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Vatn S.,Animalia Meat and Poultry Research Center
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

Factors influencing rate of barren ewes, number of lambs born per pregnant ewe, and autumn live weight of the lambs were studied in 627 Norwegian sheep flocks based on herd level data from the Norwegian Sheep Recording System and a mailed questionnaire to the sheep farmers. The following factors were significantly associated (PB0.05) with rate of barren ewes: breed, herd average lambing date, type of production/age of farmer, routines for treatments for parasites, and housing type. Number of lambs born per pregnant ewe was significantly associated with rate of barren ewes, herd average lambing date, breed, percentage grass silage of total roughage, and no separation of gimmers during the housing period. Corrected autumn live weight of the lambs was significantly associated with breed, flock size, lambs born per pregnant ewe, no separation of gimmers during the housing period, and type of summer pasture. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Zahl I.H.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Zahl I.H.,University of Bergen | Kiessling A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kiessling A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2011

The efficacy of the anaesthetic agents benzocaine, metacaine (MS-222), metomidate, 2-phenoxyethanol, quinaldine and isoeugenol was studied in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Fish with an average body weight of 33g were anaesthetized at 8°C and fish with an average body weight of 1243g were anaesthetized at 8 and 15°C. Agents were tested individually and as combination anaesthesia comprising pre-anaesthetic sedation, followed by anaesthesia. Induction and recovery times varied in relation to the body weight and water temperature. Large fish had longer induction times and shorter recovery times, and displayed reduced responsiveness to handling compared with small fish. A higher temperature resulted in shorter induction times, longer recovery times and increased responsiveness to handling. Lower dosages were used for all agents in combination anaesthesia. In small fish, this had no effect on the induction times but resulted in shorter recovery times and reduced responsiveness to handling. In large fish, combination anaesthesia resulted in shorter induction times whereas no uniform trend in recovery times and no differences in responsiveness to handling were observed. Neither individual agents nor combinations blocked all reflex reactions to external stimulation in all fish of any treatment group. MS-222 and benzocaine, used separately or in combination anaesthesia, were the most effective agents in reducing reflex reactions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Boman I.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Klemetsdal G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Nafstad O.,Animalia Meat and Poultry Research Center | Blichfeldt T.,The Norwegian Association of Sheep and Goat Breeders | Vage D.I.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2011

In this study we show that selection based on progeny testing is able to induce a rapid change in allele frequency, even when a fairly broad and balanced breeding goal is applied. The myostatin 3'-UTR mutation (c.*1232G>A) previously found to affect muscularity in Texel sheep is also present in the Norwegian White Sheep population. By genotyping the rams used for artificial insemination (born in1977-2006), a rapid increase in the c.*1232G>A allele frequency was observed, from 0.31 in 1990 to 0.82 in 2006. The major increase was observed after BLUP-based breeding values and the EUROP classification system for carcass quality was implemented in 1991 and 1996, respectively. The MSTN frameshift mutation c.960delG, recently identified in this population, did not show a similar increase in allele frequency during the same period, in spite that it has a strong desirable effect on meat and fat traits. The results also illustrate that unwanted side effects can rapidly be introduced into a population using an efficient breeding scheme. A system for monitoring changes in phenotypic traits additional to those under selection is therefore recommended to identify possible side effects at an early stage. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Baardseth P.,Nofima Materials AS | Bjerke F.,Animalia Meat and Poultry Research Center | Martinsen B.K.,Nofima Materials AS | Skrede G.,Nofima Materials AS
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: Retention of nutrients in vegetables during blanching/freezing, cooking and warm-holding is crucial in the preparation of both standard and therapeutic diets. In the present study, conventional cooking in water, and cooking by pouch technology (boil-in-bag, sous vide) were compared in their ability to retain vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidative activity (DPPH and FRAP) in industrially blanched/frozen tip-cut green beans and swede rods. Results: After conventional cooking, 50.4% total ascorbic acid, 76.7% total phenolics, 55.7% DPPH and 59.0% FRAP were recovered in the drained beans. After boil-in-bag cooking, significantly (P < 0.05) higher recoveries were obtained, i.e. 80.5% total ascorbic acid, 89.2% total phenolics, 94.8% DPPH and 92.9% FRAP. Recoveries after sousvidecooking were comparable to those of boil-in-bag cooking. By conventional cooking, 13.5-42.8% of the nutrients leaked into the cooking water; by sousvide about 10% leaked to the exuded liquid, while no leakage occurred by boil-in-bag cooking. Warm-holding beans after cooking reduced recoveries in all components. Recoveries in swede rods were comparable but overall slightly lower. Conclusion: Industrially blanched/frozen vegetables should preferably be cooked by pouch technology, rather than conventional cooking in water. Including cooking water or exuded liquid into the final dish will increase the level of nutrients in a meal. Warm-holding of vegetables after cooking should be avoided. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

Boman I.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Klemetsdal G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Nafstad O.,Animalia Meat and Poultry Research Center | Blichfeldt T.,Norwegian Association of Sheep and Goat Breeders | Vage D.I.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2010

Background: Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN) mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods. The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results: The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions: Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG) was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A). Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects. © 2010 Boman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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