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Altvater L.,Anjos do Brasil | de Messano L.V.R.,Anjos do Brasil | Andrade M.,Anjos do Brasil | Apolinario M.,Petrobras | Coutinho R.,Anjos do Brasil
Management of Biological Invasions | Year: 2017

The scleractinian coral Tubastraea coccinea is native to the Pacific Ocean, and it is the first documented hard coral to have invaded the Western Atlantic Ocean. Along the Brazilian coast, this species was documented in the late 1980s on artificial substrates, but currently, T. coccinea is also observed in the natural environment. Previous studies reported that T. coccinea can alter the structure of the native community and can cause social and economic impacts. However, relatively little information is available about control methods and strategies focusing on this coral as the target species. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) exposure on T. coccinea colony mortality and to determine the lowest concentration required to kill this species. The experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory conditions. Colonies were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solutions (2.5% active chlorine) at concentrations of 2, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. The control treatment exposed colonies to only seawater. Colonies were monitored over seven days or until death. Concentrations equal to or higher than 20 ppm were harmful to T. coccinea, causing several types of damage and, eventually, mortality of the colonies. The time needed to kill all the colonies was 108 hours in 20 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, 72 hours in 50 and 100 ppm, 5 hours in 150 ppm and 3 hours in 200 ppm. Our results showed that the sodium hypochlorite solution was effective for killing T. coccinea colonies. In addition, at 150 ppm and 200 ppm we obtained the best results since the colonies achieved 100% mortality in a short period of time. Therefore, sodium hypochlorite is a potential option to be applied in the management and control of this invasive coral in restricted areas, in both artificial and natural substrates. © 2017 The Author(s). Journal compilation & REABIC.

Spotorno-Oliveira P.,Anjos do Brasil | Coutinho R.,Anjos do Brasil | de Souza Tamega F.T.,Anjos do Brasil | de Souza Tamega F.T.,Grande Rio University
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2017

The present study describes the bioinvasion of the vermetid gastropod Eualetes tulipa of the Brazilian coast. The species was first reported in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Panama (since the 1840s); however, the type locality was not specified in the original species description. Since then, E. tulipa has been introduced to Hawaii, the Caribbean Sea, southeastern Florida and India. In Brazil, the first documented occurrence was in 2005, at Ceará State, northeast Brazil, and later in 2009 it was registered at Rio de Janeiro State, southeast Brazil, 3000 km from the previous location. Nowadays, they are not only found growing on artificial substrates but also along sandstone fringing reefs and rocky reefs coexisting with the native species Petaloconchus varians. The impact on the native benthic community is unknown; however, studies have suggested impacts such as competing for space with fouling communities (E. tulipa, Venezuela), and causing deleterious effects on corals (Ceraesignum maximum, French Polynesia). The possibility of spread through Brazilian endemic areas (e.g. Abrolhos Marine National Park), is a legitimate cause for concern as a result of oil industry shipping further distributing this non-indigenous species. E. tulipa has a continuous year-long reproduction and fast settlement, within 24 h of hatching. This reproductive mode allows for the highly successful invasion and establishment to new areas following maritime transport or natural rafting, predicting a rapidly widespread distribution and invasion of Brazilian and International waters. © 2017 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Lopez M.S.,Anjos do Brasil | Lopez M.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Coutinho R.,Anjos do Brasil | Coutinho R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2010

The mechanisms determining the strength of interactions between non-indigenous and native species in the invaded environment are of great interest to both ecologists and managers. On a Brazilian rocky shore, we experimentally measured predation intensity and prey preference of native predators on 2 exotic bivalves, Perna perna (which has been present for centuries) and Isognomon bicolor (introduced ca. 20 yr ago). Overall, predation was more intense on P. perna than on I. bicolor. Furthermore, P. perna was preyed upon more intensively by benthic crawling predators (whelks and, possibly, crabs), while larger, more mobile predators (fish and birds) were less selective. In addition, the larger, more abundant whelk Stramonita haemastoma selectively preyed on P. perna (for which handling time was shorter), while another whelk (Trachypollia nodulosa) preferred I. bicolor, although handling time was longer. Different shell morphologies of the 2 exotic prey and resource partitioning between the whelks may explain S. haemastoma and T. nodulosa feeding preferences, respectively. The thicker valves of I. bicolor compared to those of P. perna reduced the drilling or chipping efficiency by whelks. Although these prey species belong to the same functional group, differences in their shell characteristics could entail different mechanical constraints to predators. Therefore, native predators in the study system may prefer P. perna over I. bicolor because they are still adapting their foraging skills to handle the more recent invader, I. bicolor. © Inter-Research 2010.

Calado L.,Anjos do Brasil | Calado L.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silveira I.C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Gangopadhyay A.,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth | de Castro B.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2010

The regional ocean off southeast Brazil (20°S-28°S) is known as a current-eddy-upwelling region. The proximity of the Brazil Current to the coast in the Cape São Tomé vicinities, as well as of its quasi-stationary unstable meanders, suggests the possibility of background eddy-induced upwelling. Such phenomenon can intensify the prevalent coastal upwelling due to wind and topographic effects. In this paper, with the help of a numerical simulation, we provide evidence that eddy-induced upwelling in the absence of wind is possible in this region. The simulation was conducted with a regional configuration of the 3-D Princeton Ocean Model initialized by a feature-based implementation of the Brazil Current and Cape Frio eddy, blended with climatology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Paloczy A.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silveira I.C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Castro B.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Calado L.,Anjos do Brasil
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2014

The regional ocean off Cape São Tomé (CST, 22°S, Brazil) is known to feature transient coastal upwelling and intense mesoscale activity associated with the Brazil Current (BC). Satellite and in situ observations are used to characterize the coastal upwelling and the oceanic pycnocline water intrusions onto the continental shelf. Coastal upwelling events around CST are found to be less intense than the ones around Cape Frio (23°S), confirming previously reported findings. It is shown that the quasi-standing growth of a BC cyclonic meander is an effective supporting mechanism to this primarily wind-driven coastal upwelling system. A typical propagating cyclonic meander event is described and compared with its quasi-standing counterpart. The propagating cyclones also appear to promote oceanic pycnocline water intrusions, but at a lesser extent than the quasi-standing features. The supporting effect of the BC cyclones was quantified via simplified numerical experiments carried out with a 2D, primitive-equation numerical model. It is shown that meanders enhance intrusions as they grow, and may decrease by ≈50% the momentum input needed from the wind to cause coastal upwelling. Also, the role of the sloping of the isolines linked to the mean baroclinic structure of the Brazil Current is examined in idealized numerical experiments. This structure is shown to be sufficient to explain the observed time scales of coastal upwelling. The kind of meander-driven intrusion investigated here appears to be a regional singularity of the CST region, and may provide insight into the cross-shelf dynamics of other Western Boundary Current regions where similar quasi-standing instabilities exist. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Altvater L.,Federal University of Fluminense | Coutinho R.,Anjos do Brasil
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2015

The octocoral Stragulum bicolor exhibits fast growth and frequently overgrows other invertebrates. This species has probably been introduced on the Brazilian coast. This study aims to evaluate the ability of S. bicolor to colonise previously occupied substrates and its influence on the fouling community throughout the successional process and to verify whether the community limits its growth. Experimental plates (15. ×. 15. cm) subjected to various treatments (cumulative control, cumulative with removal of S. bicolor, cumulative with removal of other species and non-cumulative) were submerged at 1-m depth for a period of 26. months in Paranaguá Bay in southern Brazil. The cumulative plates were photographed monthly, and the non-cumulative plates were recovered every two months and replaced with new ones. Species richness, diversity and evenness were compared between the control and experimental treatment without S. bicolor. The number of colonies, area and growth of S. bicolor were compared between the control and treatment without other species. Recruitment was compared among non-cumulative and without S. bicolor treatments. The effects of S. bicolor on species richness, diversity and evenness were sporadic. The community did not limit the area and growth of S. bicolor, and the number of colonies was higher on the control plates. Although the number of recruits was higher on non-cumulative plates in certain periods, the presence of an already developed community did not prevent recruitment. S. bicolor had no adverse effect on community development. However, this species was efficient in occupying both pre-colonised and clean substrates. It is important to monitor the population of S. bicolor in Paranaguá Bay because this species has probably been introduced in this region and has the potential to become invasive. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandes L.D.D.A.,Anjos do Brasil | Quintanilha J.,Anjos do Brasil | Monteiro-Ribas W.,Anjos do Brasil | Gonzalez-Rodriguez E.,Anjos do Brasil | Coutinho R.,Anjos do Brasil
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2012

Meroplankton abundance (Bivalve larvae, Cirripede larvae and other non-identified larvae), phytoplankton biomass and sea surface temperature (SST) from a 15-year time series (19952009) in the Cabo Frio region, south-western Atlantic Ocean, were analysed to assess temporal patterns of co-variation. Weekly zooplankton sampling included vertical hauls (∼20m) with a 100 m net, taken in triplicate. All data were standardized to monthly within-year anomalies (n 180), monthly between-year anomalies (n 12) and annual anomalies (n 15). Monthly and annual anomalies were compared by means of cross-correlation analyses, and trends were estimated by linear regression in time series after removing serial dependence. The degree of coupling between phytoplankton and meroplankton was estimated from the analysis of their interannual changes during the seasonal maxima of these variables. The three variables displayed a strong seasonality, and there is evidence of coupling between phytoplankton biomass and meroplankton abundance, dominated by bivalves and cirripedes, during the austral spring (mostly September to November). Meroplankton abundance was positively correlated to SST and negatively to phytoplankton; the latter correlation suggested that a sudden supply of meroplankton larvae can contribute to controlling phytoplankton biomass during the upwelling season. In contrast, annual changes in SST and phytoplankton biomass fail to account for the interannual variation in larval supply. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

News Article | March 4, 2013

With less than three months left to The Next Web Conference Latin America, we help you get ready with a new post series that will bring you everything you need to know about this exciting region. A speaker at the latest TNW Conference in Amsterdam last April, Miami-based angel investor Marco Giberti is always helpful when it comes to shedding light on entrepreneurism in Latin America. Besides his activities as the President of Reed Exhibitions’ Latin America division, he is also an entrepreneur himself, and a key figure of the regional tech scene. As a growing number of investors are showing interest in this exciting market, we decided to ask him a few questions about the latest trends in the Latin American startup world. Anna Heim: How do you feel about the current state of Latin America’s startup ecosystem? What has changed over the last few months? Marco Giberti: Well, I’m really glad about the overall startup scene in Latin America. A lot of positive things are happening in terms of new entrepreneurs doing very creative ventures, and a new generation of angel investors is emerging. We are also seeing new early stage VCs, who are basically guys like me who “did it” before and are now coming back and trying to help and accelerate entrepreneurs in Latin America, which I think is a very healthy opportunity. I was recently watching presentations from Kaszek Ventures; as you may know, it was founded by Nicolas Szekasy and Hernan Kazah, and it’s amazing to see these two MercadoLibre guys coming in with a different hat and a different role helping young entrepreneurs. [See our article, ‘Kaszek Ventures backs Chilean startup ComparaOnline‘.] This is also what I am trying to do at my level. I am 45, which means I am in the middle – a good place to support young entrepreneurs with angel investment in partnership with other angels, while helping them link with VCs and potentially with private equity funds. AH: Are you seeing any hubs emerge? MG: I’m glad to see the ecosystem working really well in different places – not only cities like São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, which are very interesting destinations, but also in other locations. For instance, there are interesting initiatives in other Brazilian cities such as Recife, with Porto Digital [see our previous article]. Brazil aside, Buenos Aires is of course very interesting; it has a huge entrepreneurial ecosystem with accelerators, universities and very successful entrepreneurs. You can also see similar trends in Chile, with Start-Up Chile, as well as in Colombia and in Mexico. AH: I assume there are still challenges? MG: Yes, we still have to improve communication between us. More specifically, I think there is a tremendous opportunity to improve communication between entrepreneurs in Latin America and entrepreneurs here in Miami and in the US Hispanic segment. That’s one point on which I am trying to help, together with different entrepreneurs, angels and accelerators from Miami. We have a small group of people who are very focused on helping entrepreneurs who have already gained traction in Latin America to escalate to other regions in Latin America, and also to roll out into the US Hispanic market here in the US. We see a tremendous opportunity in doing that – it brings a huge amount of added value to the entrepreneurs and investors. As you may know, rolling out in Latin America isn’t as easy as it sounds. It’s actually extremely challenging and expensive, so if you can work with good angels and the right local partners, the efficiency, the speed and the rate of success are significantly higher. That’s why we want to create some sort of a network between entrepreneurs, angels, and accelerators – and hopefully facilitate rollout opportunities and provide help both to the entrepreneurial and to the investment sides. AH: What is the timeframe for this network to take form? MG: It is already starting to happen in a way; all the conferences and regional events are a fantastic chance for us to network. The first edition of The Next Web Conference Latin America itself will be a great opportunity for entrepreneurs from the region to network between themselves and with angels & VCs. In terms of timeframe, I’d say it was almost non-existent a couple of years ago. During the last twelve months, this network started to connect in a much better way, thanks to some events like the Americas Venture Capital Conference here in Miami, and other regional initiatives such as the ones Endeavor has been promoting [See our previous post]. Overall, the community is maturing pretty fast, which is generating a lot of interest – and will hopefully create more success stories over the twelve to eighteen months. For instance, I expect one or two IPOs from Latin American companies over the next couple of years – Globant and Peixe Urbano being two potential names. We need more success stories like MercadoLibre in the region, because it will encourage entrepreneurs and investors to think that the exit opportunity in Latin America is real, and that’s exactly what we need. AH: Are there any cultural challenges to overcome? MG: First of all, the entrepreneur system needs to work in a real way, and not only on paper. Don’t take me wrong, I am not saying that what already happened isn’t real. For example, the amazing job that Endeavor did in several Latin American countries over the last decade helped young people understand that entrepreneurship was a true opportunity in the region – not only in tech, but also in many other industries. Yet, this is only the beginning, and we now need to scale it in several ways. For starters, we need the academic community and leading universities to be working closely with entrepreneurs and forming future entrepreneurs. This means they should be launching specific programs, similar to what the University of Miami is doing with The Launch Pad. As a matter of fact, some Latin American institutions took initiatives in that respect. For instance, Argentina’s IAE Business School has created an angel investment club, and Brazil’s FGV also has interesting programs – so there are already several universities understanding that they need to help their students get the entrepreneurial culture and the opportunity it represents. In addition to training and educating entrepreneurs, we also need to improve access to mentors, capital and expertise. In that sense, all the new angel clubs and early stage VCs emerging in Latin America are a very healthy opportunity. As I mentioned before, these initiatives come from forty-something guys like me who had a couple of interesting exits and are willing to give back to future entrepreneurs. The third and most important element are the entrepreneurs themselves – those who have a dream and will execute it. In that respect, there’s a huge amount of fantastic talent in Latin America, so if we are able to give them academic and mentoring support, we should soon get more success stories. AH: What do you call a success story? MG: When I say “success story,” I am not only talking about IPOs. Early-stage exists happening in Latin America are also very interesting, and should also get more coverage in the big media in the region. That would inspire other entrepreneurs and encourage more people to quit their jobs and try something new. Still, we are starting to see this happening and get noticed, which is also why I am so happy to see The Next Web bring its conference to Latin America. AH: I am actually surprised by your comment on media coverage; I was under the impression that Latin America’s mainstream media was talking more and more often about startups, albeit in a glamorized way. MG: It’s true, some of the articles you see in the region are about “celebrity entrepreneurs” – and I don’t see anything wrong with that, but entrepreneurship is much more than that. We need to communicate the entrepreneurship opportunity for the masses, not for the elite. For instance, that’s what the Brazilian angel group Anjos do Brasil is trying to do; they are trying to be angel investors for the masses, and not only for the guy who did the best MBA in the US. We need to spread out and help everyone; and we also need to generate stories about them, not only about Latin America’s wealthiest families. AH: What segments do you find the most interesting or promising? MG: On a personal level, I am particularly interested in startups related to new media, education and lead generation. This also has to do with my background – that’s what gets me passionate. That said, I also see exciting opportunities in healthcare – overall, I’d say education and healthcare are the hottest segments. In addition, I am an investor in the crowdfunding platform, a tropicalized Kickstarter clone, and they are doing a very good job [See our previous article].  I’m not one of those guys criticising copycats in Latin America, I think it makes total sense if the copycat is ‘tropicalized’ for Latin America, as I say all the time – that is to say, if it is adjusted to the local customers’ needs and expectations. When it is the case, it’s a very good thing and brings a ton of added value into the market. AH: What about innovation though? MG: I am not seeing as much innovation coming out of the region as I would like. Around 70-80% of the startups are some sort of copycat. That said, the remaining part is very interesting, and we will keep seeing more new ideas emerging from the region. I also think we will see more Latin American ventures entering the US and European markets. While some Latin American entrepreneurs are still not thinking about foreign markets, and stay focused on Brazil’s or Mexico’s internal markets, we are also seeing others who are starting to see US Hispanics as a target. AH: So you think the Hispanic segment is the best point of entry for Latin American startups keen to access the US market? MG: It really depends on the venture, obviously, but it is the case for some of them, yes. For instance, fnbox is starting to understand it has an opportunity in the US Hispanic segment [see our article mentioning one of fnbox’s reports]. I think we will see more and more entrepreneurs thinking of US Hispanics as a target. Some entrepreneurs are even more aggressive, and want to dominate the US market as a whole from the start, both in English and Spanish. AH: Are there specific ways to facilitate networking between Latin American entrepreneurs? MG: Besides the networking events I have mentioned earlier, it would also make sense to have specific social networks for Latin American entrepreneurs – an AngelList for Latin America. Endeavor already has its own network, but it is closed; so I would be happy to see a regional social network for entrepreneurs, available in Spanish and Portuguese. It would be a very valuable tool and we would all benefit from it. AH: What would be your final message? MG: There are lots of good things happening, but we can hopefully accelerate them and see even better achievements over the next couple of years. We have to all work together to create new success stories from Latin America, that will encourage new entrepreneurs and investors to come into the market. I also think we need to find ways to legitimate Latin America as an entrepreneurial startup community. We need to convince innovative initiatives on entrepreneurial education to come South and to create content in Spanish and Portuguese, which would dramatically expand their audience and help them reach the masses.

News Article | August 3, 2012

With less than a month left before the first Latin American edition of TNW Conference in São Paulo, it is now time to unveil the finalists of our Best of Accelerators Startup Battle. As its name says, our competition was open to top startups that recently participated in an acceleration program. Leading accelerators took part in the process, such as 21212, Aceleradora, Anjos do Brasil, Campinas Startups, DreamIt Ventures, Founder Institute, NXTP Labs, Polo Marte, Start-Up Chile, Startup Farm and Wayra. In addition, we also included three wildcards to make sure we didn’t miss anything. The competition includes four selection rounds; after receiving 114 application forms from all over Latin America, but also from the US and Europe, we shortlisted the best ones and asked them to send a video pitch and participate in an interview. We then selected a first batch of 16 finalists, which we are announcing today. It’s worth noting that the list is not 100% complete yet, as four additional finalist positions will be awarded at the TNW Conference among the startups with a Demo Table in the exhibitor space on August 22 and 23. In total, 20 finalist startups will pitch their products and services on stage, in front of an international tech audience, investors, and press. The Jury of experts will then give feedback and decide on the winners. Here’s the initial batch of finalists by country: From the US: We congratulate all finalists and accelerators, and are looking forward to seeing them on stage at The Next Web Latin America Conference 2012!

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