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Liberzon I.,Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center | Liberzon I.,University of Michigan | McCabe K.,George Mason University | Phan K.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Phan K.L.,Jesse Brown Medical Center
Depression and Anxiety | Year: 2013

Objective Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear of public scrutiny and reticence in social engagement. Previous studies have probed the neural basis of GSAD often using static, noninteractive stimuli (e.g., face photographs) and have identified dysfunction in fear circuitry. We sought to investigate brain-based dysfunction in GSAD during more real-world, dynamic social interactions, focusing on the role of reward-related regions that are implicated in social decision-making. Methods Thirty-six healthy individuals (healthy control [HC]) and 36 individuals with GSAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while participating in a behavioral economic game ("Trust Game") involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire differential reputations for reciprocity. We investigated brain responses to reciprocation of trust in one's social partner, and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. Results In both HC and GSAD, receipt of reciprocity robustly engaged ventral striatum, a region implicated in reward. In HC, striatal responses to reciprocity were specific to partners who have consistently returned the investment ("cooperative partners"), and were absent for partners who lack a cooperative reputation. In GSAD, modulation of striatal responses by partner reputation was absent. Social anxiety severity predicted diminished responses to cooperative partners. Conclusion These results suggest abnormalities in GSAD in reward-related striatal mechanisms that may be important for the initiation, valuation, and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. Moreover, this study demonstrates that dynamic, interactive task paradigms derived from economics can help illuminate novel mechanisms of pathology in psychiatric illnesses in which social dysfunction is a cardinal feature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Chen H.,University of Michigan | Chen H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Shan S.J.C.,University of Michigan | Mester T.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Purpose: Fibrocytes (FC) are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO). FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR) induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Teprotumumab (TMB) is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs. Aim: To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB. Design: FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively), and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR. Results: Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001). TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI) value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001). TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001). Conclusion: TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production, TMB may be a promising therapeutic agent for GO. © 2015 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

O'Malley M.,University of Michigan | Healy P.,University of Michigan | Daignault S.,University of Michigan | Ramnath N.,University of Michigan | Ramnath N.,Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center
Oncology (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Background: Chemotherapy-associated neutropenia has been reported to be a pharmacodynamic marker of response in some advanced solid tumors. Factors that accelerate drug clearance lead to lower plasma concentrations and toxicity, including neutropenia. Smoking accelerates the metabolism of several drugs, including chemotherapy. We sought to study the effects of smoking on gemcitabine-induced neutropenia in this retrospective study. Methods: Smoking status and neutropenia along with other clinical parameters were recorded in 151 patients receiving first-line gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced solid tumors. Results: Tumor types included breast (9.3%), lung (4.6%), pancreatobiliary (70.9%), or other/unknown primary cancer (15.2%). Logistic regression showed that never smokers had increased neutropenia versus current smokers (odds ratio: 3.5; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.1-11.4). A 5-unit increase in pack-years reduced the odds of having higher neutropenia toxicity by 6.3% (95% CI 12 to 1%; p = 0.036). Conclusion: Smokers had less neutropenia than nonsmokers, a finding that was more pronounced with increasing pack-years. This pharmacodynamic marker of gemcitabine-induced neutropenia may result in less efficacy of gemcitabine. Future prospective trials should correlate smoking, metabolizing phenotype, neutropenia, and response to gemcitabine therapy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Chen H.,University of Michigan | Chen H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Mester T.,University of Michigan | Raychaudhuri N.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is the component of Graves' disease characterized by orbital inflammation and connective tissue remodeling. The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and TSH receptor (TSHR) form a physical and functional complex in orbital fibroblasts.Asubset of these fibroblasts is derivedfrominfiltratingCD34 fibrocytes.Teprotumumab(RV 001, R1507) is ahuman monoclonal anti-IGF-1R blocking antibody currently undergoing a phase 2 clinical trial in patients with active TAO. CopyrightObjective: To determine whether teprotumumab inhibits the induction by TSH of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibrocytes.Design: Fibrocytes were treated without or with teprotumumab in combination with IGF-1 or TSH.Main Outcome Measures: IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and protein production were analyzed by real-time PCR and Luminex, respectively. Phosphorylated Akt (S473) levels were analyzed by Western blot. TSHR and IGF-1R display was assessed by flow cytometry.Results: Fibrocyte display of IGF-1R and TSHR was reduced with teprotumumab, as were IGF-1- and TSH-dependent phosphorylated Akt levels. TSH induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA and protein was also reduced by the monoclonal antibody.Conclusions: Teprotumumab attenuates the actions of both IGF-1 and TSH in fibrocytes. Specifically, it blocks the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by TSH. These results provide, at least in part, the molecular rationale for interrogating the therapeutic efficacy of this antibody in TAO. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Burke D.T.,University of Michigan | Kozloff K.M.,University of Michigan | Chen S.,University of Michigan | West J.L.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2012

Finding the causative genetic variations that underlie complex adult traits is a significant experimental challenge. The unbiased search strategy of genome-wide association (GWAS) has been used extensively in recent human population studies. These efforts, however, typically find only a minor fraction of the genetic loci that are predicted to affect variation. As an experimental model for the analysis of adult polygenic traits, we measured a mouse population for multiple phenotypes and conducted a genome-wide search for effector loci. Complex adult phenotypes, related to body size and bone structure, were measured as component phenotypes, and each subphenotype was associated with a genomic spectrum of candidate effector loci. The strategy successfully detected several loci for the phenotypes, at genome-wide significance, using a single, modestsized population (N = 505). The effector loci each explain 2%-10% of the measured trait variation and, taken together, the loci can account for over 25% of a trait's total population variation. A replicate population (N = 378) was used to confirm initially observed loci for one trait (femur length), and, when the two groups were merged, the combined population demonstrated increased power to detect loci. In contrast to human population studies, our mouse genome-wide searches find loci that individually explain a larger fraction of the observed variation. Also, the additive effects of our detected mouse loci more closely match the predicted genetic component of variation. The genetic loci discovered are logical candidates for components of the genetic networks having evolutionary conservation with human biology. Source

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