals for controllability. A simple damping controller circuit that takes inputs from wide area signals is considered for controlling the inter-area oscillatory modes using the conventional power system controllers. The objective of the study is to determine the applicability and effectiveness of existing traditional damping devices with Wide Area inputs, in complex power systems such as Indian grid, with only traditional controllers. The focus of this study is on inter-area oscillatory modes, for which the modified 39-bus New England Test System (NETS) has been taken as test case. A large number of operating conditions have been considered for simulations, and the results show that the proposed scheme provides marked improvement in the damping performance of the system. © 2016 IEEE.

Arivithamani N.,Anna University | Giri Dev V.R.,Anna University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Salt-free reactive dyeing is the need of hour in textile reactive dyeing industries to overcome the problems posed by salt usage. A cationic agent (CA) namely 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride was used to cationize the cotton fabric. At present cold pad batch method is used to fix the cationic agent to fabrics. In the present work, exhaust method of application of cationic agent to knitted cotton goods at an industrial level is proposed. The reaction mechanism and effect of materials to liquor ratio, the molar ratio of NaOH to cationic agent, the temperature on dyeing performance are discussed in detail. The cationization process was optimized based on the colour strength of the cationized cotton fabric dyed with the Black GDNN reactive dye at 7% shade which is widely used for knitted fabric processing in India. Various analytical tools such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyser were used to characterize the efficiency of the cationization process. The change occurring in molecular and supermolecular level due to the cationization process is discussed in detail. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Rao M.D.,Anna University | Pennathur G.,Anna University
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2017

This paper describes a facile, “green” method for the synthesis of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical particles measuring approximately 5 nm. Structural analysis by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of cubic CdS nanoparticles that were capped with algal proteins. Optical analysis showed a significant blue shift in the optical band gap that could be ascribed to quantum confinement. The photocatalytic ability of these nanoparticles against methylene blue under UV light was studied & was found to degrade 90% of the dye within 90 min. Trapping experiments indicate that photogenerated holes, [rad]OH were the main reactive species responsible for dye degradation. This one-step strategy using algal cell free extract to produce CdS nanoparticles is an economical, environmentally friendly approach for the large-scale synthesis of CdS nanoparticles that can be used in photocatalysis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Anitha R.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Mukherjee S.,Anna University
International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking | Year: 2017

As the data in cloud computing environment grows exponentially over the past few years, retrieving required data in shorter time becomes tedious. This paper proposes a probabilistic framework for efficient retrieval of data from huge datasets using combined approach of clustering and frequent pattern analysis using maximum frequent transaction (MFT) set algorithm based on similarity of transactions provided by a novel data structure called Bloomier matrix filter (BMF). In the proposed model clustering the metadata file is done on two levels. The first level of cluster is a base cluster which is created in an offline mode, while uploading the data based on keyword using tf-idf and second level of cluster is a derived cluster which is created in an online mode, while downloading the data. Frequent transactions are generated based on the run time statistics of the transaction provided by the Bloomier matrix filter analysis. Based on the run time statistics of the BMF the dynamic cluster is derived. We have implemented the model in a cloud environment and the experimental results shows that our approach is more efficient than the existing search technology and increases throughput by handling more number of queries efficiently with reduced latency. Copyright © 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Natarajan E.,Anna University | Ponnaiah G.P.,Anna University
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management | Year: 2017

In the present study, we report a comparative study of Reactive Blue 235 (RB235) dye removal using red mud derived biologically synthesized iron nanoparticles (bRMINP) and chemically synthesized iron nanoparticles (cRMINP), both immobilized in barium alginate beads. The parameters like initial RB235 dye concentration, immobilized RMINP concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and the contact time for RB235 dye removal were optimized based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) by Response Surface Modeling (RSM) at a constant pH and temperature. Under the optimized conditions (concentration of immobilized RMINP = 1500 mg L−1, contact time = 240 min, and initial concentration of RB235 = 10 mg L−1), the RB235 dye removal by the immobilized bRMINP and cRMINP barium alginate beads was 98.75% and 88.88%, respectively. Results show that the removal of RB235 dye increases as increasing the immobilized RMINP concentration and contact time and decreases with increase in the initial concentration of RB235 dye. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to confirm the adsorption of RB235 onto the surface of barium alginate beads. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Vimala S.,Anna University | Sasikala T.,SRR Engineering College
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2017

In mobile grid environment, the existing fault tolerance techniques are not feasible and proficient. The present techniques lack to achieve the maximum profit associated with successful execution of the tasks and is deemed to be costly. Hence, we propose a fault tolerance mechanism for scheduling in mobile grid environment. In this technique, we consider failures that occurs during the execution of computing-focused and communication-focused jobs. In order to detect the failure, a novel structured data packet is sent to the destination. The destination acknowledges with a specific type of data packet corresponding to the received packet. The sender analyses the acknowledgement data packet identifies the place and nature of error. Finally, a fault recovery action is performed using the FTMS technique. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique is reliable and efficient. © 2017 American Scientific Publishers.

Alex E.J.,Anna University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2017

The Programmable Logic Array (PLA) forms the major building block in the implementation of sequential and combinational functionalities in VLSI based embedded systems. Increased sub threshold leakage current resulting from the scaling down of the microprocessors carrying PLA causes high power dissipation. In order to improve the energy consumption of future electronic products, we propose a power gating method involving sleepy modes at transistor level implemented using 65 nm technology. This paper describes the design and analysis of PLA's with footer switches for power gating. A comparative analysis has been made between the AND array, OR array and the inverter elements of the proposed PLA's and the conventional one. Results produced through simulation confirms an optimized power reduction and the transient analysis of the proposed PLA models is proved to be much better than the conventional PLA. © 2017 American Scientific Publishers.

Bharathi S.,Anna University | Kumar D.,Anna University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2017

Efficient resource allocation in cognitive radio network (CRN) remains a challenge due to dynamic nature of available spectrum in working band and implementation in nano-computing environment. Adoption of game theory in power allocation based on pricing model requires the formulation of strategy of the players as profit/loss function which may lead to Nash equilibrium. Earlier research focuses on the impact of game models such as Cournot, and Bertrand in formulating the utility function under the constraint power and service quality. In Cournot and Bertrand game the users play simultaneously that may not be acquainted with the other user's action. It suits for common regimes such as all user are to be unlicensed (SU) and they may simultaneously try to access a set of available channels. In this paper, we formulate the condition for optimal power allocation in CRN using Stackelberg game where the previous user decides its output and then the erstwhile user does so, knowing the output characteristics by the former user. Based on the profit of PU (as a leader) and SU (as a follower), the optimized solution is formulated for power and interference price and it is modelled as a convex function of transmission power achieved by Nash equilibrium which involves backward induction. By means of a uniform pricing scheme every PU aims to maximize its profit under channel data rate and interference power constraint. The proposed Resource Allocation using Stackelberg Game (RASG) algorithm tries to optimize uniform pricing and power allocation among SUs such that maximizing throughput and fairness. The simulation results show a significant enhancement in throughput and fairness compared to power optimization based on Bertrand and Cournot game theory. Copyright © 2017 American Scientific Publishers.

Shanmugam V.,Anna University
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2016

The deployment of sensor networks for security and safety related environments requires securing communication primitives such as broadcast, multicast, and point to point communication. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Recent research shows that two-way authentication provides better security and high energy saving for wireless sensor networks (WSN). In this work, we investigate a shared authentication protocol for WSNs using bilinear mapping function. Many one-way broadcast authentication protocol proposed such as Timed Efficient Stream Loss-Tolerant Authentication (TESLA), Bin and Balls Authentication (BiBA), etc., which cannot provide energy efficient authentication. Here, we propose a two-way authentication based on bilinear map function and used in secure group formation algorithm. The performance metrics such as message cost, computation and communication overhead are calculated. © 2016.

Venkatesan R.,Anna University | Rajeswari N.,Anna University
Polymers for Advanced Technologies | Year: 2017

In this present study, biodegradable PBAT nanocomposites containing different weight percentages (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% w/w) of TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by using solvent casting technique, chloroform as a solvent. The microstructure and morphology of the as-synthesized poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/TiO2 nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscope. The thermal degradation of PBAT composites was studied by using thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical strength of the films was improved by increasing TiO2 concentration. Tensile strength increased from 32.60 to 63.26 MPa, respectively. Barrier properties of the PBAT/TiO2 nanocomposites were investigated by using an oxygen permeability tester. The oxygen permeability (oxygen transmission rate) decreased with increasing the TiO2 nanoparticle concentrations. The PBAT/TiO2 nanocomposite films showed profound antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, to understand to the zone of inhibition. These results indicated that filler-polymer interaction is important and the role of the TiO2 as a reinforcement in the nanocomposites was evident. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Aishwarya N.,Anna University | Bennila Thangammal C.,Anna University
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2017

Image fusion is an important technique which aims to produce a synthetic result by leveraging the cross information available in the existing data. Sparse Representation (SR) is a powerful signal processing theory used in wide variety of applications like image denoising, compression and fusion. Construction of a proper dictionary with reduced computational efficiency is a major challenge in these applications. Owing to the above criterion, we propose a supervised dictionary learning approach for the fusion algorithm. Initially, gradient information is obtained for each patch of the training data set. Then, the edge strength and information content are measured for the gradient patches. A selection rule is finally employed to select the patches with better focus features for training the over complete dictionary. By the above process, the number of input patches for dictionary training is reduced to a greater extent. At the fusion step, the globally learned dictionary is used to represent the given set of source image patches. Experimental results with various source image pairs demonstrate that the proposed fusion framework gives better visual quality and competes with the existing methodologies quantitatively. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Samuel Raj D.,Anna University | Karunamoorthy L.,Anna University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2017

Tool wear is a major challenge when drilling CFRP. Cutting edge rounding quantifies the blunting of the cutting edge by considering the events happening in the flank–cutting edge–rake zone together by fitting a circle to this zone. The two interface zones, however, undergo wear in different ways. While the flank–cutting edge interface becomes rounded, the rake–cutting edge interface flattens out with drilling. Two new parameters, flank rounding (FR) and cutting edge flatting (CEF), are introduced to measure the damage to the flank and cutting edge, respectively. The nature of CEF and FR variation along the cutting edge shows that both are related. The chipping of the cutting edges is studied using a parameter called cutting edge roughness by monitoring the cutting edge topography. The progression of FR and cutting edge roughness along the length of the cutting edge shows that chipping may be related to the nature of FR progression. CEF could be easily measured using a simple measuring microscope and can be used to monitor drill wear. © 2017 Springer-Verlag London

Arokiasamy S.,Anna University | Anand Ronald B.,SSN College of Engineering
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2017

Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state processing technique that has unique capabilities like low amount of heat generated, extensive plastic flow of material, achieving very fine microstructure in the stirred region and healing of flaws and casting porosity. FSP offers the ability to locally tailor properties within a structure. It is a method for modifying the mechanical properties of surfaces by means of stirring action of the tool moving against the surface of the material whose properties need to be modified. In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the enhancement in the mechanical properties on the surface of magnesium-based metal matrix composites manufactured through stir casting. Silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with a particle size of 20 μm of 5 wt% were used as hybrid reinforcing agent in magnesium matrix material for the composite manufacture. FSP has been done on the surface of the composites to refine the grain sizes of the proposed composite materials. Microstructural studies have been carried out to investigate the grain size variations and observed an appreciable refinement in the grain size from 84 to 7 μm. Three different tool rotation speeds and three different linear movements of the tool were considered as the process parameters. From the experimental outcomes, optimum process parameters were obtained for achieving the fine grain size along with improved hardness values, tensile properties and wear property of the proposed composite material. © 2017 Springer-Verlag London

Roselin J.,Anna University
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2017

In Wireless Sensor Networks, the available energy of the prevailing sensor nodes is limited and is difficult to replenish. It is very critical to supervise the available energy. In Mission Critical Surveillance application, due to node’s battery depletion, coverage hole may be created. Hole at Critical Point (CP) leads to the degradation of performance of overall network. It is merely impossible, to redeploy sensor nodes or to recharge the battery while monitoring. The proposed Energy Balanced-Dynamic Deployment Optimization approach, positions the self deployable mobile sensors towards CP according to its available Energy Density. This balances the Energy Density of the network thereby increasing the Reliable Lifetime. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the approach in terms of the balanced Energy Density around CPs with less mobility. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Selvam R.,Anna University | Subramanian K.,Anna University
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2017

Herein, we report four metal-free organic polymethacrylates (In-In-BzI)PMA, (Ac-In-BzI)PMA, (TPA-In-BzI)PMA, and (Py-In-BzI)PMA with pendant chromophores donor-π-conjugated-acceptor (D-π-A) molecular framework as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In which the donor-acceptor units are attached by an indole-chalcone extending side chain to inhibit back electron transfer and charge recombination; the π-linker component contains varied chalcone-based substituents to enhance the sunlight-harvesting ability of the solar device. Photon-current cells based on the DSSC format were fabricated using the polymers as sensitizers. The DSSC device assembled using (TPA-In-BzI)PMA exhibits a considerably better IPCE peak and J–V response, with an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.70% under the illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm–2). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017, 55, 997–1007. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vidhya K.A.,Anna University | Geetha T.V.,Anna University
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2017

Rough set theory is a mathematical framework that can be visualized as a soft computing tool dealing with the vagueness and uncertainty of data and is applied to pattern recognition, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Document clustering is another area of research with values which are a bag of words that describe contents within clusters. This work analyzes how rough set theory is used for document clustering to fix issues that clustering methods manage. In this survey, an exhaustive literature review of the concept of rough sets, as well as how the lower and upper approximation of a set can be used for document clustering, has been presented. Rough set clusters are shown to be useful for representing real-time applications such as biomedical inferences, network data handling, and citation analysis. The survey is done in phases, showing how machine learning algorithms have been incorporated for document clustering using rough set theory, as well as how rough set theory has been extended to adapt to document clustering with feature selection techniques and feature/dimensionality reduction and, finally, ending with a view of assorted clustering tasks where rough set theory is applied. The classification of rough set theory for document clustering is depicted and its applications presented in this paper. The rough set theory works with resolving ambiguity and uncertainty in data. To the best of our knowledge, a rough set clustering survey has not been done earlier in the literature reviewed and the survey ends with a critical analysis of rough set theory in each application of clustering. © 2017 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Elangovan M.,Anna University | Dharmalingam S.,Anna University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2017

This article deals with a novel way of improving the anti-biofouling potential of an anion exchange membrane (AEM) by surface modification with ethanol amine (AEOH), a low cost material without affecting the chemical structure and morphology of Quaternized Poly(ether imide) (QPEI), the host membrane. The anti-biofouling potential of the AEM was evaluated using bacteria anti-adhesion test, hydrophilicity, surface roughness, water uptake, and the AEOH modification time. The data reveal that power density in all MFCs attain the highest in the sixth batch and thereafter declined albeit in a varying rate as expected measuring the least for QPEI-30. Periodical measurement of internal resistance and protein content on the membrane surfaces were found to be the least for QPEI-30 when compared with others. A reduced biofouling with improved anti-biofouling property is attributed to the enhanced hydrophilicity due to surface modification. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2017, 134, 44432. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mangaiyarkarasi P.,Anna University | Kavitha A.,Anna University
IET Circuits, Devices and Systems | Year: 2017

This paper presents a reduced order sliding mode controller based on hysteresis modulation for a boost converter with single voltage multiplier cell (VMC) operating in continuous conduction mode. Although VMC integrated boost converter improves the static gain without extreme duty cycle, it increases the number of components which in turn increases the order of the system. Due to complexity in control of higher order converters, a reduced order sliding mode controller is suggested in this study to reduce the number of sensors. Both static and dynamic performances are improved by considering only two control parameters, the input inductor current and the output capacitor voltage of the VMC integrated boost converter. The robustness of SMC over line variation, load variation and parameter variations are revealed through simulation and compared with conventional PI controller. Inrush current of the VMC integrated boost converter is observed to be high and a startup control with an auxiliary diode is incorporated. A prototype model of a 100 W boost converter with single VMC controlled by SMC is designed and implemented to validate the simulated results. A VMC integrated boost converter with SMC approach offers high voltage gain at reduced duty cycle with improved dynamic characteristics. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.

Meikandan M.,Anna University | Malarmohan K.,Anna University
Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures | Year: 2017

The focus of the present work is to fabricate and investigate the surface characteristics of a hydrophilic polycaprolactone (PCL) and superhydrophobic 1H, 1H, 2H, 2HPerfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES)-modified polycaprolactone fibrous membranes through simple electro spinning techinique. The surface properties of the polycaprolactone fibrous were modified from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with an addition of a small amount (0.05 vol%) PFDTES solution into a mixed solvent of polycaprolactone and chloroform. The morphology of the nanofibirous was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrospun PFDTES-modified polycaprolactone fibrous showed a maximum water contact angle (WCA) of 1580 due to increace in surface roughness when compare with the polycaprolactone fibrous roughness, which showed a maximum WCA of 810 and an average fiber diameter of 400-700 nm. © 2017, Inst Materials Physics. All rights reserved.

Karthick S.A.,Anna University | Gobi N.,Anna University
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2017

Nowadays, nanofiber for filtration is drawing attention because of its large surface area and smaller pore size. In this study, aerosol filtration is carried out using nanocomposite filter made of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with incorporated silver nanoparticles at different weight percentages of 5, 10, and 15 (based on the weight of polyacrylonitrile) sandwiched between polypropylene spun bonded nonwoven. Dimethylformamide acts as both solvent and reducing agent for polyacrylonitrile and the formation of silver nanoparticles, and the silver nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Further, Box–Behnken method was used to prepare filter media using areal density of nonwoven substrate, electrospinning time, and silver wt.% as process variables. Later, the developed filters were studied for aerosol filtration efficiency at face velocity of 5 cm/s against NaCl aerosol particles ranging from 0.3 to 10 µm, respectively, as well as studied for anti-bactericidal activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. From the study, the developed polyacrylonitrile/silver nanofiber filters possess 99% aerosol filtration efficiency with good anti-bactericidal activity, which potentially improves filter quality. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Kumar P.R.V.,Anna University
Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies, ICACCCT 2016 | Year: 2016

An attack which can be performed with a steganographic approach is detecting the presence of information in a file. There are three challenges involved in steganalysis. First, there is no guarantee for the presence of hidden data in a file. Second, there is a possibility for a data encrypted in the file. Third, for efficient transmission of message sender may add a noise in a cover medium. For overcoming theses challenges StegAnalyzer, a Blind Universal steganalysis tool to observe the existence of hidden messages in a cover medium is proposed. The proposed tool will be able to discriminate between the normal image and an image which holds the message. © 2016 IEEE.

Kumar V.R.V.,Anna University | Nanalya G.,Anna University
Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies, ICACCCT 2016 | Year: 2016

In recent days, camera manufacturers continue to pack increasing numbers of pixels per unit area, an increase in noise sensitivity manifests itself in the form of noisier image. Camera manufacturers, therefore, depend on image denoising algorithms to reduce the effects of such noise artifacts in the resultant image. The most common type of noise is impulse noise, in which the affected pixels are replaced by noise values which will be either zero or one. First, the noise pixel can be identified by switching method. Second, the median filter applied on every corrupted pixel. Third, compare the neighboring pixel value on input image with the median filtered image, if the two pixels having a difference then apply the M-filter on that. This paper mainly deals with the detection of noisy pixels and applying robust M-filter (lorentzian) method to improve the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index (SSIM) and mean square error (MSE) value. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art image denoising methods such as adaptive median filter, decision based filter in terms of both objective measure and visual evaluation. © 2016 IEEE.

Vigneshkumar L.,Anna University | Prabakaran R.,Anna University
Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies, ICACCCT 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper emphasis the best efforts and technique in reduction of harmonic content of the sinusoidal waveform in ac voltage. This is done by increasing the number of steps. In general, number of bridges are determined by the formula 2N+1=Levels, where N is the number of bridges, which leads to 10 bridges. But this research makes use of 4 H-Bridges. This is achieved by making use of asymmetrical multilevel inverter of different voltage source. Also the use of PWM is eliminated, which further reduces the harmonic content in the waveform. © 2016 IEEE.

Ganesh S.,Anna University | Kanimozhi R.,Anna University
Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies, ICACCCT 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper proposes a method for network reconfiguration to minimize the system power loss and maximize voltage profile while satisfying operating constraints. The proposed method is used to obtain the status of the switches through Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) technique. The backward forward sweep method is used to calculate the power flow in a radial distribution system and the power loss reduction is done by using the ACO. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on 33-bus single feeder distribution network using MATLAB. The proposed algorithm is tested on a 33-bus distribution system with five different kinds of load levels. © 2016 IEEE.

Nagendra R.,Anna University | Nallapa Reddy A.,Anna University
Journal of Palaeogeography | Year: 2017

The present review is aimed at correlating major geologic events of the Cauvery Basin with analogous global episodes. The Cauvery Basin came into existence due to Gondwana break up during Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous by taphrogenic rift process. The first marine transgression close to Aptian/Albian boundary at the western margin of the basin terminates the syn-rift tectonic phase, which is also precise in adjoining Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin. Two regional tectonic episodes are well documented in the basin which have global significance viz. (1) A major basinal uplift during late Turonian caused by Marion hot mantle plume resulted in widespread subaqueous volcanism in the southern part of the Cauvery Basin. This uplift also led to relative sea level (RSL) fall of about 100 m in Cauvery and KG Basins and an unconformity of a magnitude of 2.3 Ma. The RSL fall closely correlates with global sea level fall. This volcanic episode also resulted in Madagascar detachment from India. (2) The reunion hot mantle plume that led to Deccan volcanism in central India resulted in E–SE tilt of the Cauvery Basin during upper Maastrichtian (CF1-CF3 zones). This tilt caused a sea level fall of about 80 m and lateral withdrawal of sea by about 50 km developing a major erosional unconformity ranging in magnitude of ∼1.8–30 My. The magnitude of RSL correlates well with global sea level fall. This sea level fall caused widespread development of canyon features in the Cauvery Basin resulting in differential subaqueous erosion. The globally significant ocean anoxic events viz. OAE-1b, OAE-1d, OAE-2 and OAE-3 are fairly discernible in the Cauvery Basin. The new isotopic palaeotemperature data suggests that southern India and Madagascar were located apparently in middle latitudes within the tropical-subtropical climatic zone during Albian and early Maastrichtian. The magnitude of hiatus across K–Pg boundary varying from 0 to 30 Ma is estimated based on planktic foraminifera for subsurface sections. The magnetostratigraphy of outcrop sediments with rich fossil evidences reveals that magnetic polarity reversals consist of 13 magnetozones in the Late Cretaceous sedimentary strata. © 2016 China University of Petroleum (Beijing)

Durairaj S.,Anna University | Vaithilingam S.,Anna University
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

With the ultimate aim of improving overall performance of direct alkaline methanol fuel cell and direct alkaline sulphur fuel cell (DSFC), an innovative attempt is made for the development of cost effective electrocatalyst with fascinating morphology as an anode material. In this study, copper sulphide doped Poly(Py-co-FA) coated coal fly ash (CFA) based zeolite (CFA-Ze) as a supporting material was synthesized through the hydrothermal process. The obtained nickel deposited Poly(Py-co-FA)/CuS/CFA-Ze composite was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies. The SEM and TEM pictures confirm the graphene sheet like structure formation through the interconnected bucky cage like shaped constitutions. Electrode modified with the synthesized catalyst exhibits improved catalytic activity for both oxidation of methanol and sulphide ion in alkaline medium. The novel catalyst used here is not only employed for the power generation, but also for the removal of sulphide waste, which is serving as a unique promoter of energy, waste management and green energy applications. Further, Ni/Poly(Py-co-FA)/CuS/CFA-Ze shows enhanced catalytic activity and stability when compared to that of Ni/Poly(Py-co-FA), Ni/CuS/CFA-Zeand Ni/CFA-Ze catalysts. The single stack alkaline fuel cell shows the maximum power density of 88.64 and 34.78·mWcm− 2 for methanol and Na2S, respectively. From the overall studies, it was concluded that the prepared Ni/Poly(Py-co-FA)/CuS/CFA-Ze catalyst is a potent, low cost and non-precious metal loaded electrode material with enhanced catalytic activity for direct alkaline fuel cells. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Arvind K.S.,Anna University | Manimegalai R.,Anna University
Cluster Computing | Year: 2017

The explosive growth of cloud computing had resulted in the growth of fields such as ubiquitous computing, mobile cloud computing, Big Data Analytics and Cyber Physical Systems etc., Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is the integration of Mobile computing and Cloud computing and has gained tremendous popularity in recent years. In MCC, mobile users access the cloud services with the mobile device. Generally, the users of mobile cloud can select their services from the broker using an agent. There is an agreement between the users and service provider called SLA. Data are of varying types and they require different security levels based on their requirement. Classification of Mobile user’s data is a time-consuming process. A superior naive classifier for secure data classification in agent based mobile cloud computing is proposed in this paper. The agent classifies the user’s data into three different groups namely, low, medium, high. Then, the data are encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standards (AES). Encrypted data is transferred to the broker for selecting for suitable service agent.But the broker has many to one relationship with service agents. Then the data is sent to the cloud service provider for storage. The stored data is then homomorphically encrypted which enables the cloud provider and cloud user to process the data without the need for decryption. Performance analysis demonstrates that our proposed method reduces classification time and provides better security and integrity on mobile cloud data. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Johnsi Merlin Benita,Anna University | Mary Anita Rajam V.,Anna University
Cluster Computing | Year: 2017

Femtocells are indoor wireless access points that are used to provide cellular access to devices inside a building where macrocells cannot. Dead zones are indoor or outdoor places where there is no macrocell coverage and hence, lack of data transmission capability and absence of signal strength are common in dead zones. In the LTE-femtocell architecture, the communication between two user equipments connected to Home evolved NodeBs (HeNBs) and the handover between two HeNBs are carried out by the Home evolved NodeB-Gateway (HeNB-GW) and the Mobility Management Entity (MME). This paper describes an architecture using Road Gateways (RGW) that work along with femtocells for providing seamless communication in dead zones. This paper also describes the communication and handover procedures in the new architecture. In the proposed architecture, the communication between two user equipments connected to HeNBs and the handover between two HeNBs are carried out using the RGW without involving the HeNB-GW and the MME. The performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated using an analytical model and it is found that the handover signalling cost is reduced when compared to the conventional LTE-femtocell architecture. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Metal fatty acid salts (MFAS) in untreated industrial effluents cause environmental pollution. The use of biocompatible agents for remediation may help in reducing the harm caused to the ambient aquatic organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that thrives under harsh conditions and is resistant to toxic metal ions. The present study shows a proof-of-concept of using this organism in the biodegradation of MFAS. MFAS were prepared and we studied their effect on the growth of the planktonic form and the formation of biofilm by P. aeruginosa. We observed biofilm formation in the presence of all the MFAS when used as the sole carbon source, albeit the quantity of biofilm formed in the presence of cadmium and copper was less. There was no effect on the planktonic form of the organism but the formation of biofilm increased in the presence of magnesium palmitate. This study shows that metal ions play a pivotal role in the formation of biofilm. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analysis of the biofilm polysaccharide showed that hexose sugar was a major component when compared with pentose sugar. The structure of biofilm polysaccharide and the coordination of the metal ion with the biofilm polysaccharide were confirmed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and Raman spectroscopy.

Seenuvasaperumal P.,Anna University | Elayaperumal A.,Anna University | Jayavel R.,Anna University
Tribology International | Year: 2017

The effect of calcium hexaboride (CaB6) reinforced magnesium metal matrix composite (Mg-MMC) for mechanical and tribological behavior have been investigated. Fabrication of the Mg-MMC was done by the squeeze casting process using the bottom pouring stir casting furnace. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness of the composites were analyzed. The dry sliding wear behavior of the pure Mg and the composites was evaluated in the pin-on-disk tribo-meter using SAE52100 bearing steel disk at room temperature. Improvement in the mechanical property was found in CaB6 reinforced Mg-MMC as compared with pure Mg. A significant fact was that, addition of CaB6 enhanced the wear resistance of Mg-MMC, revealing the delamination wear mechanism is dominant from other wear mechanisms. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Jefferson Andrew J.,Anna University | Arumugam V.,Anna University
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2017

This paper investigates the tensile response of damaged glass/epoxy composite laminates repaired using hybrid external patches. Hybrid external patches based on glass and Kevlar woven fabrics bonded on both faces of the damaged parent laminate were considered. Five different kinds of plain weave woven fabrics with a different ratio between glass and Kevlar fibers (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100) were used as the external patches. The intention of using these hybrid patches was to combine the excellent tensile stiffness of Kevlar fiber with the superior resin adhesion property of glass fiber. The virgin and damaged specimens were taken as the reference specimens for comparison of residual mechanical properties and damage mechanisms. Damage evolution and the failure progression of the repaired glass/epoxy specimens were monitored using real-time Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring technique. The Acoustic Emission (AE) results depict different damage profiles and link them with mechanical test results to reveal the load to a change in failure mechanisms during mechanical loading concerning the influence of each hybrid patches on the performance of repaired glass/epoxy specimens. Good correlation of the acoustic emission results with the photographic images of fractured specimens was obtained. Specimens repaired with the equal volume fraction of glass and Kevlar fibers in the external patches presented the most favorable residual tensile response by effectively releasing the stress concentration in the damaged area. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sowmmiya U.,Anna University | Uma G.,Anna University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2017

This paper deals with the performance and possible power transfer modes of Wound Rotor Induction Generator (WRIG) based Wind Energy System (WES) in a hybrid grid (AC and DC Micro grid (DCM)) delivering power in islanded and utility tied conditions. The current controlled Rotor Side Converter (RSC) with its DC end connected to DCM facilitates bidirectional slip power flow. In islanded mode, a decoupled voltage vector control with cascaded PI loops is used for regulating stator voltage and stator frequency. In utility tied mode, reference current generation technique based on Instantaneous Power Theory (IPT) is adopted for slip power transfer by PWM rectification/inversion of RSC. The excitation is supplied via rotor and stator during islanded and utility tied conditions respectively. All possible operational modes are formulated aiming incessant power transfer by WRIG. Maximum power extraction during occasional situations like short circuit faults/low wind/overload and no load claims the merit of the system. The dynamic power transfer operation to maintain the power balance during hybrid mode is analyzed through laboratory experimentation on a 500 W induction machine. Experimental findings confirm the efficacious working of WRIG based WES. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Anbalagan B.,Anna University | Valliyammai C.,Anna University
Proceedings - 23rd IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing Workshops, HiPCW 2016 | Year: 2016

The recent emergence of ubiquitous smart communication devices accelerate people to post the current trending topics in real time as micro blogs, tweets, posts and multimedia content on social media sites along with geographical location tags (geo-tags). Specifically, during recent floods in Tamilnadu 2015, the early warnings about flooded areas emerged to get posted in popular social media with geo-parsed hash tags continuously. In the humanitarian view, the real-time crisis sparked great interest in designing an innovative methodology using big social media data analysis along with supervised machine learning techniques to actuate immediate disaster response and rescue efforts in near future. The proposed system performs disaster tweet collection based on trending disaster hash tags. Our system performs Naive-Bayesian (multinomial) and SSVM classification on collected tweets to identify the severity of the disaster. Based on location-to-interpolation cluster proximity, disaster geographic map is generated for the affected area. Our approach detects the tweets fitted into correct classifier label, and generate an output with detection rate of 79% to 91% of the time. The predicted disaster mapping results are highly accurate up to 89% for real time geo-parsed tweets that matched with actual location at-risk during the flood. © 2016 IEEE.

Periasamy S.,Anna University | Shanmugam R.S.,Anna University
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2017

Soil moisture stress and salinity are considered as a major form of land degradation in rain-fed agricultural regions. The study has been carried out for four distinct periods such as 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015 that was selected according to the climatic variations that occurred more than a decade. The multispectral remote sensing-based empirical models were employed on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and Operational Land Imager imageries to estimate the rate of soil moisture stress and salinity from 2001-2015. The rate of soil moisture stress has been magnified to 143%, and salinity was increased by 70% particularly from 2005-2010 when the drought period occurred. The reliability of identifying the saline-affected soils from the multispectral remote sensing models was significantly affected (R2=0.39) because of the extensive distribution of Nerium oleander plants and water logging state in the study region. The modified microwave water cloud model revealed the three-layer information such as N.oleander, soil, and vegetation such that an imaginary part of the dielectric constant derived from simplified Hallikainen empirical model has got good correlation (R2=0.73) with ground electrical conductivity measurements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Berlin S.J.,Anna University | John M.,Anna University
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2017

This paper provides an efficient framework for recognizing human interactions based on deep learning based architecture. The Harris corner points and the histogram form the feature vector of the spatiotemporal volume. The feature vector extraction is restricted to the region of interaction. A stacked autoencoder configuration is embedded in the deep learning framework used for classification. The method is evaluated on the benchmark UT interaction dataset and average recognition rates as high as 95% and 88% are obtained on setl and set2 respectively. © 2016 IEEE.

Kumar S.S.,Anna University | John M.,Anna University
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2017

An optical flow based approach for recognizing human actions and human-human interactions in video sequences has been addressed in this paper. We propose a local descriptor built by optical flow vectors along the edges of the action performer(s). By using the proposed feature descriptor with multi-class SVM classifier, recognition rates as high as 95.69% and 94.62% have been achieved for Weizmann action dataset and KTH action dataset respectively. The recognition rate achieved is 92.7% for UT interaction Set-l, 90.21% for UT interaction Set-2. The results demonstrate that the method is simple and efficient. © 2016 IEEE.

Arun V.,Anna University | Karl Marx L.R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2017

Nowadays reconfigurable antennae are finding their importance in a variety of applications. This research proposes to design a novel micro controller based frequency reconfigurable patch antenna using RF P–I–N diodes. This proposed design consists of three RF P–I–N diodes and by adjusting the ON and OFF state of the diodes using the microcontroller unit, the radiating frequency of the antenna can be changed and hence it covers different wireless bands. Eight different switching states were achieved through these three P–I–N diode combinations. A prototype antenna was fabricated with a length and width of 50 mm × 60 mm respectively and a substrate thickness of 1.6 mm. The simulations were carried out through HFSS and the results were obtained using vector network analyzer. Upon comparing the simulation results with the actual prototype antenna, the return loss was observed to be below −10 dB and VSWR value was <2 for all states. This proposed antenna also doubly serves as an RF harvester by harvesting 4.9 V in the WLAN/WiMAX range. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

J A.A.J.,Anna University | V M.A.R.,Anna University
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2017

A computer aided diagnosis system supports doctors by providing quantitative diagnostic clues from medical data. In this paper, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system to automatically discriminate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained thyroid histopathology images either as normal thyroid (NT) images or as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) images. The CAD system incorporates a multi-classifier system to maximize the diagnostic accuracy of classification. Thyroid histopathology images are provided as input to the CAD system. The input images are enhanced and the nuclei present in the images are segmented automatically. Shape and texture features are extracted from the segmented images. Classification of the features is studied using classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbor (K-nn) and closest matching rule (CMR) either as stand alone classifiers or as combinations to form multi-classifier systems. The multi-classifier system which provides the best accuracy is found out experimentally. The CAD system thus formed can be used as a second opinion to assist pathologists. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Bibal Benifa J.V.,Anna University | Dejey,Anna University
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2017

MapReduce is a parallel programming model for processing the data-intensive applications in a cloud environment. The scheduler greatly influences the performance of MapReduce model while utilized in heterogeneous cluster environment. The dynamic nature of cluster environment and computing workloads affect the execution time and computational resource usage in the scheduling process. Further, data locality is essential for reducing total job execution time, cross-rack communication, and to improve the throughput. In the present work, a scheduling strategy named efficient locality and replica aware scheduling (ELRAS) integrated with an autonomous replication scheme (ARS) is proposed to enhance the data locality and performs consistently in the heterogeneous environment. ARS autonomously decides the data object to be replicated by considering its popularity and removes the replica as it is idle. The proposed approach is validated in a heterogeneous cluster environment with various realistic applications that are IO bound, CPU bound and mixed workloads. ELRAS improves the throughput by a factor about 2 as compared with the existing FIFO and it also yields near optimal data locality, reduce the execution time, and effective utilization of resources. The simplicity of ELRAS algorithm proves its feasibility to adopt for a wide range of applications. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Ashok R.,Anna University | Prakash P.P.,Anna University | Tamil Selvan R.,Anna University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

Prednisolone is used as anti-inflammatory or immune suppressive agent. Various methods for analysis of the same are available but are time consuming and expensive. Here we have developed two new, precise and simple UV spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Prednisolone from tablet formulation. The drug obeyed the Beer's law and showed good correlation. Absorption maxima of Prednisolone in methanol were found to be at 244 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in concentration range 2- 12 mcg/ml. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of prednisolone, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.9995 (n=6).The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The recovery was more than 98%. The method was found to be simple, accurate, precise and economical.

Uma Mageswaran S.,Anna University | Uma Mageswaran S.,Bharath University | Guna Sekhar N.O.,Easwari Engineering College
International Journal of Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

Reactive power is vital for reliability, power quality, transmission line loss and voltage stability. Rapid industrial development makes the power system is stressed. This stressed power system has more loss and low voltage profile, generator has its limitation and could not generate sufficient reactive power, to overcome this situation Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices are used. This paper makes use of one such FACTS device namely STATCOM to relief power system stress by injective adequate reactive power. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used to optimize the STATCOM location and reactive power injection. Test case IEEE-30 bus system is considered for the simulation.

Abitha M.W.,Anna University | Rajini V.,SSNCE
2013 International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems, ICICES 2013 | Year: 2013

In this paper, the induction motor is modelled in stationary reference frame using the equations derived from the equivalent circuit model of the stationary reference frame. After implementing the model, it is analysed under healthy and faulty condition. The considered faulty conditions of the induction motor include the stator and rotor fault. Any single phasing situation creates the stator fault that may result in opening and shorting of one or more phase winding. In this work the modelled induction motor is modified for analysing the open circuit fault of the stator phase windings and the result are compared using the using the voltage pattern and the current pattern obtained using Park's vector approach. The results are compared to give the best solution in stator fault diagnosis. The broken bar fault is introduced in the rotor by making some modifications in the model and the current pattern obtained using Park's vector approach is analysed with the difference in the pattern produced during the healthy condition. Finally, both the faults are introduced in the model and the result is analysed using Park's vector approach. © 2013 IEEE.

Christopher A.B.A.,Anna University
2013 IEEE International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing, Communication and Nanotechnology, ICE-CCN 2013 | Year: 2013

Data mining approaches have been successfully applied in different fields. Risk and safety have always been important considerations in aviation. There is a large amount of knowledge and data accumulation in aviation industry. These data can be store in the form of pilot reports, maintenance reports, accident reports or delay reports. This paper applied the decision tree model on accident reports of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident / incident Data System database, contains 468 accident data records for all categories of aviation between the years of 1970 to 2011. The decision tree classifier is use to predict the warning level of the component as the class attribute. We have explored the use of the decision tree technique on aviation components data. Decision Tree induction algorithm is applied to generate the model and the generated model is used to predict the warning of accidents in the airline database. This work may be useful for Aviation Company to make better prediction. © 2013 IEEE.

Abstract The recently developed, emerging Z-source inverter topologies are well suitable for Power Conditioning System (PCS).This paper presents the effective performance analysis of three different voltage type Impedance Source Inverter (ZSI) topologies such as classical ZSI, improved Z-source inverter and embedded Z-source inverter with four control techniques, namely Simple Boost Control (SBC), Maximum Constant Boost Control (MCBC), Maximum Constant Boost with Third Harmonic Injection and Modified SVPWM for Power Conditioning System. ZSI family is a single stage high efficiency power converter that eliminates almost all the limitations of traditional inverters such as Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and Current Source Inverter (CSI). Performance analysis is carried out based on the obtainable impedance source capacitor voltage, inductor current ripples, DC link voltage ripples, peak output voltage, output phase current harmonics and effectiveness of the control methods for battery powered applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Anguraj A.,PSG College of Technology | Karthikeyan P.,Anna University | Rivero M.,University of La Laguna | Trujillo J.J.,University of La Laguna
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2014

In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions for a class of initial value problems with integral condition for impulsive fractional integro-differential equations. The results are established by the application of the contraction mapping principle and the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem. An example is provided to illustrate the results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nagashanmugam K.B.,JSW Steel Ltd | Srinivasan K.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology | Year: 2011

An activated carbon has been prepared from gingelly oil cake (GOC) by zinc chloride treatment and its Cr(VI) removal capacity is compared with that of commercial activated carbon (CAC). The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and adsorbents dose for Cr(VI) removal has been studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models are tested to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents calculated from Langmuir isotherm is found to be 62.5 mg/g and 25.13 mg/g for zinc chloride treated gingelly oil cake carbon (ZTGOC) and CAC respectively. R2 values show that both Langmuir and Freundlich models fit well to explain the adsorption phenomenon for ZTGOC and CAC. The kinetic data fits best to pseudo-second order model. FT-IR analysis has been used to obtain information on the nature of possible interaction between carbon adsorbents and metal ions. SEM images confirm the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto these adsorbents through morphological observations. Thermodynamic study shows the feasibility of process and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. The carbon adsorbents have also been tested for the removal of Cr(VI) from chrome plating wastewater and are found to remove Cr(VI) effectively.

Thanigaiyarasu G.,Anna University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2010

Addition of inexpensive silicon carbide particulates (SiCp) in the aluminium alloy matrix results in materials with properties non-obtainable in monolithic materials. The forging process results in improved properties as well as forms a shape of the final product. The age-hardening processes accelerate the coarse hardening process of the composites and improve strength and ductility. The size, morphology and volume fraction are the key controlling factors that control the plasticity and the thermal residual stresses in the matrix and thereby it's mechanical and fatigue properties. This research paper focuses on the effect of particle size, forging and ageing on the mechanical and fatigue properties of the cast, forged and age-hardened aluminium 6082 (AI6082) reinforced with SiCp. Al6082 reinforced with three different particle sizes of SiCp (average particles size of 22, 12 and 3 μm) in the forged and ageing conditions were studied. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy, hardness, tensile and fatigue tests. The forged microstructure shows a more uniform distribution of SiCp in the aluminium matrix. The addition of SiCp results in improved tensile strength, yield strength and elastic constants of the composites with reduction in ductility. It also increases the fatigue strength of the composites by increasing the number of cycles required for fatigue failure of the composites for the given value of stress. The results also show considerable improvements in mechanical fatigue properties due to forging and ageing heat treatment of the metal matrix composites. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Kumar K.P.,Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology | Sekaran A.S.J.,Anna University
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2014

Natural fibers are used as reinforcing materials for more than 2000 years. The need for natural fibers has been emerged due to its weight saving, cost effective, and environmentally superior alternatives to synthetic fibers in composites. The interest in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites has been increased rapidly, due to high performance in mechanical properties, significant processing advantages, and it also provides a solution to environmental pollution. The main objective of this paper is to review and discuss the natural fibers like banana, aloe vera, kenaf, and sisal fibers and their extraction processes. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

Shahabudeen P.,Anna University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014

Mass production system design is a key for the productivity of an organization. Mass production system can be classified into production line machining a component and production line assembling a product. In this paper, the production line assembling a product, which is alternatively called as assembly line system, is considered. In this system, balancing the assembly line as per a desired volume of production per shift is a challenging task. The main objectives of the assembly line design are to minimize the number of workstations for a given cycle time (type 1), to minimize the maximum of the times of workstations for a given number of workstations (type 2), and so forth. Because this problem comes under combinatorial category, the use of heuristics is inevitable. Development of a mathematical model may also be attempted, which will help researchers to compare the solutions of the heuristics with that of the model. In this paper, an attempt is made to present a comprehensive review of literature on the assembly line balancing. The assembly line balancing problems are classified into eight types based on three parameters, viz. The number of models (single-model and multi-model), the nature of task times (deterministic and probabilistic), and the type of assembly line (straight-type and U-type). The review of literature is organized as per the above classification. Further, directions for future research are also presented. © 2014 Springer-Verlag London.

Sharon H.,NEC Corp | Karuppasamy K.,Anna University | Soban Kumar D.R.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Sundaresan A.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012

Used palm oil collected from different restaurants in Tirunelveli region of south India was converted into methyl esters (biodiesel) by transesterification. Biodiesel produced from used palm oil was blended with diesel by different volume proportions (25%, 50% and 75%). Biodiesel and its blends were tested in a DI diesel engine at constant speed by varying loads (between 20% and 100%) to analyze its performance, emission and combustion profile. The results obtained were compared with diesel fuel. B25 and B50 showed performances similar to diesel fuel. Smoke density of B100 and B75 were lower than diesel by 19% and 10% at full load. At full load measured CO emission for B100 and B75 were 52.9% and 35.2% lower than diesel HC emission for B100 and B75 were 38.09% and 19.05% lower than diesel. NO X emission was higher for all biodiesel blends. B75 showed lower amount of emissions throughout the test. Ignition delay for B100, B75, B50 and B25 were 2.1°, 1.9°, 1.7° and 1° lower than diesel. Combustion profile was smoother and no knocking was experienced while operating with biodiesel blends. B50 produced peak cylinder pressure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gopinath K.P.,Adhiparasakthi Engineering College | Srinivasan R.,Anna University | Sankaranarayanan S.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In this study, it was attempted to evaluate the influences and also recommended some elimination methods for inhibitory effects offered by salts and heavy metal ions. Congo red dye solution treated with mutant Pseudomonas sp. was taken as a model system for study. The salts used in this study are NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4·7H2O. Though the growth was inhibited at concentrations above 4g/l, toleration was achieved by acclimatization process. In case of heavy metal ions, Cr (VI) showed low inhibition up to 500mg/l of concentration, compared to Zn (II) and Cu (II). It was due to the presence of chromium reductase enzyme which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Zn (II) and Cu (II) ion inhibitions were eliminated by chelation with EDTA. The critical ion concentrations obtained as per Han-Levenspiel model for Cr (VI), Zn (II) and Cu (II) were 0.8958, 0.3028 and 0.204g/l respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sathishkumar G.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2010

Nano particles of Mn(0.5-x)NixZn0.5 Fe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The lattice constant and distribution of cation in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been deduced through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data analysis. The lattice constant (Å) for all Mn/Ni concentration is found to be less than that for the corresponding bulk values. X-ray intensity calculations indicate that there is deviation in the normal cation distribution. Magnetization decreases with increasing Ni concentration except for x=0.3, where it shows increasing trend. This is due to migration of Fe3+ ions from B-site to A-site, which reduces the B-B coupling and there by the spin canting in the B sublattice. The Curie temperature was found to decrease with increase in nickel concentration except for x=0.3, where it shows a rise. Coercivity is very low and is found to be inversely proportional to the grain size. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Selvakumar N.,Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi | Narayanasamy R.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Leema N.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

High-energy mechanical milling was used to reduce the size and mix Cu and W powders. Extruded cylindrical preforms with theoretical density of 93% were prepared using a die and punch assembly with the help of sintering in an electric muffle furnace from 750 to 850. °C, and subsequently furnace cooled. Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, Particle Size Analyser, X-ray Diffraction and Energy Dispersive Spectrum were used for characterisation. The experiments were conducted by using a dry sliding wear tester at room condition. Response surface methodology five level central composite approach design was used to minimise the number of experimental conditions and develop mathematical models between the key process parameters namely weight percentage of tungsten, sintering temperature, load and sliding distance to predict the abrasive response of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. Analysis of variance was used to validate the developed model. The developed mathematical model is effectively used to predict the specific wear rate and coefficient of friction at 99% confidence level. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Selvi R.K.,Noorul Islam University | Kavitha V.,Anna University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

Grid Computing is an emerging computing mode which enables the coordinated sharing of widely distributed resources. It provides the ability to perform high throughput computing. Grid computing involves sharing heterogeneous resources based on different platforms, hardware/software architectures and computer Languages located in different places belonging to different administrative domains over a network. The grid security focuses on implementation of safe access for different domains in dynamic grid environment. Today's research focus is towards the protection of privacy and anonymity of grid stakeholders in the service oriented computational grid framework.In grid environment, the four classical security aspects -confidentiality, privacy, authentication and integrity has to be addressed. Scalable encryption and authentication algorithms provide confidentiality and authentication. This paper describes survey of grid computing and enhancement of the level of security in dynamic grid environment in the services of authentication. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Geetha B.,Anna University | Ganesan K.,PSG College of Technology
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

An investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different percentage (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of red mud with A356 cast alloy subject to T6 Heat treatment. A356 Alloys of appropriate composition were cast into sand moulds by stir casting techniques with the addition of different percentage of red mud. The metal matrix composites were subjected to homogenization for 24hours at 500o and solution treatment for 12hours at 540 o C after natural ageing at room temperature for 24hours, artificial ageing was carried out at different temperature (100o,200 o,300 o and 400oC) and different timing (2,4,6, and 8hours). Tensile, Hardness and wear properties were determined by standard tests. During artificial ageing, the ultimate tensile strength and hardness were found to increase with ageing temperature; the maximum being attained at peak aged condition. After peak ageing temperature the ultimate tensile strength and hardness found to be decreased. The ageing time is having less significant effect on ultimate strength. The rate of ultimate strength is higher at initial ageing temperature then started reducing gradually the decrease in ultimate strength might represents over ageing time. The wear properties found to be increase with hardness and ageing temperature and with respect to ageing time the peak age timing which gives highest hardness was found to decrease with increase of the red mud content. The wear rate found to be decreases when the hardness increases. The addition of Red mud resulted in an increase in hardness and tensile strength. The effect of artificial aging on the microstructure is also studied by scanning electron microscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Venkateshwaran N.,Anna University | ElayaPerumal A.,Anna University | Alavudeen A.,Kalasalingam University
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests were carried out using banana/epoxy composite material. Initially, optimum fiber length and weight percentage were determined. To improve the mechanical properties, banana fiber was hybridised with sisal fiber. This study showed that addition of sisal fiber in banana/epoxy composites of up to 50% by weight results in increasing the mechanical properties and decreasing the moisture absorption property. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behaviour and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ananth J.,Roever Engineering College | Thulasi S.,Anna University | Jayasuthakar S.T.,Anna University | Sheeba K.N.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Solar water heating system proves to be an effective technology for converting solar energy into thermal energy. The efficiency of solar thermal conversion is around 70% when compared to solar electrical direct conversion system which has an efficiency of only 17%. Hence solar water heaters play a vital role in domestic as well as industrial sector due to its ease of operation and simple maintenance. Extensive works on improving the thermal efficiency of solar water heaters resulted in techniques to improve the convective heat transfer. Passive technique has been used to augment convective heat transfer. These techniques when adopted in solar water heaters proved that the overall thermal performance improved significantly. This paper reviews various techniques to enhance the thermal efficiency in solar water heater. In addition to this, a detailed discussion on the limitations of existing research, research gap and suggested possible modifications is made. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Thyagarajah K.,Anna University
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2011

Photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumps are basically similar to any other pumping system. Just as wind turbine pumps, PV pumps use intermittent power. When there is enough sunlight, the system functions well. The simplest PV water pumping system consists of a PV array directly connected to a DC motor and a pump. This type of configuration is used for smaller applications and is economically competitive. PV pumps using DC motors are useful for individual homes and small communities. In this paper, a PV-powered water pump using Permanent Magnet DC Motor (PMDC) is taken into account. The modeling of PV cell, Boost converter and PMDC motor has been studied and developed. The overall PMDC pumping system fed by solar cell is simulated and its results are obtained. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011.

Kavitha R.J.,Anna University
2015 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2015 | Year: 2015

Wireless sensor networks have a wide range of applications such as automatic monitoring systems and target tracking. This paper proposes and evaluates the performance of a cooperative modulation diversity technique applied to heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. The evaluation of the impacts between the energy factor, lifetime, the channel Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the packet loss rate is presented and results based on the maximum number of retransmissions, network size, packet length and initial energy by nodes are provided. For different propagation scenarios and with two values of interleaving depth (k), the cooperative modulation diversity performance is evaluated. Our scheme shows better performance and retransmission algorithm is discussed. © 2015 IEEE.

Govindharajan T.A.,Anna University
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2015

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a self-contained service with a collection of services. Services communicate with each other using a web service. Web services use a collection of open protocols and standards for communication between different web services and their applications. In today's environment, users are not satisfied with a single web service. To fulfill the users' needs, two or more atomic services must be combined to provide a single complex service. Hence several atomic web services must be orchestrated based on user preference by using a multi-agent system. In the traditional approach, the orchestration of web services is a manual process. The proposed system reduces human intervention and supports the orchestration of atomic web services into a complex service by using a multi-agent system. Therefore, this paper addresses the automatic orchestration by using a multi-agent i.e., two agents. The first agent is used to select an appropriate web service from the available atomic service. The second agent is used to orchestrate the selected web services to form a complex service based on a user's requirement and quality of service (QoS). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Victer Paul P.,Pondicherry University | Jayakumar S.K.V.,Pondicherry University | Dhavachelvan P.,Pondicherry University | Baskaran R.,Anna University
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2012

Replica Management is a key issue to reduce the bandwidth consumption, to improve data availability and to maintain data consistency in large distributed systems. Global Replica Management (GRM) means to maintain the data consistency across the entire network. It is preferable particularly for multi-group distributed systems. On the other hand, GRM is not favorable for many applications because a very large number of message passes is needed for replica management processes. In this paper, in order to reduce the number of message passes needed to achieve the efficient GRM strategy, an interconnection structure called the Distributed Spanning Tree (DST) has been employed. The application of DST converts the peer network into logical layered structures and thereby provides a hierarchical mechanism for replication management. It is proved that this hierarchical approach improves the data availability and consistency across the entire network. In addition to these, it is also proved that the proposed approach reduces the data latency and the required number of message passes for any specific application in the network. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sri Siva R.,Anna University | Mohan Lal D.,Anna University
Tribology Transactions | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment on the enhancement of the wear resistance of 100Cr6 bearing steel. The study also aims to reveal the underlying mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of wear resistance by deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) at -185°C. The wear behavior was assessed by a reciprocatory friction and wear monitor under varying normal loads (ASTM International, Annual Book of Standards, 1996). It was found that the wear resistance was increased by 37% due to DCT when compared with that of conventional heat treatment (CHT). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was also conducted to identify the possible mechanism that augments the improvement in the wear resistance of cryogenically treated 100Cr6 bearing steels. The microstructural study suggests that the improvement in the wear resistance is attributed to the conversion of the retained austenite into martensite, along with the precipitation and distribution of the carbides brought in by the cryogenic treatment. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis conducted on the bearing steel samples showed that the DCT mainly enhances the destabilization of martensite by activating carbon clustering and transition carbide precipitation. Deep cryogenic treatment demonstrated more improvement in the wear resistance and hardness compared with conventional heat treatment. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Uma Rani R.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Yeom I.,Sungkyunkwan University | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Waste Management | Year: 2013

Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12. min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5. L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Raj S.E.,Anna University | Banu J.R.,Anna University | Yeom I.-T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Introduction of sludge reduction practices in enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) often leads to a decrease in phosphorous (P) removal efficiency. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop sustainable P removal in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) system integrated with sludge reduction by incorporating side-stream P recovery. Two AAO reactors, one acting as a control (CAAO) and the other as an experimental system (EAAO), were used in our experiment. The average P solubilisation efficiency and its recovery from thermally pre-treated sludge were found to be 28% and 99%, respectively. The P recovery process prevented the biomass in the EAAO system from reaching its threshold level and resulted in sustainable P removal throughout the study period. Thermochemical pre-treatment, at a rate of 1.5% Q in the EAAO reactor, was responsible for a 28% reduction in the amount of sludge produced. The yield observed (Yobs) values for the system with and without pre-treatment were found to be 0.28 and 0.22kg MLSS/kg COD, respectively. An initial 50days of reactor operation was utilised to stabilise the systems (Phase 1). The total nitrogen removal during Phase 2 (51-225days) was slightly higher than that in Phase 1 (76-80% and 68-75%, respectively). The MLSS/MLVSS ratios of both systems were identical and were between 78% and 83% for both the CAAO and EAAO. The effluent COD concentration was not significantly affected by the proposed method of treatment. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that the proposed mode of treatment was capable of both sustainable removal of P and control of excess sludge production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kavitha R.J.,Anna University
2015 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2015 | Year: 2015

The wireless sensor networks are always deployed in hostile and pervasive environment. They are prone to security threats and they do have a wide range of applications like military, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. traditional network security methods are not up to the mark due to limited resources. Several key management schemes have been proposed security in HSN. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on random key pre-distribution for heterogeneous sensor networks to achieve better security and performance compared to homogeneous networks, which is suffer from high communication overhead,computation overhead and high storage requirements. A combination of symmetric and asymmetric keys were tried (hybrid), where the cluster head and BS use public key encryption based on ECC, while using symmetric key encryption between the adjacent nodes in the cluster. © 2015 IEEE.

Kothandapani M.,Anna University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2015

This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of the peristaltic transport of a Williamson nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel under the action of a thermal radiation parameter. In general, the nanofluids are electrically conducting nature. A model of wall-induced fluid flow within an infinite tapered channel has been developed to simulate the transport phenomena due to asymmetric wall displacements. This problem has plentiful applications. Moreover, it may serve as a model for the intrauterine fluid motion in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus under cancer therapy and drug analysis. The analytical solution has been obtained for the temperature and concentration of the nanofluid. The expressions for the axial velocity, stream function and pressure gradient were also obtained by a regular perturbation technique. Numerical computations have been performed for the pressure rise and the effect of various emerging parameters on the flow characteristics are shown and discussed with the help of graphs. The numerical results shown that the trapped bolus was increased in size and more trapped bolus were also occurred near the right wall with increasing Weissenberg number and thermophoresis parameter but that got decreased for large values of local temperature Grashof number. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

SenthilKumar P.,SSN College of Engineering | Ramalingam S.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Sathyaselvabala V.,Anna University | Kirupha S.D.,Anna University | Sivanesan S.,Anna University
Desalination | Year: 2011

In the present study, cashew nut shell(CNS) was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of solution pH, CNS concentration, contact time, initial copper(II) ion concentration and temperature on sorption efficiency. The copper adsorption was favored with maximum adsorption at pH 5.0. The percentage of copper ion removal onto the CNS was decreased with increasing temperature. Biosorption equilibrium time was observed in 30min. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the model parameters were evaluated. The kinetics of copper(II) ion was discussed using four kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, the Elovich kinetic model and the intra-particle diffusion models. It was shown that the adsorption of copper ions could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (δG o), the enthalpy (δH o) and the entropy change of sorption (δfS o) have also been evaluated and it has been found that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The results showed that CNS could be employed as a low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Sathishkumar G.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2011

Nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5-xCdxFe 2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The lattice constant increases with increasing Cd content. X-ray calculations indicate that there is deviation in the cation distribution in the nanostructured spinel ferrite. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease for the samples with Cd content up to x=0.2. However the dielectric constant rises for x=0.3. This is due to an increase in the hopping process at the octahedral (B sites). The dielectric constant increases with increase in temperature, indicating a thermally activated hopping process. The DC resistivity increases with Cd content up to x=0.2 and decreases for Cd content x=0.3. The maximum magnetization of all the samples decreases with increase in Cd content. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ramesh S.,Salem College | Karunamoorthy L.,Anna University | Palanikumar K.,Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2012

Titanium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, biomedical applications and they are used in corrosive environments. In this study, the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness in turning of titanium alloy has been investigated using response surface methodology. The experimental studies were conducted under varying cutting speeds, feed and depths of cut. The chip formation and SEM analysis are discussed to enhance the supportive surface quality achieved in turning. The work material used for the present investigation is commercial aerospace titanium alloy (gr5) and the tool used is RCMT 10T300 - MT TT3500 round insert. The equation developed using response surface methodology is used for predicting the surface roughness in machining of titanium alloy. The results revealed that the feed was the most influential factor which affect the surface roughness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

During the cancer treatment, one of the successful methods is to inject the blood vessels which are closest to the tumor with magnetic nanoparticles along with placing a magnet nearer to the tumor. The dynamics of these nanoparticles may happen under the action of the peristaltic waves generated on the walls of tapered asymmetric channel. Analyzing this type of nanofluid flow under such action may highly be supportive in treating cancer tissues. In this study, a newly described peristaltic transport of Carreau nanofluids under the effect of a magnetic field in the tapered asymmetric channel are analytically investigated. Exact expressions for temperature field, nanoparticle fraction field, axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient and shear stress are derived under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Finally, the effects of various emerging parameters on the physical quantities of interest are discussed. It is found that the pressure rise increases with increase in Hartmann Number and thermophoresis parameter. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Flat solar photovoltaic (PV) modules are widely being used in domestic and industrial buildings for meeting the electric power demands. Higher operating temperatures of these PV modules result in lower electrical power yield and conversion efficiency. Hence, to counteract the drawback of reduced power output, an active or passive cooling system is often required for controlling the temperature of PV module during its operation. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the literature on various thermal regulation techniques used to control the temperature of the PV panel. The mechanism of cooling and the challenges involved in the construction of various cooling techniques are also reported. © 2014, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jayabalan V.,Anna University
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2015

Friction stir welding of aluminum and copper were carried out by varying the tool travel speed from 50 mm/min to 90 mm/min. The joint properties were evaluated and characterized with respect to the stir zone formation, intermetallics formation and its distribution. Tool traverse speed of 70 mm/min and 80 mm/min resulted in the optimum range of heat input to form defect free stir zone. The reduced diffusion rate and time prevailing at tool traverse speed of 80 mm/min resulted in lower intermetallic thickness of 1.9 μm. The continuous nano scaled thin intermetallic layers resulted in higher tensile strength and joint efficiency of 113 MPa and 70% respectively. The intermetallics layers were identified and confirmed as Al2Cu, AlCu, Al4Cu9 using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X ray diffraction technique (XRD) and energy diffraction spectrum (EDS). The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Subramani T.,Salem College | Elango L.,Anna University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India to identify the major geochemical processes that regulate groundwater chemistry. For this study, long-term (1991-1997) and recent water quality data (2001-2002) for 30 groundwater wells spread over the study area were used to understand the groundwater geochemistry and hydrogeochemical process regulating groundwater quality. Groundwater quality data obtained from more than 400 water samples were employed. Results of electrical conductivity and chloride express large variation between minimum and maximum values and high standard deviation, which suggests that the water chemistry in the study region is not homogeneous and influenced by complex contamination sources and geochemical process. Nitrate and depth to water table expose the influences of surface contamination sources, whereas dissolved silica, fluoride and alkalinity strongly suggest the effect of rock-water interaction. In the study region, weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals and ion exchange reactions predominantly regulate major ion chemistry. Besides, the concentrations of sulphate, chloride and nitrate firmly suggest the impact of agricultural activities such as irrigation return flow, fertiliser application, etc on water chemistry in the study region. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jayapriya J.,Anna University | Ramamurthy V.,PSG College of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

One of the bottlenecks to performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) has been the low electron transfer from bacterial cell membrane or membrane organelle to anode. In this study, the effect of phenazines, a class of secondary metabolites was examined on the power generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2474 catalysed MFC with graphite electrodes. Different metal salt-doped graphite epoxy composite electrodes (MS-GECE) were tested in phenazine supplemented MFC. With Cu2+-GECE as anode in oxychloraphin and tubermycin supplemented MFC, power density generated was 7831±112.5 and 2096.5±11.8μW/m2 respectively. However, the addition of native phenazines (pyocyanin and pyorubin) which are normally produced by the bacteria was not very helpful in performance of the MFC. Also, the addition of these phenazines inhibited the growth of bacteria as well. Thus, choice of an appropriate secondary metabolite can have a positive influence as a mediator of electron transfer in the working of MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

In today's commercial world, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is playing a significant role in preventing the computer from power failure. Inverter is one of the essential components of UPS that performs DC-AC conversion. In this process, there is a possibility of generation of harmonic peaks because majority of the power utilities are nonlinear loads. In UPS powered by a multilevel inverter, the harmonics can be eliminated by an optimal selection of switching angles. In this study, the authors propose a hybrid technique to entirely eliminate the harmonics. The proposed hybrid technique utilises an iterative technique and fuzzy logic for the optimal selection of switching angles. A hybrid evaluation technique is used to evaluate the optimum switching angles that are obtained from the iteration as well as the fuzzy logic. The proposed technique is tested with a three-level H-bridge inverter and the resultant fundamental and harmonics voltage are analysed. The experimental result shows the efficiency of the proposed technique in eliminating the harmonics that are generated by the inverter. The proposed technique is implemented in MATLAB and its performance is evaluated using diverse test results. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Selvakumar N.,Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi | Leema N.,Anna University | Haiter Lenin A.,PET Engineering College
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

The present work includes the effect of W addition in improving the properties of Cu with the help of high-energy mechanical alloying. Composite preforms of (5-15. W) with copper were fabricated by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) method. The preforms were sintered at 850. °C, subsequently the furnace was cooled and again the specimens were hot extruded to get 92% preform density. Four point probe tester, Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive Spectrum and pin on-disc system were used to evaluate electrical conductivity, characterization and tribological property of Cu-W composite respectively. The various stages in dominant oxidation and delamination wear mechanism was clearly discussed. The wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with increase in load and sliding distance. Design expert software was used to develop contour map, mathematical model and useful conclusions were made. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Senthil Kumar T.,Anna University | Senthil Kumar T.,SKR Engineering College | Annamalai K.,Anna University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

In this study, Kapok methyl ester was derived from Kapok seed oil by the two-step esterification process. The two-step process consists of acid-catalyzed pretreatment, followed by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The experimental investigation was carried out in a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine, and the performance and exhaust emissions of the engine were also studied for the different blends of Kapok methyl ester. The results showed that the exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption are increased for rich blends of Kapok methyl ester, but the brake thermal efficiency is decreased for the same blends. The NOx emission is higher than that of diesel at all load conditions of the engine. The lean blend of the Kapok methyl ester has appreciable engine efficiencies, lower values of smoke, and lower CO and HC emissions. Thus, the experimental results proved that the Kapok methyl ester is one of the most suitable alternatives to diesel fuel. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Dhanapal R.,Anna University | Visalakshi P.,PSG College of Technology
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Healthcare monitoring based intelligent systems have acquired great consideration in the research field nowadays because the benefits is not only for the patient but also for sports person, aged person, home makers and driver community. Health care for driver community becomes an essential one since the road accidents may arise because of driver's ill condition like heart stroke while driving, high blood pressure working without rest, etc. Therefore, if an intelligent medical care system has been obtainable at a reasonable cost, it can be utilized for drivers' community to precede certain precautionary; hence road accidents might be minimized. In this paper, a real time health care monitoring system with effective SEA Protocol communication and reliable sensors has been designed and implemented to observe the health condition from time to time and irregular measures are conveyed to nearby health care providers. The basic purpose of the system is to observe the driver's physical parameters such as temperature, heartbeat, etc., using sensors and if the value tends to be abnormal then it will transmitted via Zigbee based MANET. Additionally, this system uses the ultrasonic sensor, GPS module and the automatic distance measurement to process an effective data communication in MANET. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

In the commercial food sector, preservation and transportation is responsible to avoid the 22% spoilage of the total food production in developing countries like India. To reduce the spoilage, preservation of such produce including milk is needed in remote places. Due to the increased fossil fuel costs, issues in grid extension and environmental concerns, there has been a renewed interest in hybrid renewable energy systems for cooling applications in remote/rural areas. In this paper, the overall thermal performance and economic aspects of a hybrid energy based milk cooling system for hilly terrain have been analysed using the MATLAB software and the appropriate hybrid energy systems has been predicted. The results indicate that the biomass and gobar gas combination can show the overall thermal performance as 0.17-0.23 with lowest Payback period and life cycle cost of 4.5 years and INR 2.8 × 107 respectively. The sensitivity analysis shows that the maximum influence of uncertainty in input parameters on the overall COP, capital cost, running cost and payback period are 6.8, 5.1, 5.3 and 6.1 percentages respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Selvamani S.T.,Anna University | Selvamani S.T.,Vel Technology Multi Technology Engineering College | Palanikumar K.,Sri Sai Ram Institute of Technology
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

In this work, 12 mm diameter AISI 1035 grade steel rods are friction welded with an aim to optimize the process parameters. The joints are made with various process parameter combinations (incorporating ANOVA methods) subjected to tensile test. The empirical relationships are established to predict the ultimate tensile strength, notch tensile strength, and % of elongation of the welded joints. The consistency of the model has been checked. The tensile properties, micro-hardness, microstructures, SEM, and the EDAX of the welded specimens have been studied and presented in this study. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Maya D.,Anna University
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics | Year: 2016

Telemedicine is one of the techniques applied during the disaster recovery to offer medical information, health care services to the patients via wireless networks. The serviceability of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) at the time of disaster recovery is well-known. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are consists of mobile nodes which are operates on limited battery supply. Transmission of huge medical data with limited battery power of nodes needs an energy efficient routing to ensure the quality of service (QoS) of MANETs. Nowadays, cluster based routing protocols are well known methods for prolonging MANETs lifetime Hence, this paper proposes an Absolute Replication Aware joint energy efficient (ARAJEE) routing for telemedicine communication using MANET. This approach consists of two phases such as energy aware node categorization, and joint data collection. Initially, the optimal number of clusters head has been elected relied upon the energy level of the nodes and node connectivity, where some of the isolated nodes can be resulted. An energy aware node categorization has been processed to select the appropriate forwarding nodes in order to optimize the energy consumption in the network. A non-replicated data collection and compression at the cluster heads has been performed to reduce the energy in huge medical data transmission and bandwidth consumption. The proposed ARAJEE approach increases the network lifetime than the existing energy efficiency methods in MANET. © Copyright 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Kavitha S.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Yogalakshmi K.N.,Central University of Punjab | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, the effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) removal tailed with bacterial enzymatic pretreatment on aerobic digestion of activated sludge was studied. In order to enhance the accessibility of sludge to the enzyme secreting bacteria; the extracellular polymeric substances were removed using EDTA. EDTA efficiently removed the EPS with limited cell lysis and enhanced the sludge enzyme activity at its lower concentration of 0.2. g/g SS. The sludge was then subjected to bacterial pretreatment to enhance the aerobic digestion. In aerobic digestion the best results in terms of Suspended solids (SS) reduction (48.5%) and COD (Chemical oxygen demand) solubilization (47.3%) was obtained in experimental reactor than in control. These results imply that aerobic digestion can be enhanced efficiently through bacterial pretreatment of EPS removed sludge. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Joselin Herbert G.M.,Noorul Islam University | Iniyan S.,Anna University | Amutha D.,Bethlahem Institute of Engineering
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to sustain a modern economic and social development. Renewable energy applications have brought about significant changes in the Indian energy scenario. The identification and efficient use of various renewable energy resources are the thrust areas in energy development. Wind energy is one of the most environment friendly, clean and safe energy resources. The wind energy will continue to be the biggest renewable energy sector in any country in terms of both installed capacity and total potential. This paper reviews some important factors and techniques to be considered for wind turbine installations such as the wind energy resource assessment techniques, environmental factors, grid integration factors, control strategies, impact of offshore wind turbines and hybrid energy technologies, hydrogen production techniques, feed-in tariff mechanism, modeling of wind turbine components including generators, performance improvement techniques. The cost and economic feasibility of the wind energy conversion system as well as the control strategies of wind turbine generators have also been discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Jiang J.-M.,National Chiao Tung University | Yuan M.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Dinakaran K.,Anna University | Hariharan A.,Anna University | Wei K.-H.,National Chiao Tung University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Molecular engineering of conjugated polymers for tuning their energy bands is an important process in the quest for highly efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer photovoltaic devices. One effective approach is to construct a conjugated polymer by conjugating two chemical units possessing different electron donating (donor) and accepting (acceptor) capabilities. Conjugated copolymers featuring donor-acceptor (D/A) subunits are promising materials for solar cell applications because of their tunable energy bands and solubility that can be tailored to the performances of the photovoltaic devices. Under proper processing conditions, the conjugated polymers with rigid and planar D/A segments can undergo self-assembly to form crystalline structures that improve charge carrier mobility and provide better resistance to the permeation of water and oxygen compared to amorphous polymers. Conjugated polymers with D/A structure have been investigated thoroughly over the last few years. In this highlight, we present an overview of recent developments in BHJ organic photovoltaics employing D/A crystalline copolymers as active layer materials for photon-to-electron conversion, with particular emphasis on crystalline D/A polymers featuring newly developed acceptor structures, including thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione, diketo-pyrrole-pyrrole, bithiazole, thiazolothiazole and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene moieties, and conclude with future perspectives. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Kumudini Devi R.P.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

In the deregulated power system, effective management of transactions, to meet the active power requirements of the consumers can be done through pool and bilateral/multilateral markets. One of the main functions of ISO in a day ahead market is assessment of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) and updating this value in Open Access Same time Information Systems (OASIS). The market participants use the value of ATC for their transaction planning. Hence it is essential to estimate ATC accurately with lesser computation time. This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine based method for ATC estimation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use SVM for ATC estimation. Two methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses the real power demands and the source bus injections as inputs to SVM model. The second method uses few indices as inputs to estimate ATC. The proposed methods are tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) and IEEE 118 bus system. The results are compared with Repeated Power Flow (RPF) results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The unique characteristics of the composite materials for the specific requirements makes these materials more popular in a variety of applications such as aerospace, automotive (pistons, cylinder liners, bearings), and structural components, resulting in savings of material and energy. In this paper aluminium alloy Al6061 was reinforced with TiB2 particles by stir casting method. Metal matrix composites produced by stir casting method have more advantages compare with other methods. Experiments were conducted by varying weight fraction of TiB2 (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%), while keeping all other parameters constant. The wear mechanism was studied through worn surface and wear analysis as well as microscopic examination of the wear tracks. This study revealed that the addition of TiB2 improves the wear resistance of aluminium composites. The results showed that increasing the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, wear resistance and hardness caused by the percentage of TiB2 present in the samples. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Zahira R.,Anna University | Peer Fathima A.,Easwari Engineering College
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

In modern era, the tradition of non-linear loads in Electrical power system has sparked the research in power quality (PQ) concern like voltage flicker, voltage sag and swell, harmonics, etc., Among all the other concerns, one of the the majority significant of PQ problem is Harmonics .Active Power Filter (APF) is one of most challenging filter for the mitigation of harmonics. The heart of the Active power Filter is the controller part. In this study, a wide-ranging review of various controllers have been projected,Which mitigate harmonics, reactive power and unbalanced load currents originating from load side, and also the advantages and disadvantages of presented techniques are presented. The study also helps the researchers to select the optimum control strategies and power circuit configuration for APF applications.

Karthikeyan S.,Anna University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

Phase Change Materials (PCMs), in the solidification/melting temperature range of 19 °C-22 °C, have been considered suitable for the free cooling application of buildings. Further, these phase change materials operate over a narrow range of temperatures, and hence, the sub cooling effect of the PCM plays an important role in the efficient design of heat storage devices. In the present experimental work, the sub cooling effect of PCM-RT 21 was studied in a vertical concentric tube heat storage unit. It was observed that the PCM experienced different cooling rates at different axial heights, with the highest rate near the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) entry region. Also, the higher cooling rate increased the sub cooling effect and lowered the solidification temperature of the PCM. The experimentally observed solidification temperatures under different cooling rates correlated well with the values arrived at, using the DSC analysis. The free convection during the liquid sensible cooling commenced the nucleation process at all the radial locations of the PCM at a particular axial height, at the same time, without much difference in the onset of the solidification temperature. The time span of the temperature plateau during the latent heat release increased on increasing the radial location of the PCM from the heat transfer surface, as the heat transport rate decreased. It was further found that when the driving temperature potential between the PCM and the HTF was high, the increase in the inlet velocity of the HTF beyond a certain value had a negligible effect during the liquid sensible cooling and the subsequent solidification process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The heat transfer performance of the Phase Change Material (PCM) used in free cooling application is low due to poor thermal conductivity. The addition of fins to enhance the heat transfer during solidification process is commonly employed, to address this. However for application such as free cooling, where the driving temperature potential is very less, the present experimental study is intended to investigate the sensible and subcooling phenomena during the outward cylindrical solidification of the PCM stored on the annulus side, along with 8 longitudinal uniformly spaced copper fins of different heights. The performance of the fins during solidification is analyzed, and the best suitable height is arrived at. The addition of fins plays a contradicting role during the sensible cooling of the liquid PCM, due to the suppression of free convection. The external cooling conditions along with the effect of the fin, vary the sensible cooling rate of the liquid PCM, that influences the subcooling effect, and also drifts the temperature at which major phase change occurs. In addition, the effects due to the inlet velocity of the heat transfer fluid, and its temperature on heat transfer are investigated and reported. The increase in velocity decreases the duration of solidification, and this effect is more pronounced towards the entry region, due to the higher local convective heat transfer co-efficient and a comparatively higher driving temperature potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rajaram M.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

The Matrix Converter (MC) is well known for its diverse advantages and applications but the output characteristics are adversely affected by the input voltage disturbances because there is no energy storage elements present in the dc link. Hence the matrix converter fed drive performance is affected. In this paper, Internal Model Control (IMC) based controller which is capable of achieving perfect set point tracking and disturbance rejection is proposed for compensating the voltage disturbances and load disturbances of matrix converter fed vector controlled Induction Motor (IM) drives. Modeling of matrix converter with input voltage disturbances and parameter estimation of IMC based speed and current controllers for vector controlled induction motor drive are described in this paper. The simulation results validate the input voltage disturbance rejection and improved dynamic performance of matrix converter fed induction motor drive obtained using IMC based controller. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nagendiran S.,Anna University | Alagar M.,Anna University | Hamerton I.,University of Surrey
Acta Materialia | Year: 2010

Epoxy resin nanocomposites, based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and tetraglycidyl diamino diphenyl methane (TGDDM), are prepared via in situ co-polymerization with 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in the presence of octa-aminophenyl silsesquioxane (OAPS) at levels of up to 20 wt.% of the latter. The curing reaction involving epoxy, DDS and OAPS is investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis show that the glass transition temperatures of the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) containing nanocomposites are higher than the corresponding neat epoxy systems at lower concentrations of POSS (≤3 wt.%). Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the POSS-epoxy nanocomposites display high ceramic yields, suggesting improved flame retardancy. The increasing concentration of OAPS into epoxy-amine networks exhibits a decreasing trend in the values of dielectric constant compared with those values obtained from neat epoxy systems. The higher epoxy functionality present in TGDDM leads to nanocomposites which possess enhanced thermal stability and higher dielectric constants than the DGEBA-based nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the molecular level reinforcement of POSS cages occurs in both the cases of DGEBA- and TGDDM-based hybrid epoxy nanocomposites. Furthermore, homogeneous dispersion of POSS cages in the epoxy matrices is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, which further confirms that the POSS molecule has become an integral part of the organic-inorganic inter-cross-linked network systems. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc.

Sathishkumar G.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2010

Nano-particles of Mn0.5-xNixZn0.5Fe2 O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The lattice constant (Å) for all Mn/Ni concentration is found to be less than that for the corresponding bulk values. The X-ray intensity of the (4 4 0) plane increases with increasing Ni2+ concentration indicating the occupation of Ni2+ ions on octahedral sites. The dielectric constant decreases with the increase in Ni concentration except for x = 0.3. Relaxation peaks were observed for all the samples in tan δ versus frequency curves and the relaxation peaks shift towards lower frequency for higher nickel concentration. The resistivity was found to increase with increase in Ni concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kalai Kumar K.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has emerged, different optimizations to gather information for many diverse functions like habitation monitoring, disaster reaction, and objective tracking. Additionally, the suggestion of new application function has also formed new challenges in WSN. Cross layer communication approaches have demonstrated to be the mainly proficient optimization techniques for these problems, since they are able to take the behavior of the protocols at each layer into consideration. Thus, survey proposes to recognize the key problems of WSN and assemble available cross layer solutions, in order to provide insights on the classification of open issues and provide guidelines for future proposals. These wireless sensor networks have been pictured and even more attentions are offered mainly because of the diverse applications. The plan of much optimization suggestion and the cross layer communication protocol has demonstrated to achieve better optimization results than their layered form of equivalent part mechanism. Some of the important issues related to cross layer communication in WSN are stability, adaptive modulation, error control, neighbor discovery parameter selection, time slot assessment and topology control. In this work, several researchers have evaluated several existing cross layer communication architecture related on throughput and utility maximization in WSN. Various throughput strategies and utility maximization strategies and their challenges are discussed for which the results obtained are benefitted by both researchers and wireless sensor network users. The work also evaluates the impact with end to- end flow control, optimal utility, fairness of competing flows, delay prediction and the total number of sensor nodes involved while performing the analysis. The result of survey not only measures the correspondence and differences of the different cross layer architectural approaches but also to identify areas requiring further research work. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Venkataramanan C.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

In wireless sensor networks, the synchronized scheduling mechanism increases the flooding thereby resulting in energy wastage and minimum throughput. Also the transmission delay during routing enhances the energy consumption. In order to overcome these issues, in this paper we propose a hierarchical energy aware MAC along with delay aware routing in wireless sensor networks. In this technique, the node with higher weight value is chosen as cluster head based on the parameters such as residual energy and transmission delay. The cluster based hierarchical tree architecture is constructed that defines the cluster level based on the delay. When any cluster member node wants to transmit the data to the sink, it executes the delay aware MAC protocol. During data transmission less delay cluster members are utilized to transmit the data packets. The cluster members with higher delay are assigned sleep mode. By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach reduces the energy utilization and improves the link quality. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Victer Paul P.,Pondicherry University | Rajaguru D.,PKIET | Baskaran R.,Anna University | Dhavachelvan P.,Pondicherry University
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2013

Service oriented computing is growing as the prominent technology both in the technical and business perspectives. Due to the rapid growth in the volume of service repositories and services, obtaining the appropriate service is becoming tedious in the current scenario. Though advanced techniques are proposed to handle these challenges in conventional environments, still it is in its critical stage in the resource constrained scenarios, particularly in wireless mobile environments. The work presented in this paper proposes a Service Cache Management (SCM) for Mobile Peer-to-Peer (MP2P) networks to facilitate the efficient retrieval of services. We used a communication structure called Distributed Spanning Tree (DST), in which nodes of MP2P are made to form a forest of spanning trees in a distributed fashion. Using the DST structure, fast service cache and retrieval can be achieved within MP2P. Further to enhance the effectiveness of the proposed system, the DST network is optimized with Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), to identify the simplest path between nodes of each layer on the DST. The merits of the proposed techniques are demonstrated in terms of reduced time requirement for cached service search, increased availability, enhanced consistency, scalability and improved hit ratios. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Antony Aroul Raj V.,Easwari Engineering College | Velraj R.,Anna University
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2011

Free cooling/Night ventilation is the process of storing the cool energy available in the night time ambient air in a storage device. During the day time the cool energy is retrieved from the storage device in order to cool the building using mechanical ventilation system. The modular heat exchanger developed in this work is a shell and tube type with phase change materials in the shell portion of the module and passage for the flow of air through the tubes. The modules of the modular heat exchanger are stacked one over other with air spacers in between each module. This modular heat exchanger arrangement is suitable for free cooling application where the diurnal temperature variation is low. Transient and steady state CFD modeling is carried out for a single module and two air spacers. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is carried out for the fluid and PCM of heat exchanger module. The latent heat value of the PCM is modeled using apparent heat capacity method with suitable profile approximated from the experimental results. The CFD results are validated with the experimental results. The steady state CFD analysis is useful to determine the pressure drop across the module and the spacers and to know the flow and temperature variation of heat transfer fluid in the module so as to select the geometrical and flow parameters for a given surface temperature and inlet condition. The transient analysis results are useful to determine the PCM solidification characteristics and to verify the suitability of the selected geometrical dimensions. The air spacers provided between the module increases the retention time of the air for better heat transfer and its effect is more pronounced at the lower velocities and decreases as the frontal velocity increases and its effect is negligible above the frontal velocity of 2 m/s. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Dhanasekaran R.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

Brain tissue segmentation on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has received considerable attention. Quantitative analysis of MR images of the brain is of interest in order to study the aging brain in epidemiological studies, to better understand how diseases affect the brain and to support diagnosis in clinical practice. Manual quantitative analysis of brain imaging data is a tedious and time-consuming procedure, prone to observer variability. Therefore, there is a large interest in automatic analysis of MR brain imaging data, especially segmentation of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), Gray Matter (GM) and White Matter (WM). This paper presents a fully automated method for the segmentation of cerebrospinal fluid and internal brain nuclei from T1-weighted MRI head scans. The proposed methodology performs intensity based thresholding to get the boundaries between gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid and others. Combined with preprocessing techniques and incorporating mathematical morphology, we first perform the extraction of brain cortex. Subsequently, the cerebrospinal fluid is segmented by using orthogonal polynomial transform. Finally, the gray matter and the white matter regions in the MRI are segmented based on the intensity values. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves reasonably good segmentation. The comparative analysis depicts that the proposed methodology shows better segmentation results with some other existing techniques like FAST, SPM5, k-nearest neighbor (k- NN) classifier, and a conventional k-NN. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Geetha P.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

MRI Brain Image Segmentation is one of the difficult and complex techniques in the medical field. Normally the pathological tissues such as Tumor and Edema are easily segmented. In this paper, both the normal tissues such as WM (White Matter), GM (Gray Matter) and CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) and the pathological tissues such as Tumor, Edema and also Atrophy in the MRI Brain Images are segmented effectively. Initially, the Wavelet Transform features and the Semantic feature from the MRI Brain Images are extracted in two different ways. These extracted features are the input to the next process. Then the proposed segmentation technique performs classification process by utilizing a dual Artificial Neural Network. The ANN is helpful for classifying whether the image is normal or abnormal. Based on the results, the segmentation is carried out. In Segmentation, the normal tissues such as WM, GM and CSF are segmented from the normal MRI images and pathological tissues such as Tumor, Edema and Atrophy are segmented from the abnormal images. The implementation result shows the efficiency of proposed tissue segmentation technique in segmenting the tissues accurately from the MRI images. The performance of the segmentation technique is evaluated by performance measures such as accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Ambika I.,Anna University
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2013

In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), the resource allocation problem is overwhelming process. The variation in link quality in terms of availability, bandwidth and delay caused by node mobility and channel quality makes resource allocation is a challenging task. Hence in order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a token based resource allocation technique for multi-service flows in MANET. In this technique, it is assumed that the nodes cycle has three states such as non-critical section (NCS), entry section (ES) and critical section (CS). During deployment, the node is in NCS state and after receiving the unique tokens it enters into CS state. The scheduler sends the resource request message in different queues using fuzzy based flow prioritization technique. If available resource exceeds the required resource, then the scheduler allocates the inelastic service similar to the available resource until inelastic queue gets empty. Then the token is passed to the queue that contains elastic service flows. Based on simulation results the proposed approach allocates the resources efficiently. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 1.23M | Year: 2009

The general inadequate, when existing, methods of collection and disposal of solid waste in most Asian cities are causing important environmental and social harms, as human diseases spreading, environmental pollution and ground and water pollution. In order to raise awareness, promote an adequate waste collection and treatment system and the economic growth of this activity sector in a technological efficient and sustainable way, new waste management systems must be established, which also take into account the informal sector. This integrated approach should comprise technical, environmental, legal, socio-economic and financial aspects, involving the key actors at different levels to ensure an effective implementation. The proposed project aims to bring together experts and stakeholders in the field of solid waste management in Asian developing countries and Europe. The project will promote international cooperation between research organisations, universities, and social and governmental stakeholders in a European and Asian context (local waste processors, local municipalities and policy makers, local NGOs representatives, etc). A solid waste management expert and research co-ordination platform, and an expertise network, will be established in order to co-ordinate, assess and guide suitable research and strategic activities with the aim of identifying aspects like cost-effective treatment and sorting technologies, environmental impacts, gaps in technical knowledge and socio-economic and policy barriers to further execution. The network will also propose directions for futures research and for local implementation. The general aim of the proposed network will be to develop a variety of innovative, adaptable and replicable approaches to a more efficient solid waste management, integrating appropriate low-cost and efficient technologies with community-based management and their relevant governance, institutional frameworks and socio-economic constraints.

Ponraj J.S.,CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism | Ponraj J.S.,Anna University | Attolini G.,CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism | Bosi M.,CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences | Year: 2013

Atomic layer deposition technique is able to grow conformal thin films over high aspect ratio structures. This article reviews the various aspects of oxides grown by this method including applications in photovoltaics and memristors. The main focus of this review is to concentrate on the oxides grown by atomic layer deposition and their growth mechanisms. The oxides deposited using atomic layer deposition are also likely to find application in memristor, an emerging field in the non volatile memories design with the ability to retain data and memory states even in power-off condition. The use of this technique to obtain oxides in surface modification of nanostructures gives the significance of these materials. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Herbert G.M.J.,Noorul Islam University | Iniyan S.,Anna University | Goic R.,University of Split
Renewable Energy | Year: 2010

In this paper, an analysis of the performance, failure and reliability, as well as a spare parts analysis have been conducted for a wind farm, which has 15 wind turbine generators (WTGs), each of 225 kW capacity. This wind farm is located at Muppandal, Tamil Nadu, South India. The average value of performance parameters such as technical availability, real availability and capacity factor for the wind farm were 94%, 82.88% and 24.9% respectively during the years 2000-2004. This paper also deals with Pareto analysis to find out the reduction in problems, when one problem is tackled partly and completely. The Weibull technique was also used for the reliability analysis. The reliability factor in the initial period after one year seems to be good as the wind farm has a lower failure rate of 0.000019. As a supplemental activity, spare parts optimization was also carried out for a few vital components of this wind farm and the results are presented. The failure and its financial implications are also analyzed in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Raj V.A.A.,Easwari Engineering College | Velraj R.,Anna University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

The concept of Green building is gaining importance in the present energy scenario and related environmental issues. Free cooling or ventilation cooling is truly a green concept since even 1 g of carbon is not burnt for the purpose of cooling. Also it ensures that a good indoor air quality is maintained in the building. In this paper a detailed review of work carried out by various researchers on free cooling or ventilation cooling is presented. In addition the major challenges and facts posed in the use of phase change material for free cooling system design such as thermal resistance of air and phase change materials, geometry of encapsulation are discussed in detail. Also the method of energy efficient charging and discharging, effect of phase change temperature, insulation and geographical location are also discussed in this paper. This paper also provides lists the PCM candidates used for free cooling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.4.1.3-2 | Award Amount: 9.15M | Year: 2010

The overall goal of the proposed project is to develop a coordinated global observation system for mercury able to provide temporal and spatial distributions of mercury concentrations in ambient air and precipitation over land and over surface waters at different altitudes and latitudes around the world. This will then provide high quality data for the validation and application of regional and global scale atmospheric models, to give to governments, national and international organisations and stakeholders a firm basis for future policy development and implementation. Specific objectives of the proposed project are (a) to establish a Global Observation System for Mercury (GMOS) able to provide ambient concentrations and deposition fluxes of mercury species around the world, by combining observations from permanent ground-based stations, and from oceanographic and tropospheric measurement campaigns; (b) to validate regional and global scale atmospheric mercury modelling systems able to predict temporal variations and spatial distributions of atmospheric mercury entering to and re-emitted from terrestrial and aquatic receptors; (c) to evaluate and identify source-receptor relationships at country scale and their temporal trends for current and projected scenarios of mercury emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources; (d) to develop interoperable tools to allow the sharing of observational and models output data produced by GMOS. The overarching goal of GMOS is to support the achievement of goals set by the GEO / GEOSS, and specifically of the GEO Task HE-09-02d and contribute to the advancement of our scientific understanding in the nine Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) established in GEOSS. The proposed project will rely on the results and knowledge acquired in the framework of past EU projects (i.e., MAMCS, MOE, MERCYMS) and international programs (i.e., UNECE TF HTAP; UNEP F&T partnership area).

Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Nagalingam B.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Fuel | Year: 2010

Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to a marginally inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity and carbon residue. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by injecting a small quantity of diethyl ether (DEE) along with air. The main objective of this study is to improve the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with rubber seed oil (RSO) through DEE injection at different flow rates of 100, 150 and 200 g/h. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the DEE injection mode. DEE was injected into the intake port during suction stroke, while rubber seed oil was injected directly inside the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. The injection timing of DEE was optimized for this mode of operation. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine improves from 26.5% with neat RSO to a maximum of 28.5% with DEE injection rate of 200 g/h. Smoke reduces from 6.1 to 4 BSU with DEE injection at the maximum efficiency flow rate. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are also less with DEE injection. There is an increase in the NOx emission from 6.9 g/kWh to 9.3 g/kWh at the optimum DEE flow rate. DEE injection with RSO shows higher peak pressure and rate of pressure rise compared to neat RSO. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate due to the reduced ignition delay and combustion duration with DEE injection. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Kousalya G.N.,GTN Arts College | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

In order to increase the copper sorption capacity (SC) of raw chitosan beads (CB), they were chemically modified into protonated chitosan beads (PCB), carboxylated chitosan beads (CCB) and grafted chitosan beads (GCB) which showed a significant SC of 52, 86 and 126 mg/g respectively while raw chitosan beads (CB) displayed only 40 mg/g. Among the sorbents studied, GCB experienced a higher SC than CB, PCB and CCB. Sorption experiments were performed by varying contact time, pH, presence of co-anions, different initial copper concentrations and temperature for optimization. The nature and morphology of the sorbents were discussed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The copper uptake onto PCB, CCB and GCB obeys the Freundlich isotherm. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the nature of copper sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Venkateshwaran N.,Anna University | Venkateshwaran N.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Elaya Perumal A.,Anna University | Arunsundaranayagam D.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Natural fibers offer many advantages over synthetic fibers but the notable disadvantage of natural fibers is its hydrophilic nature. Due to this nature an incompatibility between the fiber and matrix exist which decreases the properties of the composite. This defect can be overcome by chemical modification of fiber surface so as to make it less hydrophilic. In this work, alkali (NaOH) of various concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) was used to treat the fiber surface and the effect of these concentrations on the mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of the composites were carried out. From the experimental investigation, it is found that 1% NaOH treated fiber reinforced composites behaves superiorly than other treated and untreated fiber composite. Further, SEM image analysis also shows the effect of alkali concentration over the fiber surfaces which leads to improving the mechanical properties of the composite. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Fuel | Year: 2010

In the present work the combined effect of fuel injection timing, percentage of EGR and fuel injection pressure in controlling the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine fuelled with diesel was investigated. Three levels were chosen in each factor and NOx emission, smoke concentration and brake fuel conversion efficiency are taken as the response variables. Experiments were designed as per Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array and tests were conducted with different injection timings, percentage EGR (by volume) and injection pressures. Multi response signal to noise ratio (MRSN) was calculated for the response variables and the optimum combination level of factors was obtained simultaneously using Taguchi's parametric design. Obtained combination was confirmed experimentally and significant improvement was observed in the response variables. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A new biocomposite was prepared by incorporating inorganic ion exchanger namely zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate (ZrWP) into the chitosan biopolymeric matrix. The sorption behaviour of fluoride from aqueous solutions by this ZrWP/chitosan (ZrWPCs) composite has been investigated by batch technique. The fluoride sorption was studied as a function of contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, competing co-ions and temperature. The defluoridation capacity (DC) of the adsorbent was found to be 2025 mgF- kg-1. The composite was characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The kinetics of sorption was found to follow pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The biocomposite was successfully used for the removal of fluoride from the field water taken in a nearby fluoride endemic village. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mani M.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2011

Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. Waste plastic oil (WPO) was tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analysed and compared with diesel fuel (DF) operation. It is observed that the engine could operate with 100% waste plastic oil and can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) was higher by about 25% and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by 5% for waste plastic oil operation compared to diesel fuel (DF) operation. Hydrocarbon was higher by about 15%. Smoke increased by 40% at full load with waste plastic oil compared to DF. Engine fueled with waste plastic oil exhibits higher thermal efficiency upto 80% of the full load and the exhaust gas temperature was higher at all loads compared to DF operation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Jawahar C.P.,Karunya University | Saravanan R.,Anna University | Bruno J.C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Coronas A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

A detailed parametric analysis is carried out on both simple and GAX based combined power and cooling cycle. The effect of various parameters such as heat source temperature, refrigeration temperature, sink temperature, split ratio (refrigerant flow ratio between power and cooling systems), split factor (solution flow ratio between absorber and GAX heat exchanger) on the performance of the cycle is studied. The results of the analysis show that using the GAX heat exchanger about 20% of internal heat is recovered within the cycle. The optimum split factor is 0.8-0.9 and the split ratio is 0.5:0.5. The maximum combined thermal efficiency of 35-45% and coefficient of performance of about 0.35 is attained at the optimum conditions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Prakash T.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute Kelambakkam | Ramasamy S.,Anna University | Murty B.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electronic Materials Letters | Year: 2013

Grain boundary effect on the room temperature dielectric behavior in mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline CuAlO2 has been investigated using impedance spectroscopy under the applied DC bias voltages 0 V to 4. 8 V in a periodic interval of 0. 2 V. Analysis of impedance data confirms the existence of double Schottky potential barrier heights (Φb) between two adjacent grains (left and right side) with grain boundary and its influences in dielectric relaxation time (τ), dielectric constant (e{open}′) and dielectric loss (tan δ) factor. Also, clear evidence on the suppression of Φb was demonstrated in the higher applied bias voltages with the parameter τ. At equilibrium state, τ is 0. 63 ms and it was reduced to 0. 13 ms after the 3. 2 V applied DC bias. These observed DC bias voltage effects are obeying 'brick layer model' and also elucidates Φb is playing a crucial role in controlling dielectric properties of nanomaterials. © 2013 The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Anand S.,Tractors and Farm Equipments Ltd | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2012

This work attempts to develop a correlation to predict thermal NO x formation in compression ignition (CI) engine when fuelled with diesel and biodiesel. Attention was focussed on both the fuel properties (cetane number, density) and engine design factors (bore, stroke, compression ratio, fuel injection timing) while developing correlation, ensuring that it is suitable for all CI engine fuels tested on both constant and variable speed engines. It was observed that NO x emissions predicted through the correlation is comparable with those of the measured ones. The general trend is observed to be the same for both the predicted and measured NO x emission. At loads more than 25% of the rated load the difference is found to be within 10% while the difference is slightly higher at loads less than 25%. It was also observed that the error was in the range of 10-20% at modified fuel injection timings for all the three esters at standard injection timing. This correlation yields comparatively accurate results for all the fuels at loads greater than 25% of the rated load and at standard fuel injection timing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Debnatha S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology | Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2011

Thermal resistance and air permeability of needle-punched nonwoven fabric made from jute and polypropylene blends have been studied using the Box and Behnken factorial design to observe the effect of fabric weight, needling density and blend proportion on thickness, thermal resistance, specific thermal resistance, air permeability and sectional air permeability. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis have also been used to understand the relationship and grouping behaviour of the dependent and independent variables. It is observed that the thermal resistance and thickness increase but air permeability and sectional air permeability decrease significantly with the increase in fabric weight at all levels of jute contents. Significant (p < 0.05000) negative correlations r = - 0.67 and r = - 0.61 exist between needling density & thermal resistance and needling density & specific thermal resistance respectively. The highest thermal resistance and specific thermal resistance have been obtained at 430 g/m2 fabric weight and 150 punches/cm2 needling density. All dependent variables are highly influenced by fabric weight (Euclidean distance ~ 560) which is a different cluster identity.

Sundaram A.S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Seeniraj R.V.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Velraj R.,Anna University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

Advances in information technology have made the thermal management of telecommunication equipments more challenging over the past several years. As advances are being made the electrical energy consumption of telecommunication equipments is ever increasing and thereby increasing its dissipation rate. In addition such shelters are installed in remote areas, so cooling of telecom shelters becomes a great challenge for thermal engineers. A field study revealed conventional cooling systems are not so effective in terms of energy consumption and in the absence of power grid, shelters installed in such areas require additional capital cost to provide power for cooling system. A new passive cooling system incorporating phase change material (PCM) and two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) heat exchangers has been developed and experimented to provide thermal management for telecommunication equipments housed in telecom shelters. The newly developed thermal system absorbs the equipment dissipated heat during the hottest part of the day, stores it as latent heat and releases it through thermosyphons during the night to the ambient. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolluru G.K.,LSU Health Shreveport | Majumder S.,University of Rochester | Chatterjee S.,Anna University
Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

Rho GTPases are a globular, monomeric group of small signaling G-protein molecules. Rho-associated protein kinase/Rho-kinase (ROCK) is a downstream effector protein of the Rho GTPase. Rho-kinases are the potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we have primarily discussed the intriguing roles of ROCK in cardiovascular health in relation to nitric oxide signaling. Further, we highlighted the biphasic effects of Y-27632, a ROCK inhibitor under shear stress, which acts as an agonist of nitric oxide production in endothelial cells. The biphasic effects of this inhibitor raised the question of safety of the drug usage in treating cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Krishna Chandar N.,Anna University | Krishna Chandar N.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Jayavel R.,Anna University
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2014

The structural, morphological and optical properties of solvothermally synthesized Pr(OH)3 nanoparticles and calcined Pr6O 11 nanorods have been studied. Pr6O11 nanorods were grown by subsequent thermal decomposition of the synthesized Pr(OH) 3 nanoparticles at 700 C for 2 h. Structural analysis showed that the synthesized Pr(OH)3 nanoparticles possess hexagonal phase and calcined Pr6O11 nanorods have cubic fluorite phase. HRSEM images revealed that the Pr6O11 sample contains well-defined rod-like morphology. The UV-vis absorbance study of Pr 6O11 nanorods showed shape-dependent absorption edge toward higher wavelength as compared to Pr(OH)3 nanoparticles. The PL spectrum of Pr6O11 nanorods reveals the enhanced near-band-edge emission in the blue region, with significant defect level green emission. The mechanism for the formation of Pr6O11 nanorods from Pr(OH)3 nanoparticles has been proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Atchudan R.,Anna University | Atchudan R.,Kyungpook National University | Pandurangan A.,Anna University
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2013

Mesoporous three dimensional (3D) cubic Fe-KIT-6 molecular sieves with various Si/Fe ratios (Si/Fe: 50, 75 and 100) were synthesized hydrothermally and different weight percentage (wt.%) of Zn was loaded over them by wet impregnation. The synthesized materials were used as catalytic template for the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using acetylene as a carbon precursor by chemical vapour deposition. The deposited carbon materials were purified and analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The observation depicted that the Zn/Fe-KIT-6 template influence the high yield of ordered MWCNTs without major contamination. The purified MWCNTs were functionalized and investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM techniques. The characterised MWCNT/functionalized-MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) are used as filler material for the fabrication of epoxy composites. On comparison with different wt.% of loading viz., 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt.%; 1 wt.% MWCNTs/f-MWCNTs filled epoxy resin showed the highest improvement in tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness as compared to neat and other epoxy systems. The rate of burning is decreased with respect to the wt.% of MWCNTs/f-MWCNTs. The f-MWCNT/epoxy composites were found to possess high thermo-mechanical properties compared to MWCNT/epoxy composites. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Joice C.S.,Saveetha Engineering College | Paranjothi S.R.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Kumar V.J.S.,Anna University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2013

Brushless DC (BLDC) motor drives are becoming more popular in industrial, traction applications. This makes the control of BLDC motor in all the four quadrants very vital. This paper deals with the digital control of three phase BLDC motor. The motor is controlled in all the four quadrants without any loss of power; in fact energy is conserved during the regenerative period. The digital controller dsPIC30F4011, which is very advantageous over other controllers, as it combines the calculation capability of Digital Signal Processor and controlling capability of PIC microcontroller, to achieve precise control. © 2012 IEEE.

Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

A new chitosan based biocomposite was prepared using alumina and used for the removal of chromium from the aqueous solution. The synthesized alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite possesses an enhanced chromium sorption capacity (SC) of 8.62. mg/g than the original alumina and chitosan flakes that possess the SCs of 3.7 and 0.67. mg/g respectively, with a minimum contact period of 30. min. The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various parameters viz., contact time, initial chromium concentration, pH, co-ions and temperature that influence the sorption. The sorbents were characterized by FTIR, AFM, BET and SEM with EDAX analysis. The composite removes chromium by means of electrostatic adsorption coupled reduction and complexation. The adsorption data were fitted with Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of chromium sorption. The dynamic studies demonstrate that the sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Fuel | Year: 2013

This work attempts to reduce the NOx emission of crude rice bran oil methyl ester with a marginal increase in smoke density and decrease in brake thermal efficiency in a stationary CI engine. Three factors namely fuel injection timing, quantity of exhaust gases recycled and fuel injection pressures were chosen with three levels and their combined effect were investigated. Experiments were designed by employing design of experiments method and tests were conducted as per Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. Among the three, EGR is the most influencing factor at no load and part load to reduce NOx emission with less influence on smoke density while at full load fuel injection timing is more influential. Optimum combination level of factors was obtained by calculating multi response signal to noise ratio and simultaneously using Taguchi's parametric design and the obtained combination was confirmed through experiment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566mgF-/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809mgF-/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52mgF-/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bhaskar K.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2013

There is world-wide interest in the search for alternatives to petroleum derived fuels for diesel engines. Key driving factors are depleting fossil-fuel reserves all over the globe as well as the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels that cause pollution and global warming. Bio-diesel derived from edible oils, non-edible oils and animal fats can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. Non-land-based renewable sources are becoming important for the production of biodiesel due to limited availability of land. Under these circumstances, fish oil extracted from wastes of processed marine fish and refined through transesterification becomes an attractive alternative for the production of biodiesel. In this work, performance and emission characteristics of FOME (fish oil methyl ester) and its blends are evaluated in a direct-injection single-cylinder constant-speed diesel engine primarily used in the agricultural sector. It is seen that 20% FOME blend gives almost the same brake thermal efficiency with lower unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and soot emissions but higher NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions compared to diesel fuel. EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) is used to control NOxemissions. Percentage of EGR is varied to determine optimum EGR for 20% FOME blend. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Saravanan S.,Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Lakshmi Narayana Rao G.,QIS Institute of Technology | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Energy | Year: 2014

The present work explores the possibility of simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke of a stationary CI (compression ignition) engine fuelled with biodiesel blend. Fuel injection timing is retarded which resulted in lower NOx emission with an increased smoke intensity. NOx emission of the biodiesel at the standard and retarded injection timing was predicted with the help of developed correlations and the same was compared with the NOx emission experimentally determined. It was observed that the predicted NOx emission of biodiesel is comparable with the experimentally determined. Fuel injection pressure was increased at the retarded injection timing and its effect on NOx and smoke emission was investigated. It was observed that the increase in smoke intensity resulting from the retarded injection timing was reduced significantly by increasing the fuel injection pressure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Debnath S.,National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology | Madhusoothanan M.,Anna University
Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research | Year: 2010

The normal round, circular hollow and trilobal cross-sectional shaped polyester fibres have been used to prepare needle-punched nonwoven fabrics for technical textile application. Effects of fabric weight and fibre cross-sectional shapes on thermal insulation value (TIV), fabric thickness, density, percentage compression, air permeability and sectional air permeability (SAP) have been studied. Comparison between Marsh and plate methods of TIV measurement has also been studied along with the inter-relation and grouping of parameters using correlation matrix and cluster analysis approach respectively. The TIV, thickness, density, air permeability and SAP fall under different sub-cluster but all these parameters are dependent on fabric weight. Plate method of TIV measurement is preferred over Marsh TIV measurement because of the easy preparation of samples and the reason that the samples retain their original properties and it gives more accurate results. Trilobal fabric sample shows highest TIV, thickness and percentage compression followed by regular and hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics. Thermal insulation value, thickness and density of the fabric increase but percentage compression, air permeability and SAP decrease with the increase in fabric weight. The fabric thickness is significantly correlated with fabric weight and TIV. Fabric weight versus air permeability and fabric density versus SAP are negatively correlated with significant correlation coefficient.

Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

The synthetic copolymeric resins acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (AN/DVB/VBC), styrene/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (ST/DVB/VBC), and vinylbenzyl chloride/divinylbenzene (VBC/DVB) have been prepared by suspension polymerization. These polymeric matrixes were aminated with ethylenediamine (ED) and then protonated to increase their selectivity toward Cr(VI). The experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various influencing parameters, namely, contact time, pH, other interfering co-ions, and temperature. The chromium removal capacity (CRC) of AN/DVB/VBC-ED resin was found to be higher than those of the other prepared copolymers. The mechanism of chromium removal was governed by electrostatic-adsorption-coupled reduction and complexation. The polymeric resins and chromium-sorbed resins were characterized by FTIR, SEM-EDAX, BET, elemental analysis, and EPR studies. The adsorption data were fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicated the nature of chromium sorption. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2010

Hydrotalcite (HT) possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC). In order to enhance its DC and to make it into a usable form, a HT/chitosan (HTCs) composite was prepared which showed a DC of 1255mgF-/kg compared to 1030 and 52mgF-/kg for HT and chitosan respectively. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of contact time, pH, co-anions, initial fluoride concentration and temperature. The composite was characterized using FTIR, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis. The equilibrium adsorption data was fitted with the Langmuir model. The reaction-based and diffusion-based models were used to identify the kinetics of the reaction. The suitability of the composite was tested at field conditions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kalpana J.,Jr Polytechnic College | Krishnamoorthy R.,Anna University
Signal Processing | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a generalized Bayesian Relevance Feedback (RF) algorithm for image retrieval systems with enhanced adaptability to the users requirements. The adaptability of the algorithm is owing to the different weights that are given to the current and the prior learning. This algorithm is implemented in an image retrieval system which learns in the integer-arithmetic Orthogonal Polynomials Transform (OPT) domain. With the transforms partial coefficients of the image being the features extracted, a mixture of Gaussians is used to represent the image. The image retrieval system is trained on the COIL-100 database. Experimental evidence illustrates the clear benefits of this introduction of adaptability into RF algorithm which can account for both positive and negative feedback. The superiority of the proposed algorithm in terms of increased recall and reduced number of feedback iterations when compared to the already existing Bayesian RF implementations is demonstrated. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mani M.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Sampath S.,Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Fuel | Year: 2010

Environmental degradation and depleting oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1 diesel/gasoline). Diesel being the main transport fuel in India, finding a suitable alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. The present investigation was to study the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using 100% waste plastic oil. Experimental results showed higher oxides of nitrogen emissions when fueled with waste plastic oil without EGR. NOx emissions were reduced when the engine was operated with cooled EGR. The EGR level was optimized as 20% based on significant reduction in NOx emissions, minimum possible smoke, CO, HC emissions and comparable brake thermal efficiency. Smoke emissions of waste plastic oil were higher at all loads. Combustion parameters were found to be comparable with and without EGR. Compression ignition engines run on waste plastic oil are found to emit higher oxides of nitrogen. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Marx Nirmal R.,Anna University | Pandian K.,University of Madras | Sivakumar K.,Anna University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011

The complex of cadmium with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Cd(pdtc) 2 has been used as single source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The formation of CdS nanostructures was achieved by thermal decomposition of the complex under microwave irradiation and conventional heating in presence of hexadecylamine. The CdS nanoparticles with disordered close-packed structure were obtained under microwave irradiation, whereas wurtzite hexagonal phase CdS nanorods were obtained by conventional heating method (up to 150 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies also were carried out to study the structure and morphology of nanoparticles. The optical property of the CdS nanoparticles was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence emission spectral studies. Fluorescence measurements on the CdS nanoparticles show a strong emission spectrum with two sub bands that are attributed to band-edge and surface-defect emissions. The reduction of a suitable cadmium metal complex is considered to be one of the single pot methods to generate CdS semiconductor nanoparticles with different shapes and high yield. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Karpagam R.,Anna University | Gopalakrishnan S.,Anna University | Natarajan M.,Tamil Arasi Publications | Ramesh Babu B.,University of Madras
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

This paper analyses the growth pattern of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology literature in India during 1990-2009 (20 years). The Scopus international multidisciplinary bibliographical database has been used to identify the Indian contributions on the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study measures the performance based on several parameters, country annual growth rate, authorship pattern, collaborative index, collaborative coefficient, modified collaborative coefficient, subject profile, etc. Further the study examines national publication output and impact in terms of average citations per paper, international collaboration output and share, contribution and impact of Indian Institutions and impact of Indian journals. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Rama S.,SSN College of Engineering | Surendra Dilip C.,Anna University | Narayana Perumal R.,SSN College of Engineering
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2014

A software program has been developed on the MATLAB platform, which is useful for studying the nucleation kinetics of crystals grown from solutions. Nucleation parameters such as interfacial energy (σ), metastable zone width (ΔTmax), volume free energy (ΔGv), critical energy barrier for nucleation (ΔG*), radius of the critical nucleus (r*) and nucleation rate (J) of the crystals are determined from classical nucleation theory. The Metastable Zone Width (MZW) of the crystals is explored by using the relation based on solubility and enthalpy of nucleation. A new polynomial equation has been generated by this software program, and the results are checked with the experimental data of crystal growth/formation. Nucleation temperature as a function of supersaturation ratio was successfully evaluated using MZW. The equation relating to the nucleation kinetics and MZW can easily be solved with the help of a newly designed software program in the MATLAB platform. In addition, a program has been developed that highlights changes in nucleation parameters when the supersaturation ratio is changed. A plot of temperature vs energy barrier, nucleation rate and interfacial energy is also drawn. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rajakumar P.,University of Madras | Sekar K.,Anna University | Venkatesan N.,University of Madras
Synlett | Year: 2012

A series of stilbenophanes having N-arylated carbazole moieties possessing small and large cavities have been synthesized via McMurry coupling of the corresponding dialdehyde derived from N-arylation of carbazole with various dibromide followed by formylation. The electrochemical, photophysical, and complexation properties of all the stilbenophanes with electron-deficient guest molecules like TCNQ, TCNE, and PQT were also carried out at different concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

Brindha K.,Anna University | Elango L.,Anna University | Nair R.N.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2011

Uranium occurs naturally in groundwater and surface water. The objective of this study is to understand the causes for the occurrence of uranium and its spatio-temporal variation in groundwater in a part of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, south India. Uranium deposits occur in the southeastern part of this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 44 wells every two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The samples were analyzed for pH, ORP and uranium concentration. The uranium concentration in groundwater varies from 0.2 ppb to a maximum of 68 ppb with a mean of 18.5 ppb. About 21.6% of the samples were above the drinking water limit of 30 ppb set by USEPA. The uranium concentration varied with fluctuation in groundwater level, pH and ORP. Uranium concentration in groundwater changes depending on lithology, degree of weathering and rainfall recharge. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Krishna Kumar B.,Anna University | Vijayalakshmi G.,Anna University | Krishnamoorthy A.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Sadiq Basha S.,Anna University
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

A Markovian single server feedback retrial queue with linear retrial rate and collisions of customers is studied. Using generating function technique, the joint distribution of the server state and the orbit length under steady-state is investigated. Some interesting and important performance measures of the system are obtained. Finally, numerical illustrations are provided. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar D.S.,Anna University | Andimuthu R.,Anna University | Rajan R.,University of Madras | Venkatesan M.S.,University of Madras
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Urban malaria is considered to be one of the most significant infectious diseases due to varied socioeconomic problems especially in tropical countries like India. Among the south Indian cities, Chennai is endemic for malaria. The present study aimed to identify the hot spots of malaria prevalence and the relationship with other factors in Chennai during 2005-2011. Methods. Data on zone-wise and ward-wise monthly malaria positive cases were collected from the Vector Control Office, Chennai Corporation, for the year 2005 to 2011 and verified using field data. This data was used to calculate the prevalence among thousand people. Hotspot analysis for all the years in the study period was done to observe the spatial trend. Association of environmental factors like altitude, population density and climatic variables was assessed using ArcGIS 9.3 version and SPSS 11.5. Pearson's correlation of climate parameters at 95% and 99% was considered to be the most significant. Social parameters of the highly malaria prone region were evaluated through a structured random questionnaire field survey. Results: Among the ten zones of Chennai Corporation, Basin Bridge zone showed high malaria prevalence during the study period. The 'hotspot' analysis of malaria prevalence showed the emergence of newer hotspots in the Adyar zone. These hotspots of high prevalence are places of moderately populated and moderately elevated areas. The prevalence of malaria in Chennai could be due to rainfall and temperature, as there is a significant correlation with monthly rainfall and one month lag of monthly mean temperature. Further it has been observed that the socioeconomic status of people in the malaria hotspot regions and unhygienic living conditions were likely to aggravate the malaria problem. Conclusion: Malaria hotspots will be the best method to use for targeting malaria control activities. Proper awareness and periodical monitoring of malaria is one of the quintessential steps to control this infectious disease. It has been argued that identifying the key environmental conditions favourable for the occurrence and spread of malaria must be integrated and documented to aid future predictions of malaria in Chennai. © 2014 Kumar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kalaiselvi G.,University of Madras | Maheswari P.,Anna University | Balasubramanian S.,University of Madras | Mohan D.,Anna University
Desalination | Year: 2013

Poly 6-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium sulphate (PMVPS) cationic polyelectrolyte was successfully synthesized from 2,6-lutidine. The structure of the compound was elucidated by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. The polyelectrolyte incorporated polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane (PSf/PMVPS) was prepared by the phase inversion in a wet process. The membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. Also, contact angle, pure water flux, water content, membrane hydraulic resistance, porosity and molecular weight cut-off were investigated for the influence of PMVPS. The SEM analysis revealed that the PSf/PMVPS membrane has typical asymmetric structure. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis has shown enrichment of PMVPS on the membrane surface. The membranes showed a decrease in mean surface-pore size, and increase in overall porosity and the hydrophilicity with the increase in PMVPS content. The removal of heavy metal ions such as copper, nickel, lead and cadmium using modified PSf membranes from aqueous solutions has been systematically investigated. Attempts have been made to correlate the performance of the membranes with their morphology. The modified membranes exhibit excellent separation properties with high permeabilities at low trans-membrane pressures. The removal of dissolved metal ions is more by polyelectrolyte enhanced structure than PSf membrane. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sasilatha T.,Anna University | Raja J.,SSN College of Engineering
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the modified design, and implementations of single ended and differential mode low noise amplifiers targeted for wireless sensor network applications. Key issues in wireless sensor network receivers are discussed and the existing circuit level implementations of low noise amplifiers are compared. Emphasis was placed on observing device reliability constraints at low power to maximize the life time of the wireless sensor nodes. The proposed single ended and the differential LNA can operate at 2.4 GHz and dissipates a power of 22.6 and 30.3μW, respectively, from a 1 V supply. The noise performance at input, output and the frequency response is presented. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Koilraj M.,St. Joseph's College | Sundareswaran V.,Anna University | Vijayan S.,SSN College of Engineering | Koteswara Rao S.R.,Tagore Engineering College
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The joining of dissimilar Al-Cu alloy AA2219-T87 and Al-Mg alloy AA5083-H321 plates was carried out using friction stir welding (FSW) technique and the process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L16 orthogonal design of experiments. The rotational speed, transverse speed, tool geometry and ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter were the parameters taken into consideration. The optimum process parameters were determined with reference to tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal value of tensile strength was confirmed by conducting the confirmation run using optimum parameters. This study shows that defect free, high efficiency welded joints can be produced using a wide range of process parameters and recommends parameters for producing best joint tensile properties. Analysis of variance showed that the ratio between tool shoulder diameter and pin diameter is the most dominant factor in deciding the joint soundness while pin geometry and welding speed also played significant roles. Microstructural studies revealed that the material placed on the advancing side dominates the nugget region. Hardness studies revealed that the lowest hardness in the weldment occurred in the heat-affected zone on alloy of 5083 side, where tensile failures were observed to take place. © 2012.

Jaichandar S.,Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology | Annamalai K.,Anna University
Energy | Year: 2013

Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, rapid and perfect air-fuel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by selecting the best injection parameters and better design of the combustion chamber. Experiments were performed using a DI (direct injection) diesel engine equipped with a conventional jerk type injection system and pistons having HCC (hemispherical combustion chamber) and TRCC (toroidal re-entrant combustion chamber) geometries. The combined effect of varying, injection pressure and combustion chamber geometries, on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of 20% POME (pongamia oil methyl ester) by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for TRCC operated at higher injection pressure. Substantial improvements in reduction of emissions levels were also observed for TRCC operated at higher injection pressure. However improved combustion, due to better air motion inside the cylinder and high pressure injection, increased the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Increasing injection pressure decreased ignition delay, and increased peak in-cylinder pressure and maximum heat release rate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Alsath M.G.N.,SSN College of Engineering | Kanagasabai M.,Anna University
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters | Year: 2014

A single-layer pentaband antenna with very small frequency ratio for urban vehicular communication application has been presented. The proposed antenna is linearly polarized and is designed to cover the navigation and communication frequencies. This antenna utilizes a square patch radiator loaded with an inverted U-slot and a coupled C-slot to provide resonance at the navigation frequencies - viz., 1.176, 1.381, and 1.575 GHz - and communication frequencies - viz., Satellite Radio Broadcast Service (SRBS) at 1.472 GHz and Mobile services at 1.675 GHz. The designed antenna exhibits the lowest frequency ratio of 1:1.17:1.25:1.35:1.43 with nonoverlapping frequency bands. Furthermore, a parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effect caused by the change in slot parameters in the antenna aperture. Both theoretical and experimental results have been presented and discussed. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

Rasheed Q.J.,Anna University | Pandian K.,University of Madras | Muthukumar K.,Anna University
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2011

Petroleum refineries release wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and cannot be treated easily. This study presents the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) in the presence of ultrasonication. NZVI characteristics were analyzed using SEM and XRD. The influence of NZVI dosage and initial pH on % chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was studied. From the results, it can be inferred that a dosage of 0.15 g/l and an initial pH are optimum for the effective degradation of effluents. The degradation data were found to follow first order kinetics. The results indicate that using NZVI in combination with ultrasonication is an efficient method for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dhanasekaran J.J.,University of Madras | Ganapathy M.,Anna University
Asian Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Cassia auriculata B. belongs to Fabaceae and is widely distributed in India. It is used in traditional medicine, typically for skin disease, as a purgative, laxative, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antioxidant from the ancient period. There have been reports of antidiabetic and medicinal properties of C. auriculata dried leaf and flowers. The present investigation was done to find whether the methanolic extract of Cassia auriculata leaf had hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wister albino rats and to estimate the total antioxidant content, total phenolic content and total flavanoids of C. auriculata methanolic leaf extract. The methanol extract was used to treat the carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage on Wister albino rats for 60 days. In vitro antioxidant activity was studied using ABTS+ free radical scavenging method. The total content of phenolic compounds and flavanoids was also estimated by spectrophotometric method. The in vitro cytotoxicity activity was conducted on HepGinf2/inf cell line at increasing concentration and the apoptotic activity was determined. The animals were treated at 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. The blood serum was used for liver function test. Serum Bactate Dehydrogenase (BDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Fyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGPT), Lipid Feroxidation (LPO) and liver tissue total protein were (p<0.001) significantly decreased in post treated animals. The non enzymatic antioxidant Reduced glutathione (GSH), Vitamin C (Vit C), Vitamin E (Vit E) and enzymatic antioxidant Glutathione Feroxidase (GPx), Glutathione-s-Transferase (GST), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in plant extract post treated group. The histopathological studies showed fine revertible changes in CAME treated experimental animal liver tissue section. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Kumaresan L.,Anna University | Mahalakshmi M.,SSN College of Engineering | Palanichamy M.,Anna University | Murugesan V.,Anna University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

Strontium doped titania (TiO2) nanoplates and titania nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization of the materials revealed the mesoporous nanoplate-like structure for Sr2+ doped TiO2. The thickness and edge length of Sr2+ doped TiO2 nanoplates were found to be 12 nm and 25-75 nm, respectively. TiO2 nanoparticles and Sr2+ doped TiO2 nanoplates showed higher surface area due to the presence of mesopores. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and Sr2+ doped TiO2 nanoplates was evaluated using 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) as a model pollutant. The photocatalytic activity of Sr2+ doped TiO 2 nanoplates was higher than both TiO2 nanoparticles and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P-25). Sr2+ doped TiO2 nanoplates exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity due to increases in the band gap energy and surface area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Devi K.B.,Anna University | Singh K.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Rajendran N.,Anna University
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2011

In this study, the nanoporous zirconium titanate was prepared using sol-gel process and coated over 316L SS implants via dip-coating technique. XRD patterns of zirconium titanate are crystalline and orthorhombic in structure. FT-IR spectra showed a broad band between 3,500 and 3,300 cm-1, which was assigned to fundamental stretching vibrations of hydroxyl groups. The set of overlapping peaks in the range of 810-520 cm-1 are related to Zr-O and Zr-O-Ti groups. SEM-EDAX and TEM showed the surface morphology of coated zirconium titanate to be porous and uniform. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the substrate has been achieved. The contact angle value was found to be 12°. The coating acts as a barrier layer to the metallic implants and induces the formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the metal surfaces. These results revealed that the nano zirconium titanate coated 316L SS exhibit higher bioactivity compared to that of uncoated 316L SS. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Ananth A.,Anna University | Arthanareeswaran G.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Wang H.,Monash University
Desalination | Year: 2012

The effect of inorganic and organic additives in polyethersulfone (PES) membranes was investigated for the possible enhancement in ultrafiltration performances. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were chosen as inorganic respective silica precursor and organic additive based on their potential to promote hydrophilicity in PES membranes. With the addition of TEOS and PEI in PES casting solution, the viscosity and hydrophilicity were increased.In addition of TEOS in PES, the SiO 2 particles were homogeneously dispersed in PES matrix, a large amount of OH groups on the SiO 2 particles generated, and led to an improvement in the hydrophilic property. Characterizations of membranes by FTIR and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the PES suffered a transform from various functional groups due to the addition of TEOS. The 40% of water permeability was found by 5% addition ion of TEOS and PEI repressively. The top surface and cross-section morphology of PES membranes changed from dense-like structure to finger-like macrovoids structure with increasing TEOS and PEI content. Protein solution separation was investigated using lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the concentration of 1000ppm. The observed sieving coefficient of protein decreased exponentially with increasing contents of TEOS and PEI in PES membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.3.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.78M | Year: 2011

Saph Pani addresses the improvement of natural water treatment systems such as river bank filtration (RBF), managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and wetlands in India building on a combination of local and international expertise. The project aims at enhancing water resources and water supply particularly in water stressed urban and peri-urban areas in different parts of the sub-continent. The objective is to strengthen the scientific understanding of the performance-determining processes occurring in the root, soil and aquifer zones of the relevant processes considering the removal and fate of important water quality parameters such as pathogenic microorganisms and respective indicators, organic substances and metals. Moreover the hydrologic characteristics (infiltration and storage capacity) and the eco-system function will be investigated along with the integral importance in the local or regional water resources management concept (e.g. by providing underground buffering of seasonal variations in supply and demand). The socio-economic value of the enhanced utilisation of the attenuation and storage capacity will be evaluated taking into account long-term sustainability issues and a comprehensive risk management. The project focuses on a set of case study areas in India covering various regional, climatic, and hydrogeological conditions as well as different treatment technologies. The site investigations will include hydrological and geochemical characterisation and, depending on the degree of site development, water quality monitoring or pre-feasibility studies for new treatment schemes. Besides the actual natural treatment component the investigation may encompass also appropriate pre- and post treatment steps to potabilise the water or avoid clogging of the sub-surface structures. The experimental and conceptual studies will be complemented by modelling activities which help to support the transferability of results.

Sushma N.,Vels University | Devasena T.,Anna University
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2010

Cypermethrin (CM) is an important type II pyrethroid pesticide used extensively in pest control and is reported to cause hepatic and renal toxicity. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been implicated in the toxicology of pyrethroids. Fenugreek is known for its antitoxic and antioxidant potential. We have investigated the protective effect of aqueous extract of germinated fenugreek seeds in CM-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated with 1/10 LD50 (25 mg/kg body weight) of CM and 10% aqueous extract of fenugreek (GFaq) for 60 days. CM treatment caused increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), depletion in glutathione (GSH) and reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidneys. There was a significant reduction in total phospholipids and increased activities of phospholipases A (PLA) and C (PLC) in liver and kidneys and increased activities of serum marker enzymes, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine tansaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Treatment with 10% GFaq showed replenishment of antioxidant status and brought all the values to near normal, indicating the protective effect of fenugreek. Phytochemicals present in fenugreek could play an important role in ameliorating the pesticide-induced toxicity.

Sheik Ismail L.,Aeronautical Development Agency | Velraj R.,Anna University | Ranganayakulu C.,Aeronautical Development Agency
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, etc. are profusely available without any limitation. Heat exchanger is a device to transfer the energy from one fluid to other fluid for many applications in buildings, industries and automotives. The optimum design of heat exchanger for minimum pumping power (i.e., minimum pressure drop) and efficient heat transfer is a great challenge in terms of energy savings point of view. This review focuses on the research and developments of compact offset and wavy plate-fin heat exchangers. The review is summarized under three major sections. They are offset fin characteristics, wavy fin characteristics and non-uniformity of the inlet fluid flow. The various research aspects relating to internal single phase flow studied in offset and wavy fins by the researchers are compared and summarized. Further, the works done on the non-uniformity of this fluid flow at the inlet of the compact heat exchangers are addressed and the methods available to minimize these effects are compared. © 2009.

Viswanathan G.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Gopalakrishnan S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Siva Ilango S.,Anna University
Water Research | Year: 2010

The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Arulmurugan R.,Anna University | Arulmurugan R.,Knowledge Institute of Technology | Suthanthiravanitha N.,Knowledge Institute of Technology
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2015

Harnessing energy from abundant, free sunlight is currently a hot topic within the research community. The availability of inexpensive solar modules has made it possible to harvest solar energy at higher efficiency. Photovoltaic (PV) modules have nonlinear characteristics, and hence, the process of impedance matching is obligatory. Proper impedance matching ensures extraction of the maximum amount of power in a PV scheme. Several algorithms that are used to operate DC to DC converters around the Maximum Power Point (MPP) are reported in the literature. Amongst those algorithms, Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) coupled with other controllers performs well under partial shading conditions. This paper designs a new 5 × 7 optimized FLC-coupled Hopfield Neural Network (NN) maximum tracking technique. A Hopfield NN is used to routinely tune the fuzzy membership function. Entire components of a PV array, a DC-DC buck-boost zeta converter and a designed MPP tracking controller are implemented in a Matlab-Simulink tool to validate the Hopfield NN. The results validate the effectiveness and execution of the Hopfield NN using the optimized fuzzy system. The designed system was successfully tested on an experimental prototype. The experimental values demonstrate the feasibility and improved functionality of the scheme. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mukesh Kumar P.C.,Anna University | Kumar J.,Erode Builder Educational Trusts Group of Institutions | Suresh S.,Indian National Institute of Engineering
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, the heat transfer and friction factor of a shell and helically coiled tube heat exchanger using Al2O3 / water nanofluid at 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.8% particle volume concentration were tested. The test was conducted under laminar flow condition at 5100 < Rei < 8700. It is found that the overall heat transfer coefficient, inner heat transfer coefficient and experimental inner Nusselt number are 24%, 25% and 28%, respectively, higher than water at 0.8% particle volume concentration of nanofluid. It is observed that the presence of nanoparticles further intensify the formation of secondary flow and proper mixing of fluid when nanofluid passes through the helically coiled tube. Apart from further flow intensification, higher thermal conductivity of nanofluid and random movement of nanoparticles contribute to the enhanced heat transfer coefficient. Also found that the friction factor increases over particle volume concentration and this is due to increased nanofluid viscosity while increasing particle volume concentration. © 2013 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sozhamannan G.G.,Anna University | Prabu S.B.,Anna University | Paskaramoorthy R.,University of Witwatersrand
Materials and Design | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the methodology of microstructure based elastic-plastic finite element analysis of particle reinforced metal matrix composites. This model is used to predict the failure of two dimensional microstructure models under tensile loading conditions. A literature survey indicates that the major failure mechanism of particle reinforced metal matrix composites such as particle fracture, interfaces decohesion and matrix yielding is mainly dominated by the distribution of particles in the matrix. Hence, analyses were carried out on the microstructure of random and clustered particles to determine its effect on strength and failure mechanisms. The finite element analysis models were generated in ANSYS, using scanning electron microscope images. The percentage of major failures and stress-strain responses were predicted numerically for each microstructure. It is evident from the analysis that the clustering nature of particles in the matrix dominates the failure modes of particle reinforced metal matrix composites. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Janeela Theresa M.M.,Anna University | Joseph Raj V.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013

This paper describes the construction of a decision system to be used by judges who is about to pass sentence in murder cases. Classification models of murder cases based on fuzzy neural network with random weights and fuzzy neural network with Genetic Algorithm based weights are designed. A simulation program in C++ has been deliberated and developed for analyzing the consequences. Results show that the fuzzy neural networks increase the rate of convergence in comparison with conventional neural networks with backpropagation algorithm. That the fuzzy neural networks for classification of murder cases using Trapezoidal Membership Function outperform Lagrange Interpolation and Gaussian Membership Function is also reported. Comparative studies are carried out for a number of networks and configurations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gunasekaran K.,SRM University | Annadurai R.,SRM University | Kumar P.S.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Vettivel S.C.,PET Engineering College | Selvakumar N.,Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi | Leema N.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

High-energy mechanical milling was used to mix Cu and W powders. Cylindrical preforms with initial preform density of 85% were prepared using a die and punch assembly. The preforms were sintered in an electric muffle furnace at 750 °C, 800 °C, 850 °C, and subsequently furnace cooled and then the specimens are hot extruded to get 92% preform density. Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray diffraction observations used to evaluate the characteristics. The pore size reduction during extrusion was studied using Auto CAD 2010. Neural networks are employed to study the tribological behavior of sintered Cu-W composites. The proposed neural network model has used the measured parameters namely the weight percentage of tungsten, sintering temperature, load and sliding distance to predict multiple material characteristics, hardness, specific wear rate, and coefficient of friction. The predicted values from the proposed networks coincide with the experimental values. In addition, a relative study between the regression analysis and the networks revealed that the artificial neural networks can predict the tribological characteristics of sintered Cu and W composites better than regression polynomials within a very few percent error. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Padma Subramanian D.,SRM University | Kumudini Devi R.P.,Anna University | Saravanaselvan R.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, a numerical algorithm, based on initial value problem, using local parameterisation continuation technique is proposed for tracing stable and unstable steady state periodic solution branches of power systems. Bifurcation diagrams of steady state solutions are constructed by the application of the proposed algorithm. From the bifurcation diagrams, the existence of various bifurcation points such as, unstable Hopf bifurcation (UHB), stable Hopf bifurcation (SHB), cyclic fold bifurcation (CFB), saddle node bifurcation (SNB) and period doubling bifurcation (PDB) are identified. With the use of tools of nonlinear dynamics, voltage collapse points, and chaotic solutions due to period doublings are unearthed. Simulations have been carried out to analyse the sensitivity of the system with respect to load reactive power and compensating capacitor. The impact of SVC on Hopf bifurcations and occurrence of SNB are investigated. The algorithm is validated by applying it to a standard power system reported in literature and the results obtained are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Varatharajan K.,Velammal Engineering College | Cheralathan M.,SRM University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Fuel | Year: 2011

Biodiesel offers cleaner combustion over conventional diesel fuel including reduced particulate matter, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. However, several studies point to slight increase in NOx emissions (about 10%) for biodiesel fuel compared with conventional diesel fuel. Use of antioxidant additives is one of the most cost-effective ways to mitigate the formation of prompt NOx. In this study, the effect of antioxidant additives on NOx emissions in a jatropha methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally and compared. A survey of literature regarding the causes of biodiesel NOx effect and control strategies is presented. The antioxidant additives L-ascorbic acid, α tocopherol acetate, butylated hydroxytoluene, p-phenylenediamine and ethylenediamine were tested on computerised Kirloskar-make 4 stroke water cooled single cylinder diesel engine of 4.4 kW rated power. Results showed that antioxidants considered in the present study are effective in controlling the NOx emissions of biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. A 0.025%-m concentration of p-phenylenediamine additive was optimal as NOx levels were substantially reduced in the whole load range in comparison with neat biodiesel. However, hydrocarbon and CO emissions were found to have increased by the addition of antioxidants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Premkumar K.,Anna University | Manikandan B.V.,Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi
Proceedings of 2013 International Conference on Power, Energy and Control, ICPEC 2013 | Year: 2013

A novel method for speed control of brushless dc motor using adaptive fuzzy logic and PI control algorithms has been presented in this paper. Fuzzy logic and PI controllers are formulated and designed using MATLAB toolbox. The parameters such as rise time, peak overshoot, recovery time, settling time and steady state error of a brushless DC motor are taken for analyzing the performance of the proposed controller. The simulation result demonstrated that the response of brushless dc motor with adaptive fuzzy logic shows satisfactory and well damped performance compared to classical PI controller. © 2013 IEEE.

Dhivya M.,Anna University | Sundarambal M.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology
International Journal of Mobile Communications | Year: 2011

In this paper a meta-heuristic optimisation technique, Cuckoo Search (CS) is used to aggregate data in the Sensor Network. In the proposed technique, the least energy nodes are formed as subordinate chains (or) clusters for sensing the data and high energy nodes as Cluster Head for communicating to the Base Station (BS). The modified CS is proposed to get enhanced network performance incorporating balanced energy dissipation and results in the formation of optimum number of clusters and minimal energy consumption. The feasibility of the scheme is manifested by the simulation results on comparison with the traditional cluster based routing methods. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Chandramohan D.,Anna University | Marimuthu K.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology
Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics | Year: 2011

In the last decades, researchers have developed new materials to improve the quality of human life. Owing to the frequent occurrence of bone fractures, it is important to develop plate materials for the fixation of fractured bones. These plate materials have to be lightweight, compatible with human tissues and ought to allow stiffness. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been supplying natural fibers for many years, e.g., sisal, banana and roselle are common reinforcement in India. In this research, the fabrication of plate material from powdered natural fibers like sisal (Agave sisalana), banana (Musa sapientum) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), with bio-epoxy resin Grade 3554A and Hardner 3554B, using moulding method, is described. The present work deals with the prediction of flexural rigidity of the NFRP composite which is compared with that obtained using the ANSYS solution. They are found to be in good agreement. In this work, microstructure is scanned by the scanning electron microscope. The objective of this research was to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on biopolymers and natural fibers. In the future, this plate material externally coated with calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (hybrid) composite can be used for inside fixation and also external fixation of fractured bones.

Balamurugan B.,Kalasalingam University | Thirumarimurugan M.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Kannadasan T.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Kannadasan T.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

The main objective of this work is to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of the effluent containing reactive textile dye by microbial method. Anaerobic digestion has the potential to break down complex refractory organic compounds so that they may be further degraded aerobically or to completely mineralize them. An anaerobic digestion technique was applied to synthetic reactive red 2 dye cotton textile effluent aiming at the dye degradation. Halophilic and halotolerant bacterial culture Halomonas variabilis and Halomonas glaciei were used for degradation in batch-mode static condition. The temperature was kept constant at 30°C using CO2 incubator. Maximum degradation was achieved within 144h of experimental run. Degradation studies were made by determining COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Statistical analysis showed that the BOD and COD reduction rate were optimal in the concentration of 1297mg L-1 for the time duration of nearly 100h. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gunasekaran K.,SRM University | Annadurai R.,SRM University | Kumar P.S.,Anna University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Anbalagan T.,Anna University | Maheswari S.U.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2014

Stock market price forecasting is one of the challenging tasks due to the difficulty in predicting the non-linear and non-stationary time series data. In this paper a Fuzzy Metagraph (FM) based stock market decision making, classification and prediction are proposed for short term investors of Indian stock market. Simple Moving Average (SMA), Exponential Moving Average (EMA), Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) and Relative Strength Index (RSI) are some of the Technical Indicators which are used as input to train the system which is integrated with Fuzzy Metagraph. This approach of incorporating FM with SMA, MACD and RSI would be a new attempt in classification and prediction on share market investment. Stocks listed in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India are used to evaluate the performance of the system. The results obtained from the proposed FM based model are found to be satisfactory with very low risk error. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Azhagushanmugam S.J.,Muthayammal Engineering College | Suriyanarayanan N.,Government College of Technology, Coimbatore | Jayaprakash R.,Anna University
Physics Procedia | Year: 2013

The Powders of Ni-Zn ferrite having the chemical formula Ni (0.6) Zn (0.4) Fe2O4 were synthesized by using chemical coprecipitation method and followed by heat treatment at 130°C, 600°C & 900°C. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were carried out to investigate structural and chemical aspects of Ni-Zn ferrite. The cubic spinel structure in single phase has been confirmed by X ray diffraction. The average crystallite size was calculated from the line broadening in XRD pattern. The sizes of the particles were increased with sintering temperature. The micro structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The IR Spectra measured in the range of 4000-400 cm-1 exhibit symmetric stretching mode of Fe2O4 and ZnO4 tetrahedral at 669.7 cm-1 and 545.6 cm-1. © 2013 The Authors.

Sabura Banu U.,B.S. Abdur Rahman University | Uma G.,Anna University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2011

In this paper, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) based Sensor fault detection and isolation for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is proposed. CSTR is a highly nonlinear process exhibiting stable and unstable steady state at different operating regions. Fault detection (FD) of such a complicated CSTR process is a mind boggling problem. In this paper, an ANFIS based 'dedicated observer' scheme is dealt along with statistical methods for the detection of the fault. The result shows the feasibility of using the proposed method for the detection of sensor faults in CSTR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bhakkiyalakshmi E.,SRM University | Sireesh D.,SRM University | Rajaguru P.,Anna University | Paulmurugan R.,Stanford University | Ramkumar K.M.,SRM University
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2015

The pathogenic processes involving in the development of diabetes range from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The major contributing factor for excessive β-cell death includes oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage, which creates an imbalance in redox homeostasis. Yet, β-cells have evolved adaptive mechanisms to endure a wide range of stress conditions to safeguard its potential functions. These include 'Nrf2/Keap1' pathway, a key cellular defense mechanism, to combat oxidative stress by regulating phase II detoxifying and antioxidant genes. During diabetes, redox imbalance provokes defective Nrf2-dependent signaling and compromise antioxidant capacity of the pancreas which turnout β-cells to become highly vulnerable against various insults. Hence, identification of small molecule activators of Nrf2/Keap1 pathway remains significant to enhance cellular defense to overcome the burden of oxidative stress related disturbances. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism behind Nrf2 activation and the impact of Nrf2 activators in diabetes and its complications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Magendrana T.,SRM University | Sanjeevi S.,Anna University
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2014

This paper reports the results of a study to differentiate iron ores in terms of their grades, using thehyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) image data, covering a mineralized belt in the Noamundi area, easternIndia. The study involves hyperspectral data collection, pre-processing (reduction of atmospheric andsolar flux effects), generation of spectral curves from the image for the iron ore deposits, extraction ofkey spectral parameters and linear spectral unmixing for mapping iron ore abundance. Spectral curves foriron ore deposits extracted from the Hyperion image pixels exhibit strong absorption at 850-900 nm and2150-2250 nm wavelengths, which is typical of iron ores. The strength of the absorption features in thecontinuum removed spectra varies spatially in the image around the mining areas, indicating differencesin composition/grade of the iron ores. Spectral parameters such as the depth, width, area and wavelengthposition of the absorption features, derived from image spectra in the 850-900 nm and 2150-2250 nmregions, correlate well with the concentration of iron-oxide and alumina (gangue) in the ore samplesobtained from the mine face. Well defined correlations are evident between the concentration of ironoxide and (i) the depth of NIR absorption feature (R2= 0.883); (ii) the width of NIR absorption feature(R2= 0.912); and (iii) the area of the NIR absorption feature and (R2= 0.882). Further, the linear spectralunmixing resulted in an iron ore abundance map which, in conjunction with the image- and laboratory-spectra, helped in assessing the grades of iron ores in the study area. Thus, this study demonstrates thefeasibility of discriminating grades of iron ores based on spectral information derived from spacebornehyperspectral imagery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Krishnamoorthy A.,Sathyabama University | Rajendra Boopathy S.,Anna University | Palanikumar K.,Sri Sairam Institute of Technology | Paulo Davim J.,University of Aveiro
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2012

Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite materials have potential applications in various domains. In machining, drilling is essentially required to join different structures. But CFRP drilling poses many problems that decrease the quality of holes. In this paper, Taguchi's L 27 orthogonal array is used to perform drilling of CFRP composite plates. To improve the quality of the holes drilled, the optimal combination of drilling parameters is chosen using grey relational analysis. Grey fuzzy optimization of drilling parameters is based on five different output performance characteristics, namely, thrust force, torque, entry delamination, exit delamination and eccentricity of the holes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to find the percentage contribution of the drilling parameters and found that feed rate is the most influential factor in drilling of CFRP composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jeyakumar P.D.,B.S. Abdur Rahman University | Devaradjane G.,Anna University
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2012

The increasing legal and customer demands on passive safety of automobiles have to be fulfilled under the conditions of shortened development times and cost reductions. Today the design process of a bus with regard to its crashworthiness function is driven by a virtual development. A wide range of different applications has to be covered by simulation influencing the design of body-in-white, interior and exterior trim, chassis and power train. In recent days more emphasis has been given to Passenger bus rollover analysis and side impact but the study of frontal impact behaviour of the passenger bus is ignored. The finite element analysis is used for estimating the damage of the passenger bus due to the frontal crash. The vehicle model is allowed to frontal crash with rigid material. The deformation and displacement characteristics of the structure are analyzed at different speeds. Geometric modeling of the bus structure has been created by using CATIA cad package and discritized by ANSYS LS-Dyna. The numerical simulation is carried out for different velocities of bus structure. The results of displacement during collision are plotted on the graph. Some improvements were suggested in the body structure after analysing different types of crack initiators. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

Priyadharsini S.S.,Anna University | Rajan S.E.,Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity of neurons within the brain and is used for the evaluation of brain disorders. But, EEG signals are contaminated with various artifacts which make interpretation of EEGs clinically difficult. In this research paper, we use a soft-computing technique called ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) for the removal of EOG artifact, combined EOG and EMG artifact. Improvement in the output signal to noise ratio and minimum mean square error are used as the performance measures. The outputs of the proposed technique are compared with the outputs of techniques such as neural network, based on ADALINE (Adaptive Linear Neuron) and adaptive filtering method, which makes use of RLS (Recursive Least Squares) algorithm through wavelet transform (RLS-Wavelet). The obtained results show that the proposed method could significantly detect and suppress the artifacts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chandrasekaran P.,SRM University | Cheralathan M.,SRM University | Kumaresan V.,Anna University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Energy | Year: 2014

The present study aims to investigate the solidification characteristics of water based NFPCM (nanofluid phase change material). The NFPCM was prepared by dispersing copper oxide nanoparticles and a nucleating agent in the base PCM (phase change material). The experiments were conducted at various bath temperatures and the NFPCM exhibited a significant reduction in solidification time of about 35% due to enhanced heat transport properties. Further, 50% of total mass solidified during 25% of total solidification time in both PCM and NFPCM. The presence of nucleating agent eliminated the ramifying problem of subcooling in the PCM and this will allow the evaporator to operate at a higher temperature in a chiller. The enhanced heat transfer rate of the NFPCM without subcooling is advantageous for many CTES (cool thermal energy storage) applications. It is construed from the experimental results that considerable energy saving potential is possible in the CTES system by operating the evaporator at a higher temperature. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Muthuramalingam T.,SRM University | Mohan B.,Anna University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

Convention Taguchi method deals with only single response optimization problems. Since the electrical discharge machining process involved with many response parameters, Taguchi method alone cannot help to obtain optimal process parameters in such process. In the present work, an endeavor has been made to derive optimal combination of electrical process parameters in electro erosion process using grey relational analysis with Taguchi method. This multi response optimization of the electrical discharge machining process has been conducted with AISI 202 stainless steel with different tool electrodes such as copper, brass and tungsten carbide. Gap voltage, discharge current and duty factor have been used as electrical excitation parameters with different process levels. Taguchi L27 orthogonal table has been assigned for conducting experiments with the consideration of interactions among the input electrical process parameters. Material removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness have been selected as response parameters. From the experimental results, it has been found that the electrical conductivity of the tool electrode has the most influencing nature on the machining characteristics in EDM process. The optimal combination of the input process parameters has been obtained using Taguchi-grey relational analysis. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar V.V.,Anna University | Kumar V.V.,SRM University | Sivanesan S.,Anna University | Cabana H.,Université de Sherbrooke
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The increasing use of laccase in waste water industries is useful to explore the high benefit/cost ratio of insolubilization technologies like cross linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) for the decolorization and detoxification of distinctive classes of recalcitrant dyes. Amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles bonded to CLEAs increased the potential of laccase-based CLEAs and are applicable for commercial implementation of this technology in environmental applications. The activity recovery obtained from the stable rigid structure of magnetic CLEAs was around 32%. High volumetric activity, increased in thermal and operational stability of laccase and its resistance to extreme conditions were the properties provided by these magnetic CLEAs. Kinetic studies show that the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, based on the kcat/km value, changed significantly upon CLEAs and magnetic CLEA formations. When 0.2U/mL of magnetic CLEAs was used, the biocatalyst rapidly decolorized 61-96% of remazol brilliant blue R, malachite green and reactive black 5 initially at 50mgL-1 at 20°C and pH7.0. Investigation of dye degradation using both active and heat denatured CLEAs revealed a slight adsorption of dyes on inactivated biocatalysts. A laboratory scale perfusion basket reactor (BR) was used to study the continuous decolorization of dyes. The efficient decolorization (>90%) of remazol brilliant blue R and slight decrease in CLEA activity were measured over a 10h period of continuous operation, which illustrates the potential of CLEAs for the wastewater treatment. The present findings will advance the understanding of dye decolorization mechanism by CLEA laccase, which could provide useful references for developing industrial wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Muthuramalingam T.,SRM University | Mohan B.,Anna University
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2015

Since the thermal energy produced in electrical discharge machining process is due to the applied electrical energy, it is very important to enhance the electrical process parameters to improve the process efficiency. The present study discusses about having an overview of the EDM process, modeling of process parameters, and influence of process parameters such as input electrical variables, pulse shape, and discharge energy on performance measures such as material removal rate, surface roughness and electrode wear rate. This study also discusses about controlling the electrical process parameters, and empirical relationships between process parameters and optimization of process parameters in EDM process. From the review results, it has been observed that the efficacy of the machining process can be improved by electrical process parameters, and only less attention has been given for enhancing such parameters. © 2014 Politechnika Wrocławska.

Rajagopalan M.,Anna University | Sundareswari M.,Sathyabama University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The theoretical lattice parameters and elastic constants of cubic ScX (X=Ag, Cu, Pd, Ru, Rh) compounds are computed by performing the electronic structure calculations using the FP-LAPW method. From the elastic constants, the various elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio are calculated. The results are compared and analysed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Ganesh C.,Coimbatore Institute of Technology | Patnaik S.K.,Anna University
JVC/Journal of Vibration and Control | Year: 2012

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are useful in applications such as process control, robotics, industrial automation, aerospace, electric vehicles etc. due to such advantages as the elimination of rotor losses and magnetizing current. Wider usage of BLDC motors demands optimum position control for high efficiency, accuracy and reliability. For an accurate position control, the estimation of moment of inertia and friction coefficient of the motor with load is essential. This paper incorporates the computation of the moment of inertia and friction coefficient of a BLDC motor with load at different load settings and emphasizes that load has an appreciable effect on the dynamic performance of the system. To obtain the optimum position control, a proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) controller is employed and tuned using the PARR method. Artificial neural networks are used for computing the moment of inertia and friction coefficient of a BLDC motor with load and PID controller parameters at various load settings. Simulation results of the position control system are obtained at different load settings. From the results, it is evident that the PID controlled position control system responds to the desired position with minimum rise time, settling time and peak overshoot and is in dependent of load settings. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions:

Pravin A.,Sathyabama University | Srinivasan S.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2013

Regression testing is used to ensure the validity of the changed software. Due to time budget and entire test suite could not be executed. Hence it becomes an essential to minimize the test suite and choose a subset of test cases from test suite which will be executed in least time and has the capability to cover all the faults. Hence reordering the test case on the basis of time fault, test case prioritization technique prioritizes the test cases using fault detection algorithm, which is proposed in this study. After finding the faults in the code, the source code will be processed in the open source system like Webkit. © 2013 Science Publications.

Saravanan D.,Sathyabama University | Srinivasan S.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2013

Due to increasing the usage of media, the utilization of video play central role as it supports various applications. Video is the particular media which contains complex collection of objects like audio, motion, text, color and picture. Due to the rapid growth of this information video indexing process is mandatory for fast and effective retrieval. Many current indexing techniques fails to extract the needed image from the stored data set, based on the users query. Urgent attention in the field of video indexing and image retrieval is the need of the hour. Here a new matrix based indexing technique for image retrieval has been proposed. The proposed method provide better result, experimental results prove this. © 2013 Science Publications.

Puhan S.,Veltech Engineering college | Saravanan N.,Tata Motors | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Vedaraman N.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Several research works have been carried out on biodiesel combustion, performance and emissions till today. But very few studies have been made about the chemistry of biodiesel that affects the diesel engine operation. Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oil or animal fats, which comprises of several fatty acids with different chain length and bonding. The present work focuses on the effect of biodiesel molecular weight, structure (Cis & Trans), and the number of double bonds on the diesel engine operation characteristics. Three types of biodiesel with different molecular weight and number of double bond were selected for the experimental studies. The biodiesels were prepared and analyzed for fuel properties according to the standards. A constant speed diesel engine, which develops 4.4 kW of power, was run with biodiesels and its performance was compared with diesel fuel. The results show that Linseed oil methyl ester with high linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid ester) does not suit best for diesel engine due to high oxides of nitrogen emission and low thermal efficiency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Saravanan N.,Tata Motors | Nagarajan G.,Anna University | Puhan S.,Veltech Engineering College
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. One of the popularly used biodiesel in India is Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica). In the present investigation Mahua oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of alkali catalyst and was used to study the performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was tested on a single cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. Engine performance tests showed that power loss was around 13% combined with 20% increase in fuel consumption with Mahua oil methyl ester at full load. Emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon were lesser for Mahua ester compared to diesel by 26% and 20% respectively. Oxides of nitrogen were lesser by 4% for the ester compared to diesel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Srinivasulu S.,Sathyabama University | Sakthivel P.,Anna University
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2015

The web is all about connecting, storing and retrieving documents .In this internet era the data is growing with a rapid speed and the technology to process this data has to face many challenges to catch the same phase. The web is huge collection of unstructured and scattered data all around the globe in numerous formats .The need to explore and exploit the information from this unstructured web is in raise. The semantic web is the solution to explore the information from such unstructured web. This paper explores the evolution of the web and various factors that influenced the conceptualization of the Semantic Web. It analyzes these social and technical challenges based on research data from established industry experts, semantic web community and other online resources. Key among these challenges are the lack of established standards and specifications, deficit in trust and resulting privacy issues are some of the challenges which have hindered this technology from gaining traction in the web world. Its widespread acceptance among general public and corporate is dependent on how these challenges are tackled over the next few years. © 2005 - 2015 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

Anna University and Kbc Research Foundation Pvt. Ltd. | Date: 2014-03-05

Methods and systems for detecting a preamble of a data packet in wireless communication systems is provided. To determine a preamble from a received signal, which may include a noise-altered preamble bit sequence, linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) can be used to generate a count of the received preamble, and the count is compared to pre-generated scores to identify a match. Example methods include for each of a number of different preamble orientations of a preamble, generating a count value based on a comparison of bits of the preamble with a random bit sequence to produce a sequence of count values, and comparing the sequence of count values with m sequences of count values. A sequence of count values is identified that includes a maximum number of matching elements, and the received preamble is determined to be one of the m preambles corresponding to the identified sequence.

Kbc Research Foundation Pvt. Ltd. and Anna University | Date: 2012-10-15

Data communication, with improved error detection, of a signal having a plurality of data blocks, by: error checking a received data block in a first sequence using a first polynomial, beginning with a first predetermined initial error checking state, producing a first CSUM; error checking the received data block in a second sequence using a second polynomial, using the first CSUM as a second predetermined initial error checking state, producing a second CSUM; comparing the second CSUM to the first predetermined initial error checking state to detect errors in the data communication; and repeating the above steps for sequential data blocks of the data communication, wherein the first polynomial is an inverse of the second polynomial.

Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. and Anna University | Date: 2012-02-01

A system for classifying moving objects during video based surveillance comprising steps of: capturing silhouette image of moving object, resizing the captured image, computing average height to width ratio and center of gravity for the object in the resized image, dividing resized image, comparing the average height to average width of the object and further comparing variance of center of gravity with the predetermined threshold value to classify the object in the captured silhouette into predetermined classes.

Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. and Anna University | Date: 2011-07-29

A system for classifying moving objects during video-based surveillance comprising: capturing a silhouette image of a moving object, resizing the captured image, computing an average height to width ratio and a center of gravity for the object in the resized image, dividing the resized image, comparing the average height to average width of the object and further comparing the variance of center of gravity with a predetermined threshold value to classify the object in the captured silhouette into predetermined classes.

Ganesh Kumar P.,Anna University | Aruldoss Albert Victoire T.,Anna University | Renukadevi P.,Anna University | Devaraj D.,Kalasalingam University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

Knowledge gained through classification of microarray gene expression data is increasingly important as they are useful for phenotype classification of diseases. Different from black box methods, fuzzy expert system can produce interpretable classifier with knowledge expressed in terms of if-then rules and membership function. This paper proposes a novel Genetic Swarm Algorithm (GSA) for obtaining near optimal rule set and membership function tuning. Advanced and problem specific genetic operators are proposed to improve the convergence of GSA and classification accuracy. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using six gene expression data sets. From the simulation study it is found that the proposed approach generated a compact fuzzy system with high classification accuracy for all the data sets when compared with other approaches. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arunkumar A.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mathiyalagan K.,Zhejiang University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

This paper focuses the issue of state estimation for a class of switched discrete-time stochastic bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with time varying delay. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the neuron states through available output measurements such that the dynamics of the error state system to be robustly exponentially stable. By employing average dwell time approach together with piecewise Lyapunov functional technique, a set of sufficient conditions is derived with respect to all admissible uncertainties, to guarantee the existence of the desired state estimator for the uncertain switched discrete-time BAM delayed neural networks. Specifically, we derive sufficient conditions to achieve robust state estimation with the characterization of complex effects of time delays, parameter uncertainties, and stochastic perturbations. In particular, the parameter uncertainties are assumed to be time varying and unknown, but norm bounded. It should be mentioned that our estimation results are delay dependent, which depend on not only the upper bounds of time delay, but also their lower bounds. More precisely, the desired estimator matrix gain is obtained in terms of the solution of the derived LMIs. Finally, numerical examples with a simulation result are given to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the obtained results. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Saranya R.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Arthanareeswaran G.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Sakthivelu S.,Anna University | Manohar P.,Anna University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

The synergistic effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and nanokaolinite particles were studied using PAN/nanokaolinite mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs). Nanokaolinite was obtained from naturally available kaolin clay by an intercalation/exfoliation method. The kaolinite nanoparticles were added in varying compositions from 2.5 to 10 wt % at an increment of 2.5 wt % to PAN in the presence of the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The uniform dispersion of nanokaolinite in the PAN matrix was achieved with the help of ultrasonication. The PAN/nanokaolinite material was characterized by attenuated-total-reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Contact-angle measurements showed increased hydrophilicity due to the nanokaolinite addition that, in turn, helped reduce membrane fouling. Thermal stability and miscibility were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The pure-water permeability flux increased from 122.8 to 264.93 L m -2 h -1 with increasing nanokaolinite concentration from 0 to 7.5 wt %. Rejection studies using protein showed an improved rejection efficiency of 92.7%, which is higher than that of the neat PAN membrane. PAN/nanokaolinite MMMs were also investigated in the separation of synthetic rhodamine B dye with and without the macroligand poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) for which the dye removal efficiency and flux were compared. Nanokaolinite-based MMMs are an inexpensive material and provide enhanced properties such as porosity, hydrophilicity, thermal stability, rejection, and productivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Selvakumar P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Chandrasekar M.,Anna University | Raman V.S.,RVS College of Engineering and Technology
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2012

An experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube with spiraled rod inserts (pitch=15mm, 30mm) under turbulent flow with constant heat flux is carried out with distilled water and Al 2O 3/water nanofluids. For this purpose, Al 2O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by using chemical precipitation method. The average size of particle is found to be 40.3nm. The nanoparticles are then dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension of Al 2O 3/water nanofluids with 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% volume concentration of nanoparticles. It is found that (i) heat transfer enhancement is caused by suspending nanoparticles and becomes more pronounced with the increase of the particle volume concentration (ii) the Nusselt number for spiraled rod inserts under turbulent flow showed an increase of about 10-48% compared to the Nusselt numbers obtained with plain tube (iii) the isothermal pressure drop for turbulent flow with spiraled rod inserts were found to be between 2 and 8% higher than the plain tube. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Venkitaraj K.P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Selvakumar P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Chandrasekar M.,Anna University
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2012

In this experimental work, a fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics through a uniformly heated circular tube using Al 2O 3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is presented. For this we synthesized Al 2O 3-Cu nanocomposite powder in a thermo chemical route that involves a hydrogen reduction technique and then dispersed the prepared hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope to confirm the chemical composition, to determine the particle size and to study the surface morphology. The convective heat transfer experimental results showed a maximum enhancement of 13.56% in Nusselt number at a Reynolds number of 1730 when compared to Nusselt number of water. The experimental results also show that 0.1% Al 2O 3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor when compared to 0.1% Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor are in good agreement with the experimental data. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Venkitaraj K.P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Selvakumar P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Chandrasekar M.,Anna University
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2012

A comparison of thermal characteristics of Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids in transition flow through a straight circular duct fitted with helical screw tape inserts was made in this study. The helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios Y=1.78, 2.44 and 3 were used in the experimental study using 0.1% volume concentration Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluid. The average enhancements in Nusselt number for water with twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 were 156.24%, 122.16% and 89.22% respectively when compared to plain tube. The average increase in Nusselt number corresponding to the twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 were 166.84%, 128.67% and 89.22% respectively for Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. In the case of CuO/water nanofluid, the enhancements in Nusselt number were 179.82%, 144.29% and 105.63% for twist ratios 1.78, 2.44 and 3 respectively. Thermal performance analysis based on the constant pumping power criteria shows that helical screw tape inserts give better thermal performance when used with CuO/water nanofluid than with Al 2O 3/water nanofluid. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sivakumar P.,Anna University | Bhagiyalakshmi M.,Arni University | Anbarasu K.,Tamilnadu Co operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd
Fuel | Year: 2012

An anaerobic process for the treatment of spoiled milk from the milk processing industry was investigated. It was carried out in a laboratory scale batch reactor and using the obtained data, it was scaled up to a pilot Anaerobic Sequential Batch Reactor (ASBR). The processes include acclimatization of seed consortia and start up of the reactor under room condition. The batch reactor was studied at different pH, inoculum dosage, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loading. The scaled up pilot plant is of 100 L capacity and it was observed continuously for 30 days. At steady state, the efficiency of the pilot plant in removing COD was found to be 92.80%, and it was able to produce biogas volume of 0.311 m 3 for 1 kg COD degradation. The results obtained showed that biogas contained a maximum of 69.18% of methane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arunkumar A.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the problem of robust stabilization for a class of discrete-time stochastic neural networks with randomly occurring discrete and distributed time-varying delays. More precisely, the neuron activation functions are assumed to be more general and satisfy sector-like nonlinearities. Moreover, the effects of both variation range and probability distribution of mixed time-delays are taken into consideration in the proposed problem. The main objective of this paper is to design a state feedback reliable H∞ controller such that for all admissible uncertainties as well as actuator failure cases, the resulting closed-loop form of considered neural network is robustly asymptotically stable while satisfying a prescribed H∞ performance constraint. Linear matrix inequality approach together with proper construction of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is employed for obtaining delay dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of robust reliable H∞ controller. The obtained results are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by using the MATLAB LMI toolbox. Finally, a numerical example with simulation results is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained control law and less conservativeness of the proposed results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Marshal Anthoni S.,Anna University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2011

In this paper, the stability analysis and control design of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy neural networks with various activation functions and continuously distributed time delays are addressed. By implementing the delay-fractioning technique together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach , a new set of sufficient conditions is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensure the stability of the considered fuzzy neural networks. Further, based on the above-mentioned techniques, a control law with an appropriate gain control matrix is derived to achieve stabilization of the fuzzy neural networks. In addition, the results are extended to the study of the stability and stabilization results for TS fuzzy uncertain neural networks with parameter uncertainties. The stabilization criteria are obtained in terms LMIs and hence the gain control matrix can be easily determined by the MATLAB LMI control toolbox. Two numerical examples with simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained result. © 2011 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Prabu S.,Anna University | Nagalakshmi R.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Srinivasan P.,Anna University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Good quality yellow transparent single crystals of 4-bromochalcone (4BC) crystal have been synthesized and grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The UV-Vis spectra was recorded for the grown crystal. The thermal behavior of the title crystal was studied. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectral studies were performed for analyzing and assigning the vibrations and to identify the functional groups. The relative SHG efficiency of the material was investigated to explore the NLO characteristics for the first time in the literature. The SHG efficiency of the material is found to be 1.14 times greater than urea. Hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 4-bromochalcone (4BC) were performed with the help of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations using Gaussian 03 software. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kavitha C.T.,Jerusalem College of Engineering | Kavitha C.T.,Anna University | Chellamuthu C.,Anna University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014

Medical image fusion combines complementary images from different modalities for proper diagnosis and surgical planning. A new approach for medical image fusion based on the hybrid intelligence system is proposed. This paper has integrated the swarm intelligence and neural network to achieve a better fused output. The edges are an important feature of an image and they are detected and optimized by using ant colony optimization. The detected edges are enhanced and it is given as the feeding input to the simplified pulse coupled neural network. The firing maps are generated and the maximum fusion rule is applied to get the fused image. The performance of the proposed method is compared both subjectively and objectively, with the genetic algorithm method, neuro-fuzzy method and also with the modified pulse coupled neural network. The results show that the proposed hybrid intelligent method performs better when compared to the existing computational and hybrid intelligent methods. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lakshmana Gomathi Nayagam V.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Muralikrishnan S.,Anna University | Sivaraman G.,Periyar Maniammai University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Out of several generalizations of fuzzy set theory for various objectives, the notions introduced by Atanassov (1983) and Atanassov and Gargov (1989) in defining intuitionistic fuzzy sets and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets are interesting and very useful in modeling real life problems. Ranking of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets plays a vital role in decision-making, data analysis, artificial intelligence and socioeconomic system and it was studied in Xu (2007c), Xu and Chen (2007a) and Ye (2009). In this paper a new method for ranking interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets has been introduced and studied. The method is illustrated by numerical examples and compared with other methods. And then a new method for handling multi-criteria fuzzy decision-making problems based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets is presented in which criterion values for alternatives are interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The method proposed here can provide a useful way to efficiently help the decision-maker to make his decision. An illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Samidurai R.,Periyar University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2010

In this paper, we study the global exponential stability of time-delayed stochastic bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses and Markovian jumping parameters. A generalized activation function is considered, and traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of activation functions are removed. We obtain a new set of sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensures the global exponential stability of the unique equilibrium point for stochastic BAM neural networks with impulses. The Lyapunov function method with the Itô differential rule is employed for achieving the required result. Moreover, a numerical example is provided to show that the proposed result improves the allowable upper bound of delays over some existing results in the literature. © 2010 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Devaraj D.,Kalasalingam University | Ganesh Kumar P.,Anna University
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2010

An important issue in the design of FRBS is the formation of fuzzy if-then rules and the membership functions. This paper presents a Mixed Genetic Algorithm (MGA) approach to obtain the optimal rule set and the membership function of the fuzzy classifier. While applying genetic algorithm for fuzzy classifier design, the membership functions are represented as real numbers and the fuzzy rules are represented as binary string. Modified forms of crossover and mutation operators are proposed to deal with the mixed string. The proposed genetic operators help to improve the convergence of GA and accuracy of the classifier. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated through development of fuzzy classifier for seven standard data sets. From the simulation study it is found that the proposed algorithm produces a fuzzy classifier with minimum number of rules and high classification accuracy. Statistical analysis of the test results shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the existing methods. © 2010 Imperial College Press.

Gayathri T.,Anna University | Kavitha S.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Kaliappan S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2015

In this investigation, the application of citric acid was explored for the removal of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from waste activated sludge (WAS), followed by ultrasonic pretreatment, which enhanced the subsequent anaerobic biodegradability. EPS was removed with 0.05 g/g SS of citric acid. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and suspended solids (SS) reduction that occurred for specific energy input of 171.9 kJ/kg TS, in deflocculated (EPS removed and ultrasonically pretreated) sludges were found to be 22.70% and 20.28% and was comparatively higher, than the flocculated (with EPS and ultrasonically pretreated). The biogas yield potential of flocculated and deflocculated sludges (specific energy input - 171.9 kJ/kg TS) was found to be 0.212 L/(g VS) and 0.435 L/(g VS), respectively. Accordingly, the deflocculation and ultrasonic pretreatment improved the anaerobic biodegradability efficiently. Thus, this chemo mediated sonic pretreatment is an effective method for enhancing biodegradability and improving clean energy generation from WAS. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ravichandran C.G.,RVS College of Engineering and Technology | Magudeeswaran V.,Anna University
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2012

Problem statement: Image enhancement improves an image appearance by increasing dominance of some features or by decreasing ambiguity between different regions of the image. Histogram based image enhancement technique is mainly based on equalizing the histogram of the image and increasing the dynamic range corresponding to the image. Approach: Histogram Equalization is widely used in different ways to perform contrast enhancement in images. As a result, such image creates side-effects such as washed out appearance and false contouring due to the significant change in brightness. In order to overcome these problems, mean brightness preserving Histogram Equalization based techniques have been proposed. Generally, these methods partition the histogram of the original image into sub histograms and then independently equalize each sub histogram with Histogram Equalization. Results: The comparison of recent histogram based techniques is presented for contrast enhancement in low illumination environment and the experiment results are collected using low light environment images. Conclusion: The histogram modification algorithm is simple and computationally effective that makes it easy to implement and use in real time systems. © 2012 Science Publications.

Chandrasekar M.,Anna University | Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Senthilkumar T.,Anna University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Experimental investigations on thermophysical properties and forced convective heat transfer characteristics of various nanofluids are reviewed and the mechanisms proposed for the alteration in their values or characteristics due to the addition of nanoparticles are summarized in this review. A comprehensive review on the experimental works on specific application of nanofluids is also presented. As the literature in this area is spread over a span of two decades, this review could be useful for researchers to have an accurate screening of wide range of experimental investigations on thermophysical properties, forced convective heat transfer characteristics, the mechanisms involved and applications of various nanofluids. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved.

Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ganesh R.,Anna University | Suganya S.,Anna University
Reports on Mathematical Physics | Year: 2012

The concept of controllability plays an important role in analysis and design of linear and nonlinear control systems. Further, fractional differential equations have wide applications in engineering and science. In this paper, the approximate controllability of neutral stochastic fractional integro-differential equation with infinite delay in a Hilbert space is studied. By using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem with stochastic analysis theory, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability of nonlinear fractional stochastic system under the assumption that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the obtained theory. © 2012 Polish Scientific Publishers.

Udayakumar T.,Anna University | Raja K.,Anna University | Afsal Husain T.M.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Sathiya P.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Friction welding finds widespread industrial use as a mass production process for joining materials. Friction welding process allows welding of several materials that are extremely difficult to fusion weld. Friction welding process parameters play a significant role in making good quality joints. To produce a good quality joint it is important to set up proper welding process parameters. This can be done by employing optimization techniques. This paper presents a multi objective optimization method for optimizing the process parameters during friction welding process. The proposed method combines the response surface methodology (RSM) with an intelligent optimization algorithm, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA). Corrosion resistance and impact strength of friction welded super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) (UNS S32760) joints were investigated considering three process parameters: friction force (F), upset force (U) and burn off length (B). Mathematical models were developed and the responses were adequately predicted. Direct and interaction effects of process parameters on responses were studied by plotting graphs. Burn off length has high significance on corrosion current followed by upset force and friction force. In the case of impact strength, friction force has high significance followed by upset force and burn off length. Multi objective optimization for maximizing the impact strength and minimizing the corrosion current (maximizing corrosion resistance) was carried out using GA with the RSM model. The optimization procedure resulted in the creation of nondominated optimal points which can aid the process operator to fix the input control variables. The selection of a point from the Pareto front will always be a trade-off between the corrosion resistance and impact strength of the weld depending on the application. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

This paper presents some novel results on robust stabilization and H ∞ control design for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with time-varying delays. The GRNs under consideration are subject to stochastic noise, time-varying, and norm bounded parameter uncertainties. By constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional that contains some novel triple summation terms, we propose a state feedback gene controller to guarantee that the considered GRN is mean-square asymptotically stable about its equilibrium point for all admissible uncertainties. The other issue is to design a H ∞ feedback gene controller so that the GRN is robustly stable with a prescribed H ∞ disturbance attenuation level for all admissible uncertainties and for all delays to satisfy both the lower bound and upper bound of the interval time-varying delay. The obtained conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified via the LMI toolbox. Finally, the control scheme has been implemented in a gene network model to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the obtained results. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.

Uma Rani R.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Kaliappan S.,Anna University | Yeom I.-T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

An investigation into the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment on sludge reduction in a semi-continuous anaerobic reactor was performed. Firstly, effect of sludge pretreatment was evaluated by COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production. At optimized condition (60. °C with pH 12), COD solubilization, suspended solids, reduction and biogas production was 23%, 22% and 51% higher than the control, respectively. Secondly, semi-continuous process performance was studied in a lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactor (5. L), with 4. L working volume. With three operated SRTs, the SRT of 15. days was found to be most appropriate for economic operation of the reactor. Combining pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 80.5%, 117% and 90.4% of TS, SS and VS reduction respectively, with an improvement of 103% in biogas production. Thus, low temperature thermo-chemical can play an important role in reducing sludge production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Canadian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we present some novel results for robust passivity of a class of uncertain discrete-time Markovian jumping genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with time-varying delays. By constructing a new set of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, together with the matrix inequality technique, we provide a new set of results for the passiveness, and also ensure the mean-square asymptotical stability (internally) of the considered GRNs about their equilibrium points for all time delays satisfying both the lower bound and upper bound of the interval time-varying delay. Further, the obtained results are extended to deal with the robust passiveness of the considered GRNs for all admissible uncertainties. The obtained conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified via the LMI toolbox. Finally, numerical examples with simulation results are provided for the GRN model to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the theory. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Marshal Anthoni S.,Anna University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2012

This Letter addresses the stability analysis problem for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic fuzzy neural networks (DSFNNs) with time-varying delays. By constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with the free weighting matrix technique, a new set of delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the robust exponential stability of the considered DSFNNs is established in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Finally, numerical examples with simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the obtained theory. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

This paper provides a novel result on robust exponential stability for a class of uncertain discrete-time switched fuzzy neural networks (DSFNNs) with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties. By implementing an average dwell time approach with a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, we obtain some delay-dependent sufficient conditions guaranteeing the robust exponential stability of the considered switched fuzzy neural networks. In other words, a class of switching signals specified by the average dwell time is identified to guarantee the exponential stability of the considered DSFNNs. The obtained conditions are formulated in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily verified via the LMI toolbox. Finally, numerical examples with simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the obtained results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Suganya S.,Anna University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

A class of dynamic control systems described by nonlinear fractional stochastic differential equations in Hilbert spaces is considered. Using fixed point technique, fractional calculations, stochastic analysis technique and methods adopted directly from deterministic control problems, a new set of sufficient conditions for approximate controllability of fractional stochastic differential equations is formulated and proved. In particular, we discuss the approximate controllability of nonlinear fractional stochastic control system under the assumptions that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable. The results in this paper are generalization and continuation of the recent results on this issue. An example is provided to show the application of our result. Finally as a remark, the compactness of semigroup is not assumed and subsequently the conditions are obtained for exact controllability result. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Durairaj M.,Tagore Engineering College | Gowri S.,Anna University
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

Micro turning is a process by which micro components can be produced.This paper deals with CNC Micro turning of Inconel 600 alloy with titanium carbide coated tool. Machining is done in DT-110 integrated multiprocessor micro machine tool.Micro turning is carried out with full factorial experiments with various combinations of cutting parameters such as speed (25,31, and 37 m/min), feed (5,10, and 15 um/rev) and depth of cut (30,50 and 70 um). For every set of experiments, the output parameters such as the tool wear and the surface roughness are measured. Non-linear regression model is used to represent relationship between input and output variables and a multi-objective optimization method based genetic algorithm is used to optimize the cutting parameters in turning process such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. Two conflicting objectives such as tool wear and surface roughness are simultaneously optimized. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Naayagi R.T.,Anna University | Forsyth A.J.,University of Manchester | Shuttleworth R.,University of Manchester
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper contributes to the steady-state analysis of the bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter by proposing a new model that produces equations for rms and average device currents, and rms and peak inductor/transformer currents. These equations are useful in predicting losses that occur in the devices and passive components and aid in the converter design. An analysis of zero-voltage switching (ZVS) boundaries for buck and boost modes while considering the effect of snubber capacitors on the DAB converter is also presented. The proposed model can be used to predict the converter efficiency at any desired operating point. The new model can serve as an important teaching-cum-research tool for DAB hardware design (devices and passive components selection), soft-switching-operating range estimation, and performance prediction at the design stage. The operation of the DAB dc-dc converter has been verified through extensive simulations. A DAB converter prototype was designed on the basis of the proposed model and was built for an aerospace energy storage application. Experimental results are presented to validate the new model for a 7kW, 390/180V, 20kHz converter operation and the ZVS boundary operation. © 2012 IEEE.

Chandrasekar M.,Anna University | Suresh S.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Senthilkumar T.,Anna University | Ganesh Karthikeyan M.,Anna University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

In common, PV module converts only 4-17% of the incoming solar radiation into electricity. Thus more than 50% of the incident solar energy is converted as heat and the temperature of PV module is increased. The increase in module temperature in turn decreases the electrical yield and efficiency of the module with a permanent structural damage of the module due to prolonged period of thermal stress (also known as thermal degradation of the module). An effective way of improving efficiency and reducing the rate of thermal degradation of a PV module is to reduce the operating temperature of PV module. This can be achieved by cooling the PV module during operation. Hence in the present work, a simple passive cooling system with cotton wick structures is developed for standalone flat PV modules. The thermal and electrical performance of flat PV module with cooling system consisting of cotton wick structures in combination with water, Al2O3/water nanofluid and CuO/water nanofluid are investigated experimentally. The experimental results are also compared with the thermal and electrical performance of flat PV module without cooling system.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arthanareeswaran G.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Kumar S.A.,Anna University
Journal of Porous Materials | Year: 2010

Asymmetric micro porous membranes have been prepared successfully from blending of cellulose acetate (CA) and polyethersulfone (PES) by the phase inversion method with N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. Two additives were selected in this study, including polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effects of concentration of additives on CA/PES blend membrane performance and cross-section morphology were investigated in detail. CA/PES membranes were compared with CA/PES/PEG and CA/PES/PVP membranes in the performance such as pure water flux, membrane resistance, porosity and cross-section morphology. The resulting blend membranes were also carried out the rejection and permeate flux of Egg Albumin (EA) proteins with molecular weight of 45 Da. The membranes thus obtained with an additive concentration of 5 wt% of both PEG and PVP exhibited superior properties than the 80/20% blend composition of CA and PES membranes. The permeate flux of protein was increased from 44 to 134 lm2 h with increase in concentrations of both PVP and PEG in 80/20% blend composition of CA and PES membranes. Cross-sectional images from scanning electron microscopy showed larger macropores in the bottom layer of the membranes with increasing additives content. Observations from scanning electron microscopy provided qualitative evidence for the trends obtained for permeability and porosity results. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Marshal Anthoni S.,Anna University
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2014

In this paper, we consider the problem of robust exponential stability for a class of uncertain switched delayed neutral-type neural networks with an H∞ performance level γ>0. Further, the result is extended to design an H∞ control law to ensure the robust exponential stabilization of the closed-loop neural networks about its equilibrium point with the guaranteed H∞ performance level γ, for all norm bounded parameter uncertainties. On the basis of a new set of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, linear matrix inequality technique, and average dwell time approach, a set of novel sufficient conditions is derived for the existence of H∞ performance and as well as existence of H∞ control problem. The obtained results are derived in the form of convex optimization problems, which can be solved easily by the standard Matlab control toolbox. Numerical examples with simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pachamuthu M.P.,Anna University | Shanthi K.,Anna University | Luque R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Ramanathan A.,University of Kansas
Green Chemistry | Year: 2013

A novel wormhole structured mesoporous material containing tin, SnTUD-1, was prepared by a direct hydrothermal synthesis method using triethanolamine (TEA) as an organic inexpensive mesoporous structure directing agent. XRD and N2 sorption studies of SnTUD-1 confirmed the amorphous mesoporous nature of SnTUD-1, which possessed a large surface area of 555 m2 g-1 and a pore diameter of 7.4 nm. HR-TEM further ascertained the disordered pores in their morphology and the presence of nano-domains of SnO2 species. The nature of the Sn4+ ion co-ordination with the silica matrix was evaluated by using different techniques including diffuse reflectance UV-Vis, FTIR, 29Si MAS NMR and XPS. SnTUD-1 had an interesting Lewis acidity as measured by FTIR of pyridine adsorption which provided excellent activities in one-pot three-component Mannich-type reactions of ketones with aldehydes and amines at room temperature. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mathiyalagan K.,Yeungnam University | Park J.H.,Yeungnam University | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Anthoni S.M.,Anna University
Signal Processing | Year: 2014

This paper deals with the problem of mixed Hinfin; and passive filter design for Markovian jump impulsive networked control systems with norm bounded uncertainties and random packet dropouts. The system under consideration is modeled by means of an impulsive subsystem, and the network-induced imperfections like packet dropout and delay are described by a Bernoulli distributed white sequence. The delay in the model is assumed to be time-varying. The mode-dependent conditions are established to guarantee the filtering error system to be robustly stochastically stable and achieve a prescribed mixed Hinfin; and passivity performance index. The sufficient conditions for the existence of admissible filters are expressed by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and convex optimization problem. The corresponding filter parameters can be obtained by solving the set of LMIs, which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed filter design. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kavitha S.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Kaliappan S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering | Yeom I.T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

The significance of citric acid, a cation binding agent, was investigated for the exclusion of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from waste activated sludge (WAS) and anaerobic biodegradability following enzymatic bacterial pretreatment. EPS was removed with 0.05. g/g SS of citric acid. The results of pretreatment found that the suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilisation were 21.4% and 16.2% for deflocculated-bacterially pretreated sludge, 14.28% and 10.0% for flocculated sludge (without EPS removal and bacterially pretreated) and 8.5% and 6.5% for control sludge (raw sludge), respectively. Further assessing anaerobic biodegradability, the biogas yield potential of deflocculated and bacterially pretreated, flocculated, and control sludges were found to be 0.455. L/(g VS), 0.343. L/(g VS), and 0.209. L/(g VS), respectively. Thus, phase-separated disintegration enhanced anaerobic biodegradability efficiently. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kavitha S.,Anna University | Jayashree C.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Yeom I.T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

In this study, the role of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was explored for the removal of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from waste activated sludge (WAS) followed by enzymatic bacterial pretreatment, which enhanced the subsequent anaerobic biodegradability. EPS was removed with 0.02. g/g SS of SDS. In the results of pretreatment, the suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilization were found to be 25.7% and 19.79% for deflocculated and bacterially pretreated sludge, whereas they were found to be 15.7% and 11% for flocculated sludge (without EPS removal and bacterially pretreated) and 7.85% and 6% for control sludge (raw sludge), respectively. Upon examining the anaerobic biodegradability, the biogas yield potential of deflocculated and bacterially pretreated, flocculated, deflocculated alone, and control sludges were found to be 0.467. L/(g. VS), 0.355. L/(g. VS), 0.315. L/(g. VS), and 0.212. L/(g. VS), respectively. Thus, the deflocculation and bacterial pretreatment improved the anaerobic biodegradability efficiently. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Vadivel P.,Kongu Engineering College | Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Thangaraj P.,Bannari Amman Institute of Technology
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2012

This study addresses the issue of robust H∞ control for a class of uncertain Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems with distributed time delay and non-linear perturbations. By employing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional together with linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, a new set of delay-dependent conditions are derived to achieve the robust stabilisation of uncertain fuzzy systems for a prescribed disturbance attenuation level γ>0. The state feedback H∞ control law can be obtained by solving the corresponding LMIs. Further, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. The results reveal that the proposed theory significantly improve the allowable upper bounds of the delays over some existing results. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Sakthivel R.,Sungkyunkwan University | Mathiyalagan K.,Anna University | Marshal Anthoni S.,Anna University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2012

In the last few years, the H∞ control problem has attracted much attention because of its both practical and theoretical importance. This study presents a robust H∞ control design approach for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays. The neural network under consideration is subject to time-varying and norm bounded parameter uncertainties. For the robust stabilisation problem, a state feedback controller is designed to ensure global robust stability of the closed-loop form of neural network about its equilibrium point for all admissible uncertainties. In addition, to the requirement of the global robust stability, a prescribed H∞ performance level for all delays to satisfy both the lower bound and upper bound of the interval time-varying delay is required to be obtained. Through construction of a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a robust H∞ control scheme is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The controller gains can be derived by solving a set of LMIs. Finally, numerical examples with simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Poornima Devi T.,Anna University | Vimala Ebenezer A.,Anna University | Adish Kumar S.,Anna University | Kaliappan S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Excess sludge disintegration by energy intensive processes like mechanical pretreatment is considered to be high in cost. In this study, an attempt has been made to disintegrate excess sludge by disperser in a cost effective manner by deflocculating the sludge using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at a concentration of 0.04. g/g SS. The disperser pretreatment was effective at a specific energy input of 5013. kJ/kg. TS where deflocculated sludge showed higher chemical oxygen demand solubilisation and suspended solids reduction of 26% and 22.9% than flocculated sludge and was found to be 18.8% and 18.6% for former and latter respectively. Higher accumulation of volatile fatty acid (700. mg/L) in deflocculated sludge indicates better hydrolysis of sludge by proposed method. The anaerobic biodegradability resulted in higher biogas production potential of 0.522. L/(g. VS) for deflocculated sludge. Cost analysis of the study showed 43% net energy saving in deflocculated sludge. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Arulazhagan P.,University of Suwon | Vasudevan N.,Anna University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and are derived from both man-made and natural resources. The present study is focused on the degradation of PAHs by a halotolerant bacterial strain under saline conditions. The bacterial strain VA1 was isolated from a PAH-degrading consortium that was enriched from marine water samples that were collected from different sites at Chennai, India. In the present study, a clearing zone formed on PAH-amended mineral salt agar media confirmed the utilization of PAH by the bacterial strain VA1. The results show that the strain VA1 was able to degrade anthracene (88%), phenanthrene (98%), naphthalene (90%), fluorene (97%), pyrene (84%), benzo(k)fluoranthene (57%) and benzo(e)pyrene (50%) at a 30. g/L NaCl concentration. The present study reveals that the VA1 strain was able to degrade PAHs in petroleum wastewater under saline conditions. The promising PAH-degrading halotolerant bacterial strain, VA1, was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. using biochemical and molecular techniques. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Subhashini S.V.,Anna University | Samuel N.,Anna University | Pop I.,Technical University of Cluj Napoca
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

The present study deals with new similarity solution of steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a permeable surface for convective boundary condition. It has been shown that a self similar solution is possible when the mass transfer velocity at the surface of the plate varies like x-1/2, where x is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Two point boundary value problem governed by non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations have been solved numerically using implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique. It is interesting to note that dual solutions exist for buoyancy assisting flow, besides that usually reported in literature for buoyancy opposing flow. Further, the buoyancy assisting force causes considerable overshoot in the velocity profile and the Prandtl number strongly affects the thermal boundary layer thickness including the surface heat transfer rate. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Subhashini S.V.,Anna University | Samuel N.,Anna University | Pop I.,Technical University of Cluj Napoca
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

The objective of the present study is to investigate the simultaneous effects of thermal and concentration diffusions on a mixed convection boundary layer flow over a permeable surface under convective surface boundary condition. Using the local similarity method, it has been shown that a set of suitable similarity transformations reduce the non-linear coupled partial differential equations governing the flow, thermal and concentration fields into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations. Next, two point boundary value problem for non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations have been solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique. It is interesting to note that dual solutions exist for buoyancy assisting flow, besides that usually reported in literature for buoyancy opposing flow. Further, the buoyancy assisting force causes considerable overshoot in the velocity profile. Prandtl and Schmidt numbers strongly affect the thermal and concentration boundary layer thicknesses, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Rajaram A.,Karpagam College of Engineering | Gopinath S.,Anna University
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

Mobile Ad hoc Network is the indivisible part of wireless network. In the past few years, the popularity of MANET grows unlimitedly. Due to the presence of mobility and infrastructure less topology, the vulnerability of ad hoc networks is introduced unconditionally. So the failures of link, path and node may occur which leads to lack of communication between the users. Sometimes the malicious attackers arise to make more damage to network connectivity and produce false information among the mobile nodes. To overcome this issue, several approaches are developed to make more efficient routing. But they have not focused on failures of node, link and path as well as malicious activities at a time. We proposed Optimized Multicast Routing Scheme (OMRS) to attain balance between the above said issues. In first phase of this scheme, we develop the detection and avoidance of malicious attacks is implemented with the predetermined trust value of node characteristics. We have also introduced the characteristics of malicious attacks in linear network systems. In second phase, stability ratio of link, path and node is determined to maintain threshold value which ensures the resilience to the path failures. By implementing these solutions, we have achieved better stability and node connectivity towards the ultimate goal of multicast routing scheme. We implement our proposed scheme within Network Simulator (NS2.34) tool environment. By using the extensive simulation results, the proposed scheme achieves better delivery ratio, detection ratio, probability of failure occurrence and less communication overhead, end to end delay than the ODMRP, BDP. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

Banu M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Sivasanker S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Sankaranarayanan T.M.,Anna University | Venuvanalingam P.,Bharathidasan University
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2011

The hydrogenolysis of sorbitol (15% aqueous solution) was carried out at 60 bar pressure at 220 °C in a stirred batch reactor using Ni-NaY (2, 4, 6 wt.% Ni) with and without added Pt(1 wt.%). 1,2-Propanediol was the major product over Ni-NaY and glycerol was the main product over Pt(1 wt.%)-NaY. The addition of 1 wt.% Pt to the Ni-catalysts had only a marginal effect on conversion and selectivity of the catalysts. Addition of Ca(OH) 2 as the promoter to both Ni and Pt catalysts increased the conversion significantly without any significant effect on selectivity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rajesh Kumar M.,Annamalai University | Murugadoss G.,Anna University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2014

High quality and monodispersed CdS:Mn (1-5%) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using PVP as surfactant. The structure and morphology of the CdS:Mn were investigated by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, UV-visible, PL, EPR and TG-DTA. XRD study was confirmed the formation cubic structured CdS:Mn nanoparticles. The optical absorption of Mn doped CdS nanoparticles was found to be 420-432 nm, which is significantly decreased from the bulk CdS material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the CdS:Mn nanocrystals showed a strong emission peak at 535 nm near the band edge along with a week green emission around 575 nm. The PL property of annealed (255 C-850 C) samples was also investigated under different excitations. The presence of PVP on the CdS:Mn surface and incorporated the Mn ion into CdS lattice were identified by FT-IR and EPR spectroscopy, respectively. TEM result showed spherical with monodispersed particles with typical size of 3.8-4.3 nm, which is a favorable characteristic for many applications. The major weight loss and gain were found in the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which corresponds to the decomposition and oxidation of the samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Senthamarai R.,Annamalai University | Manoharan P.D.,Anna University | Gobinath D.,Annamalai University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2011

Concrete which contains waste products as aggregate is called 'Green' concrete. Use of hazardous waste in concrete-making will lead to green environment and sustainable concrete technology and so such concrete can also be called as 'Green' concrete. Concrete made with ceramic electrical insulator waste as coarse aggregate shows good workability, compressive, tensile and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticity. Further, study of its durability will ensure greater reliability in its usage. Permeation characters are used widely to quantify durability properties of concrete. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the permeation characteristics [volume of voids and water absorption (ASTM C642-06), chloride penetration (ASTM C1202-10), and sorption] of concrete with ceramic electrical insulator waste coarse aggregate (hereafter it is called recycled aggregate concrete) of six different water-cement ratios in comparison with those of corresponding conventional concrete mixes. From the results it has been observed that there is no significant change in the basic trend of permeation characteristics of this recycled aggregate concrete when compared to the conventional concrete. This recycled aggregate concrete possesses higher permeation characteristic values than those of conventional concrete. These values decrease with decrease in water-cement ratio for both the recycled aggregate concrete and the conventional concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Joseph Fernandus M.,Srinivasan Engineering College | Senthilkumar T.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

The principal difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg) and aluminium (Al) lies in the existence of formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region. However diffusion bonding can be used to join these alloys without much difficulty. In this investigation, an attempt was made to develop Temperature-Time and Pressure-Time diagrams for diffusion bonding of AZ80 magnesium (Mg) and AA6061 aluminium (Al) dissimilar materials. The bonding quality of the joints was checked by microstructure analysis and lap shear tensile testing. Based on the results Temperature-Time and Pressure-Time diagrams were constructed. These diagrams will act as reference maps for selecting appropriate diffusion bonding process parameters to join AZ80 magnesium alloy and AA6061 aluminium alloy without trial experiments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dhanapal A.,Sri Ramanujar Engineering College | Boopathy S.R.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

Magnesium (Mg) alloys shows the lowest density among other engineering metallic materials. As a consequence, this light alloy has a promising future. However, these alloys have great affinity for oxygen and other chemical oxidizing agents. The limitation of low corrosion resistance restricts their practical applications. Extruded Mg alloy plates of 6. mm thick of AZ61A grade were butt welded using friction stir welding (FSW) process. Corrosion behavior of the welds was evaluated by conducting salt fog test in NaCl solution at different chloride ion concentrations, pH value and spraying time. Also an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the corrosion rate of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy. Three factors and a central composite design were used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Response surface method was used to develop their relationship. The developed relationship can be effectively used to predict the corrosion rate of friction stir weld AZ61A magnesium alloy at 95% confidence level. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chidambaram L.A.,Annamalai University | Ramana A.S.,Sri Sai Ram Engineering College | Kamaraj G.,Annamalai University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Power shortage and unstable power supply remain serious problems. Conventional cooling technologies that utilize harmful refrigerants consume more energy and cause peak loads leading to negative environmental impacts. As the world grapples with the energy and environmental crisis, there is an urgent need to develop and promote environmentally benign sustainable cooling technologies. Solar cooling is one such promising technology, given the fact that solar energy is the cheapest and widely available renewable energy that matches the cooling load requirements. Thermal storage systems are essential to overcome the disadvantage of the intermittent nature of solar energy and variation in cooling demand. The enhanced utilization of solar energy and other consequences of thermal storage integrated systems have gained the attention of researchers in the recent years. This paper reviews research articles in the field of solar cooling techniques, solar collectors, storage methods and their integration, along with performance improvement studies reported using thermal stratification and cascaded thermal storage systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arulazhagan P.,University of Suwon | Vasudevan N.,Anna University
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

A halotolerant bacterial strain VA1 isolated from marine environment was studied for its ability to utilize polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under saline condition. Anthracene and pyrene were used as representatives for the utilization of PAH by the bacterial strain. Glucose and sodium citrate were used as additional carbon sources to enhance the PAH utilization. The strain VA1 was able to utilize anthracene (73%) and pyrene (66%) without any additional substrate. In the presence of additional carbon sources (glucose/sodium citrate) the utilization of PAH was faster. PAH was utilized faster by VA1 in the presence of glucose than sodium citrate. The stain utilized 87% and 83% of anthracene and pyrene with glucose as carbon source and with sodium citrate the strain utilized 81% and 76% respectively in 4 days. Urea as an alternative source of nitrogen also enhanced the utilization of PAHs (anthracene and pyrene) by the bacterial strain up to 88% and 84% in 4 days. Sodium nitrate as nitrogen source was not able to enhance the PAH utilization rate. Phenotypic and phlyogenetic analysis proved that the PAHs utilizing halotolerant strain VA1 belongs to Ochrobactrum sp. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Quade J.,University of Arizona | Eiler J.,California Institute of Technology | Daeron M.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Achyuthan H.,Anna University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013

We studied both modern soils and buried paleosols in order to understand the relationship of temperature (T°C(47)) estimated from clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) of soil carbonates to actual surface and burial temperatures. Carbonates from modern soils with differing rainfall seasonality were sampled from Arizona, Nevada, Tibet, Pakistan, and India. T°C(47) obtained from these soils shows that soil carbonate forms in the warmest months of the year, in the late morning to afternoon, and probably in response to intense soil dewatering. T°C(47) obtained from modern soil carbonate ranges from 10.8 to 39.5°C. On average, T°C(47) exceeds mean annual temperature by 10-15°C due to summertime bias in soil carbonate formation, and to summertime ground heating by incident solar radiation. Secondary controls on T°C(47) are soil depth and shading. Site mean annual air temperature (MAAT) across a broad range (0-30. °C) of site temperatures is highly correlated with T°C(47) from soils, following the equation:. MAAT(°C)=1.20(T°C(47)0)-21.72(r2=0.92)where T°C(47)0 is the effective air temperature at the site estimated from T°C(47). The effective air temperature represents the air temperature required to account for the T°C(47) at each site, after consideration of variations in T°C(47) with soil depth and ground heating. The highly correlated relationship in this equation should now permit mean annual temperature in the past to be reconstructed from T°C(47) in paleosol carbonate, assuming one is studying paleosols that formed in environments generally similar in seasonality and ground cover to our calibration sites.T°C(47)0 decreases systematically with elevation gain in the Himalaya, following the equation:elevation(m)=-229(T°C(47)0)+9300(r2=0.95)Assuming that temperature varied similarly with elevation in the past, this equation can be used to reconstruct paleoelevation from clumped isotope analysis of ancient soil carbonates. We also measured T°C(47) from long sequences of deeply buried (≤5km) paleosol carbonate in the Himalayan foreland in order to evaluate potential diagenetic resetting of clumped isotope composition. We found that paleosol carbonate faithfully records plausible soil T°C(47) down to 2.5-4km burial depth, or ∼90-125°C. Deeper than this and above this temperature, T°C(47) in paleosol carbonate is reset to temperatures >40°C. We observe ∼40°C as the upper limit for T°C(47) in modern soils from soil depths >25cm, and therefore that T°C(47) >40°C obtained from ancient soil carbonate indicates substantially warmer climate regimes compared to the present, or non-primary temperatures produced by resetting during diagenesis. If representative, this limits the use of T°C(47) to reconstruct ancient surface temperature to modestly buried (<3-4km) paleosol carbonates. Despite diagenetic resetting of Δ47 values, δ18O and δ13C values of the same deeply buried paleosol carbonate appear unaltered. We conclude that solid-state reordering or recrystallization of clumping of carbon and oxygen isotopes can occur in the absence of open-system exchange of paleosol carbonate with significant quantities of water or other phases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Sivatha Sindhu S.S.,Anna University | Geetha S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering | Kannan A.,Anna University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper is to construct a lightweight Intrusion Detection System (IDS) aimed at detecting anomalies in networks. The crucial part of building lightweight IDS depends on preprocessing of network data, identifying important features and in the design of efficient learning algorithm that classify normal and anomalous patterns. Therefore in this work, the design of IDS is investigated from these three perspectives. The goals of this paper are (i) removing redundant instances that causes the learning algorithm to be unbiased (ii) identifying suitable subset of features by employing a wrapper based feature selection algorithm (iii) realizing proposed IDS with neurotree to achieve better detection accuracy. The lightweight IDS has been developed by using a wrapper based feature selection algorithm that maximizes the specificity and sensitivity of the IDS as well as by employing a neural ensemble decision tree iterative procedure to evolve optimal features. An extensive experimental evaluation of the proposed approach with a family of six decision tree classifiers namely Decision Stump, C4.5, Naive Baye's Tree, Random Forest, Random Tree and Representative Tree model to perform the detection of anomalous network pattern has been introduced. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dhanapal A.,Sri Ramanujar Engineering College | Rajendra Boopathy S.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2012

Magnesium alloys have gained considerable interest as a structural material for automotive and aerospace applications due to its low-density, high specific strength and good castability. As a consequence, this light alloys have a promising future. The limitation of low corrosion resistance restricts their practical applications. The corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy welds was investigated by Immersion technique. Extruded Mg alloy plates of 6 mm thick of AZ61A grade were butt welded using friction stir welding (FSW) process. The present paper reveals the effect of pH, chloride ion concentration and immersion time on corrosion rate of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy welds in NaCl solution. The corrosion rate was evaluated from weight loss measurements. Furthermore, an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the effect of pH value, chloride ion concentration and immersion time on corrosion rate of AZ61A magnesium alloy welds. The corrosion morphology observation was carried out by optical microscopy and the corrosion products were analyzed by SEM and XRD analysis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Nanthagopal P.A.,Anna University | Sukanesh R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
IET Image Processing | Year: 2013

A computer software system is designed for segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography images. In this study, the authors present a method to select both dominant run length and cooccurrence texture features of wavelet approximation tumour region of each slice to be segmented by a support vector machine (SVM). Two-dimensional discrete wavelet decomposition is performed on the tumour image to remove the noise. The images considered for this study belong to 208 tumour slices. Seventeen features are extracted and six features are selected using Student's t-test. This study constructed the SVM and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers with the selected features. The classification accuracy of both classifiers are evaluated using the k fold cross validation method. The segmentation results are also compared with the experienced radiologist ground truth. Quantitative analysis between ground truth and the segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy and segmentation error. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying tumour slices efficiently and accurately. The experimental results show that the proposed SVM classifier is able to achieve high segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by sensitivity and specificity. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

Kanimozhi R.,Anna University | Selvi K.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

In electric power system, the line stability indices adopted in most of the instances laid stress on variation of reactive power than real power variation of the transmission line. In this paper, a proposal is made with the formulation of a New Voltage Stability Index (NVSI) which originates from the equation of a two bus network, neglecting the resistance of transmission line, resulting in appreciable variations in both real and reactive loading. The efficacy of the index and fuzzy based load flow are validated with IEEE 30 bus and Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) 69 bus system, a practical system in India. The results could prove that the identification of weak bus and critical line in both systems is effectively done. The weak area of the practical system and the contingency ranking with overloading either line or generator outages are found by conducting contingency analysis using NVSI.

Sreeja S.,Integrated Cancer Research Program | Santhosh Kumar T.R.,Integrated Cancer Research Program | Lakshmi B.S.,Anna University
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are estrogen receptor (ER) ligands exhibiting tissue-specific agonistic or antagonistic biocharacter and are used in the hormonal therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancers. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME). PME was evaluated for antiproliferative activity at 20-320 μg/ml on human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231) endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), ovarian (SKOV3) carcinoma and normal breast fibroblast (MCF-10A) cells. Competitive radioactive binding studies were carried out to ascertain whether PME interacts with ER. The reporter gene assay measured the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of PME in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells transiently transfected with plasmids coding estrogen response elements with a reporter gene (pG5-ERE-luc) and wild-type ERα (hEG0-ER). PME inhibited the binding of [ 3H] estradiol to ER and suppressed the growth and proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. PME binds ER and down-regulated the transcription of estrogen-responsive reporter gene transfected into breast cancer cells. The expressions of selected estrogen-responsive genes were down-regulated by PME. Unlike 17β-estradiol [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)] and tamoxifen (10 mg/kg BW), PME (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in ovariectomized mice and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PME displays a SERM profile and may have the potential for prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancers with beneficial effects in other hormone-dependent tissues. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Arulazhagan P.,University of Suwon | Vasudevan N.,Anna University | Yeom I.T.,University of Suwon
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The biodegradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene by a halotolerant bacterial consortium isolated from marine environment was investigated. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading bacterial consortium was enriched from mixture saline water samples collected from Chennai (Port of Chennai, salt pan), India. The consortium potently degraded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (> 95%) at 30g/L of sodium chloride concentration in 4 days. The consortium was able to degrade 39 to 45% of different polycyclic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration. Due to increase in salinity, the percent degradation decreased. To enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation, yeast extract was added as an additional substrate at 60g/L NaCl concentration. After the addition of yeast extract, the consortium degraded > 74% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration in 4 days. The consortium was also able to degrade PAHs at different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ppm) with 30 g/L of NaCl concentration. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading halotolerant bacterial consortium consists of three bacterial strains, namely Ochrobactrum sp., Enterobacter cloacae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.

Jeraldine Viji A.,Mailam Engg College | Aruldoss Albert Victoire T.,Anna University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014

This paper presents novel control strategy of a three-phase four-wire unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). It is used to improve power quality in distribution system. The UPQC is realized by the integration of series and parallel active power filter (SAPF and PAPF) sharing a common dc bus capacitor. The realization of parallel APF and series APF are carried out using a three-phase, three legs voltage source inverter (VSI) with split capacitor. In both APFs the fundamental source voltages and currents are extracted by synchronous reference frame technique. SAPF connected with the supply by series transformer. The secondary of series transformer is affected by load side short circuits. This paper also explains the control circuit for protection of series transformer against over voltage and over current. PAPF connected with the system by series inductance. The performance of the applied control algorithm of shunt active filter with series active filter is evaluated in terms of power-factor correction, load balancing, and mitigation of voltage and current harmonics in a three-phase four-wire distribution system for non-linear load, unbalanced supply and load conditions. Sinusoidal PWM current controller, modulated hysteresis current controller are used for generation of switching pulses to series and parallel APFs. The two control algorithm is simulated by use of MATLAB/Simulink-based environment and the obtained results validated through experimental study with the UPQC hardware prototype. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Karthikeyan S.,Indira Institute of Engineering and Technology | Ravikumar Solomon G.,Hindustan University | Kumaresan V.,Anna University | Velraj R.,Anna University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

The focus of the present work is to perform parametric studies on the performance of a packed bed storage unit filled with phase change material (PCM) encapsulated spherical containers, suitable for low temperature solar air heating applications. A parametric analysis was carried out using the validated enthalpy based numerical model that considers the thermal gradient inside the PCM container. The results of simulation analysis showed that the size of the PCM ball, fluid inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) influenced respectively the heat transfer area in the packed bed, temperature difference between the HTF and PCM and the surface convective heat transfer coefficient between the HTF and PCM balls. The poor thermal conductivity of the PCM has only negligible effect on heat transfer due to high surface convective resistance provided by the air. The influence of various parameters for the selected range of values were analyzed using the charging time, instantaneous heat stored and cumulative heat stored during the charging process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Subhashini S.V.,Anna University | Sumathi R.,Anna University | Pop I.,Technical University of Cluj Napoca
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The development of double-diffusive convection near stagnation point region over a stretching vertical surface with constant wall temperature has been investigated. The external flow and the stretching velocities are assumed to vary with x, where x is the distance from the slot where the stretching surface is issued. Using the local similarity method, it has been shown that a set of suitable similarity transformations reduces the non-linear coupled partial differential equations governing the flow, thermal and concentration fields into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations. The non-linear self-similar equations along with the boundary conditions form a two point boundary value problem and are solved using Shooting method, by converting into an initial value problem. In this method, the system of equations is converted into the set of first order system which is solved by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Flows with both assisting and opposing buoyancy forces are considered in the present investigation. The study reveals that the dual solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration exist for certain values of suction/injection and buoyancy parameters. Prandtl and Schmidt numbers strongly affect the thermal and concentration boundary layer thicknesses, respectively. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are also presented here. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Joseph Fernandus M.,Srinivasan Engineering College | Senthilkumar T.,Anna University | Balasubramanian V.,Annamalai University | Rajakumar S.,Annamalai University
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The main difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg) and aluminium (Al) alloys lies in the existence of formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region. However diffusion bonding is a suitable process to join these two materials. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, holding time and surface roughness of the bond specimen play a major role to determine the joint strength. In this investigation an attempt was made to develop empirical relationships to predict the lap shear strength and bonding strength of diffusion bonding of AZ31B magnesium and AA6061 aluminium alloys, incorporating above said parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimise the diffusion bonding process parameters to attain the maximum shear strength and bonding strength of the joint. From this investigation, it is found that the bonds fabricated with the bonding temperature of 430 °C, bonding pressure of 13.84. MPa, holding time of 32.50. min and surface roughness of 0.12 μm exhibited maximum shear strength and bonding strength of 49.39 and 70.04. MPa respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Laseetha T.S.J.,Anna University | Sukanesh R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation | Year: 2012

This paper presents the use of biogeography-based optimisation (BBO) algorithm for uniform linear antenna array (ULA) synthesis using amplitude only control method. BBO is a new evolutionary algorithm (EA) proposed by Dan Simon in the year 2008. The first objective of this paper is to optimise the excitation magnitude of array elements to minimise the maximum side lobe levels. Second objective is to place nulls at specific directions for the optimised pattern by optimising a weight parameter. We review classic BBO and modified biogeography-based optimisation (M-BBO) with two migration models namely linear and sinusoidal. Several simulation experiments are conducted on ULA using BBO techniques to minimise the maximum side lobe level (SLL) imposed with broad nulls. We compare the results of simulation case studies of classic BBO and M-BBO with other EAs such as ACO, GA and StudGA. Best performance is achieved using BBO techniques compared to other EAs for our design problem. The major aim of our investigation is to expose BBO to the EM community and demonstrate its great potential in antenna array design optimisation problem. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Kanna T.,Bishop Heber College | Vijayajayanthi M.,Anna University | Lakshmanan M.,Bharathidasan University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014

We derive a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system as the evolution equation for propagation of N-dispersive waves in weak Kerr-type nonlinear medium in the small-amplitude limit. The mixed- (bright-dark) type soliton solutions of a particular (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent LSRI system, deduced from the general multicomponent higher-dimensional LSRI system, are obtained by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method. Particularly, we show that the solitons in the LSRI system with two short-wave components behave like scalar solitons. We point out that for an N-component LSRI system with N>3, if the bright solitons appear in at least two components, interesting collision behavior takes place, resulting in energy exchange among the bright solitons. However, the dark solitons undergo standard elastic collision accompanied by a position shift and a phase shift. Our analysis on the mixed bound solitons shows that the additional degree of freedom which arises due to the higher-dimensional nature of the system results in a wide range of parameters for which the soliton collision can take place. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Padma Nanthagopal A.,Anna University | Sukanesh Rajamony R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Journal of Visualization | Year: 2013

Computational methods are useful for medical diagnosis because they provide additional information that cannot be obtained by simple visual interpretation. As a result, an enormous amount of computer vision research effort has been targeted at achieving automated medical image analysis. In this paper, we present the combination of wavelet statistical texture features (WST) obtained from two-level discrete wavelet-transformed (DWT) images and wavelet co-occurrence texture features (WCT) obtained from two-level DWT detail images for the classification of abnormal brain tissues into benign, malignant tumor of CT images. Our proposed system consists of four phases: (1) segmentation of region of interest, (2) discrete wavelet decomposition, (3) feature extraction and feature selection, and (4) classification and evaluation. The support vector machine is employed to segment the shape of tumor information. A combination of both WST and WCT texture features is extracted from tumor region of two-level discrete wavelet-transformed images. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted features. The probabilistic neural network classifier (PNN) is built to classify the abnormal brain tissues into benign, malignant tumor images and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the PNN classifier with linear vector quantization (LVQ) neural network classifier, back propagation neural network (BPN) classifier. The results of PNN, LVQ, BPN classifiers for the texture analysis methods are evaluated using statistical analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis. From the experimental results, it is inferred that the best classification performance is achieved by PNN than LVQ and BPN classifiers. The system has been tested with real data of 80 benign, malignant CT brain tumor images and has achieved satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2012 The Visualization Society of Japan.

Valan Rajkumar M.,Anna University | Manoharan P.S.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Solar Energy | Year: 2013

This paper presents the control for three-phase multilevel cascaded H-bridge inverter for photovoltaic (PV) system. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is capable of extracting maximum power from the PV array connected to each DC link voltage level. The MPPT algorithm is solved by perturbation and observation method (P&O). Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm uses a simple mapping to generate gate signals for the inverter. The location of the reference vector and time are easily determined. The adjustments of modulation index and phase angles are synthesized onto field programmable gate array (FPGA) by means of hardware description language (VHDL). A digital design of the generator SVPWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on FPGA. This is done to achieve high dynamic performance with low total harmonic distortion (THD). Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the implemented SVPWM control for PV system in terms of THD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Karthikeyan N.,Anna University | Sukanesh R.,Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2012

A hospital is a health care organization providing patient treatment by expert physicians, surgeons and equipments. A report from a health care accreditation group says that miscommunication between patients and health care providers is the reason for the gap in providing emergency medical care to people in need. In developing countries, illiteracy is the major key root for deaths resulting from uncertain diseases constituting a serious public health problem. Mentally affected, differently abled and unconscious patients can't communicate about their medical history to the medical practitioners. Also, Medical practitioners can't edit or view DICOM images instantly. Our aim is to provide palm vein pattern recognition based medical record retrieval system, using cloud computing for the above mentioned people. Distributed computing technology is coming in the new forms as Grid computing and Cloud computing. These new forms are assured to bring Information Technology (IT) as a service. In this paper, we have described how these new forms of distributed computing will be helpful for modern health care industries. Cloud Computing is germinating its benefit to industrial sectors especially in medical scenarios. In Cloud Computing, IT-related capabilities and resources are provided as services, via the distributed computing on-demand. This paper is concerned with sprouting software as a service (SaaS) by means of Cloud computing with an aim to bring emergency health care sector in an umbrella with physical secured patient records. In framing the emergency healthcare treatment, the crucial thing considered necessary to decide about patients is their previous health conduct records. Thus a ubiquitous access to appropriate records is essential. Palm vein pattern recognition promises a secured patient record access. Likewise our paper reveals an efficient means to view, edit or transfer the DICOM images instantly which was a challenging task for medical practitioners in the past years. We have developed two services for health care. 1. Cloud based Palm vein recognition system 2. Distributed Medical image processing tools for medical practitioners. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Lakshmanan T.,Rajarajeswari Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University
Energy | Year: 2010

The increase in demand and decrease in availability of fossil fuels with more stringent emission norms have led to research in finding an alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines. Among the alternative fuels, gaseous fuels find a great potential. The gaseous fuel taken up for the present study is acetylene, which possesses excellent combustion properties. Preignition is the major problem with this fuel. In the present study, timed manifold injection technique is adopted to induct the fuel into the IC engine. A four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine is selected, with slight modification in intake manifold for holding the gas injector, which is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU). By using an ECU, an optimized injection timing of 10° after top dead center and 90° crank angle duration are arrived. At this condition, experiments were conducted for the various gas flow rates of 110 g/s, 180 g/s and 240 g/s. The performance was nearer to diesel at full load. Oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission decreased due to lean operation with marginal increase in smoke emission. To conclude, a safe operation of acetylene replacement up to 24% was possible with reduction in emission parameters. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lakshmanan T.,Rajarajeswari Engineering College | Nagarajan G.,Anna University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2010

Depletion of fossils fuels and environmental degradation have prompted researchers throughout the world to search for a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engine. One such step is to utilize renewable fuels in diesel engines by partial or total replacement of diesel in dual fuel mode. In this study, acetylene gas has been considered as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engine, which has excellent combustion properties. Investigation has been carried out on a single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection (DI), compression ignition engine designed to develop the rated power output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm under variable load conditions, run on dual fuel mode with diesel as injected primary fuel and acetylene inducted as secondary gaseous fuel at various flow rates. Acetylene aspiration resulted in lower thermal efficiency. Smoke, HC and CO emissions reduced, when compared with baseline diesel operation. With acetylene induction, due to high combustion rates, NOx emission significantly increased. Peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise also increased in the dual fuel mode of operation due to higher flame speed. It is concluded that induction of acetylene can significantly reduce smoke, CO and HC emissions with a small penalty on efficiency. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ayou D.S.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bruno J.C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Saravanan R.,Anna University | Coronas A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper presents an overview of the absorption cycles proposed in the literature for producing combined power and cooling. The dual output nature of these cycles makes it difficult to evaluate their performance so the various criteria used in the literature are presented and discussed. A combined system that simultaneously produces power and cooling can adapt to the whole range of energy demand - from only power to only cooling - with intermediate operation modes producing different ratios of power and cooling. This type of cycle uses highly concentrated ammonia vapour in the expander which can be expanded to a very low temperature without condensation and uses an absorption-condensation process instead of the conventional condensation process. The main advantage of these configurations is that they enable low-grade heat such as solar energy or waste heat to be used. The most suitable combined power and cooling systems for applications characterised by small-to-medium power and cooling capacities seem to be those that are directly derived from high-performance absorption chiller cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Palanikumar K.,Sri Sairam Institute of Technology | Latha B.,Sri Sairam Engineering College | Senthilkumar V.S.,Anna University | Davim J.P.,University of Aveiro
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2012

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials are an economic alternative to the engineering materials because of their superior properties. The present work focuses on the use of Grey relational analysis for optimizing the drilling parameters on the surface roughness and the thrust force in the drilling of GFRP composites. Taguchi's L 9, 3-level orthogonal array is used for the experimentation. Optimal machining parameters are determined by the Grey relational grade obtained from the Grey relational analysis for multiperformance characteristics. Experimental results show that the machining performance in the composite machining process can be improved at optimal drilling conditions. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Senthil Rajan A.,Mohamed Sathak Polytechnic Kilakarai | Raja K.,Anna University | Marimuthu P.,Syed Ammal Engineering College
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

In this field a multi basin solar still is, used to heighten the productivity. The concept of integrating the multi basin still with biomass heat source is introduced in this research area. In the multi basin still heat exchanger is placed at the bottom end of the watershed region. The heat exchanger is connected to the biomass boiler heat source to create heat energy. This system increases the water temperature in the sword and also increases the productivity in the blade. The upper watershed is separated into small stepped basins. So the flat plate collector and stepped basin are used to increase the turnout in this work. The heat from lower basin is used by the upper basin for desalination. Experiments are conducted with various water depths. In this work the solar still behaves like a capacitor. A conventional still is fabricated and run parallel with the experimental setup for comparison. Sensible heat storage materials such as cement blocks, sand, glass eggs are added to the tail end and top basins to increase water temperature. Latent heat storage materials such as water, wax are introduced in the material body of small pellets to increase productivity. Biomass such as wood, wood wastes, palm wastes is tried in this workplace. A higher productivity is obtained for sensible storage materials when compared to latent heat storage. Theoretical analysis is performed by using RSM (response surface methodology) well agrees with experimental values. The efficiency of the system is compared with conventional still. Experiments are conducted in once flow mode, continuous stream mode and solar modes. Output from RSM are compared with experimental values for error analysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jeyabalan V.,Victory Electricals Ltd. | Usa S.,Anna University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2011

To locate the partial discharge in transformer windings, statistical techniques are proposed. The experimental studies are performed on a 22-kV prototype interleaved winding to prove the feasibility of the methods © 2011 IEEE.

Devika N.T.,Anna University | Jaffar Ali B.M.,Pondicherry University
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2013

The vascular endothelium, the intima of blood vessels, coordinately interacts with several biochemical factors expressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent endogenous vasodilator. The present study investigated the regulation of eNOS by multiple molecular signal transduction pathways, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and shear stress which are implicated in the process of angiogenesis and vascular remodelling respectively. In response to signal transduction upstream by VEGF-A and shear stress, different signalling pathways mediated by kinases and intracellular calcium potentiates eNOS activation leading to nitric oxide release. Our study revealed a distinct pattern of eNOS activation driven by VEGF-A and shear stress, maintaining the signalling specificity of the respective pathways. A transient response to eNOS activation was observed under VEGF-A and shear stress stimulus when mediated by calcium dependent cascades, whereas a sustained response was produced by calcium independent vascular signalling kinases. Furthermore, we found that the basal arterial shear stress enhanced eNOS activity when stimulated synergistically even at low VEGF-A levels which might be utilized to facilitate specific endothelial cell functions. Moreover, our study revealed that the presence of PI3K imparted transient behaviour to PLCγ1 supporting the hypothesis that regression and formation of tube structures are mediated by PLCγ1 and PI3K respectively in endothelial cells. This fact is corroborated by the absence of transient behaviour when PI3K is inhibited. We therefore obtained subtle insights into the control mechanism governing the role of specific signalling proteins which are obligate for the regulation of endothelial cell function and the consequent modulation of the nitric oxide release pattern. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Vengattaraman T.,Pondicherry University | Abiramy S.,Saradha Gangadharan College | Dhavachelvan P.,Pondicherry University | Baskaran R.,Anna University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Multi-agent systems (MAS) based computing is the most appropriate paradigm for the problem domain, where data, control, expertise or resources are distributed and also it is interesting to the user only if the technologies address the issues of interest to the user. The MAS has the hypothesis that the agent based computing offers better approach to manage the complex systems and process. They are large-scale systems and collaborate with one another to achieve their functions in a highly modular and flexible way. In this point of view, the work presented in this paper is an enhanced attempt to validate the MAS based on application perspective. As a test-bed, a distributed MAS for software testing is constructed such that to provide a hybrid testing environment based on variety of agents, which possibly incorporate several testing techniques. The developed framework is validated on two perspectives namely, efficiency of the application domain, i.e. software testing using MAS and efficiency of the proposed framework. The validation of the later case has been carried out on two conditions: regular working environment and exceptional working environment. The second type of validation provided the guidelines for implementing proper exception handling mechanism in the enhanced MAS, which is being developed for software testing Purpose. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Suchetha M.,Velammal Engineering College | Kumaravel N.,Anna University
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control | Year: 2013

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a vital sign monitoring measurement of the cardiac activity. One of the main problems in biomedical signals like electrocardiogram is the separation of the desired signal from noises caused by power line interference, muscle artifacts, baseline wandering and electrode artifacts. Different types of digital filters are used to separate signal components from unwanted frequency ranges. Adaptive filter is one of the primary methods to filter, because it does not need the signal statistic characteristics. In contrast with Fourier analysis and wavelet methods, a new technique called EMD, a fully data-driven technique is used. It is an adaptive method well suited to analyze biomedical signals. This paper foregrounds an empirical mode decomposition based two-weight adaptive filter structure to eliminate the power line interference in ECG signals. This paper proposes four possible methods and each have less computational complexity compared to other methods. These methods of filtering are fully a signal-dependent approach with adaptive nature, and hence it is best suited for denoising applications. Compared to other proposed methods, EMD based direct subtraction method gives better SNR irrespective of the level of noises. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Palanisamy B.,Anna University | Babu C.M.,Anna University | Sundaravel B.,Anna University | Anandan S.,International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy And New Materials | Murugesan V.,Anna University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Photosensitization of TiO2 with other transition metal oxides can extend its light absorption property in the visible region. Such materials could emerge as excellent catalysts for solar photocatalytic degradation. In the present study mesoporous Fe2O3/TiO2 (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90wt% Fe2O3) photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel process and characterized using different techniques. The XRD patterns exhibited the presence of mesoporous structure and isomorphic substitution of Fe3+ in TiO2 at low Fe3+ loading and Ti4+ in Fe2O3 at high Fe3+ loading. The XPS results revealed the presence of Ti4+ and Fe3+ in Fe2O3/TiO2 materials. The DRS UV-vis spectra showed a shift in the band gap excitation of TiO2 to longer wavelength, thus illustrating incorporation of Fe3+ in TiO2. In addition, free TiO2 and Fe2O3 particles were also present. Their photocatalytic activity was tested for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous medium using sunlight. The activity of the catalysts followed the order: meso-30wt% Fe2O3/TiO2>meso-10wt% Fe2O3/TiO2>meso-50wt% Fe2O3/TiO2>meso-70 Fe2O3/TiO2>meso-90wt% Fe2O3/TiO2>meso-Fe2O3>meso-TiO2. This order concluded that mesoporous Fe2O3/TiO2 could be an active catalyst for pollutant degradation, as TiO2 with framework Fe3+ and photosensitization with free Fe2O3 were involved in the activity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rajendran V.K.,Anna University | Bakthavathsalam P.,Anna University | Bakthavathsalam P.,Chandigarh Institute of Microbial Technology | Jaffar Ali B.M.,Pondicherry University
Microchimica Acta | Year: 2014

We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 105 cfu mL−1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Jothi P.R.,Anna University | Kannan S.,Anna University | Velayutham G.,Sainergy Fuel Cell India Private Ltd
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2015

Non-precious NiMoO4 nanorods with carbon and graphene have been designed for methanol oxidation via one pot hydrothermal method. The physicochemical and electrocatalytic features of these catalysts are characterized. Among the three catalysts, carbon modified NiMoO4 shows an enhanced catalytic activity in terms of current density, onset potential, cyclic stability and high tolerance to intermediate towards methanol electro-oxidation. Moreover, the NiMoO4/C catalyst delivers a current density of 49 mA cm-2 at low onset potential of 0.45 V (vs. Hg/HgO) in 1 M KOH and 2.0 M methanol electrolyte. This greater electrocatalytic activity is attributed to the unique 1D microstructure of NiMoO4 nanorods with well distributed carbonaceous material, which enhances the efficient transport of electron/ion kinetics at the electrode and electrolyte interfaces. From this observation, it is concluded that the carbon modified NiMoO4 nanorods could be a promising alternate non-noble electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Padmavathy B.,Anna University | Vinoth Kumar R.,Anna University | Jaffar Ali B.M.,Pondicherry University
Journal of Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2012

Background: In situation like diagnosis of clinical and forensic samples there exists a need for highly sensitive, rapid and specific DNA detection methods. Though conventional DNA amplification using PCR can provide fast results, it is not widely practised in diagnostic laboratories partially because it requires skilled personnel and expensive equipment. To overcome these limitations nanoparticles have been explored as signalling probes for ultrasensitive DNA detection that can be used in field applications. Among the nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively used mainly because of its optical property and ability to get functionalized with a variety of biomolecules.Results: We report a protocol for the use of gold nanoparticles functionalized with single stranded oligonucleotide (AuNP- oligo probe) as visual detection probes for rapid and specific detection of Escherichia coli. The AuNP- oligo probe on hybridization with target DNA containing complementary sequences remains red whereas test samples without complementary DNA sequences to the probe turns purple due to acid induced aggregation of AuNP- oligo probes. The color change of the solution is observed visually by naked eye demonstrating direct and rapid detection of the pathogenic Escherichia coli from its genomic DNA without the need for PCR amplification. The limit of detection was ~54 ng for unamplified genomic DNA. The method requires less than 30 minutes to complete after genomic DNA extraction. However, by using unamplified enzymatic digested genomic DNA, the detection limit of 11.4 ng was attained. Results of UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement and AFM imaging further support the hypothesis of aggregation based visual discrimination. To elucidate its utility in medical diagnostic, the assay was validated on clinical strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from local hospitals and spiked urine samples. It was found to be 100% sensitive and proves to be highly specific without any cross reaction with non-Escherichia coli strains.Conclusion: This work gives entry into a new class of DNA/gold nanoparticles hybrid materials which might have optical property that can be controlled for application in diagnostics. We note that it should be possible to extend this strategy easily for developing new types of DNA biosensor for point of care detection. The salient feature of this approach includes low-cost, robust reagents and simple colorimetric detection of pathogen. © 2012 Padmavathy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ganeshkumar M.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sathishkumar M.,Anna University | Ponrasu T.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Dinesh M.G.,Thanthai Hansroever College | Suguna L.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2013

Rapid synthesis of mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles through economically feasible green chemistry approach is highly desirable. In this study,