Zhu H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
O'Farrell M.,Sintef |
Bouquet G.,Sintef |
Lunde K.,Animalia |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2016
The potential of using NMR as a reference method for WHC measurement in porcine longissimus dorsi was investigated. The accuracy of NMR when measuring small water changes was assessed in a model system and in muscles. Visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) and X-ray were used as potential online spectroscopic methods to assess WHC on 40 muscles. Drip loss and spin-spin relaxation were also measured. Calibration models were built using partial least squares regression (PLSR) with Vis/NIR or X-ray spectra as input and NMR or drip loss values as output. The slowest spin-spin relaxation time (T22) showed higher correlation with both Vis/NIR (RCV 2= 0.66) and X-ray spectra (RCV 2=0.76) than EZ-DripLoss values, demonstrating NMR has potential as a reference method for WHC measurement. NMR was more robust against variation along the length of the muscle when compared to the EZ-DripLoss method. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valle P.S.,Animalia |
Valle P.S.,Molde University College
Animal Welfare | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was to explore the use of a hand-held algometer for the measurement of mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) in sheep (Ovis aries). Twelve ewes were tested over three consecutive days by two operators, and MNTs were measured over six predetermined sites on both forelimbs every five minutes for 30 min. The effects of test period, measurement number within test period and different anatomical points on MNT levels were investigated, in addition to establishing baseline MNT levels for the sheeps' forelimbs. A significant decrease of MNT values was observed over the three consecutive test days and within each test period. The anatomical points located closest to the carpus and fetlock joints had significantly higher MNT values compared to the anatomical points located over the middle part of the metacarpus, possibly due to the protective function of the distal part of the extensor retinaculum and the dorsal pouch of the fetlock joint capsules. There was no difference in MNT values between the right and left foreleg. There was a tendency for a flattening out of the drop in MNT towards the last measurement. Hence, we suggest using the values from the last two measurements when determining normative values, and to habituate the ewes to the procedure of measuring MNT levels. Taking these factors into consideration, a hand-held algometer is a useful tool to measure MNTs in sheep. © 2010 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Mage I.,Nofima AS |
Wold J.P.,Nofima AS |
Bjerke F.,Animalia |
Segtnan V.,Nofima AS
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2013
A system for on-line sorting of meat trimmings into categories with different fat levels was developed and tested by simulations and pilot-plant trials. The system consists of a conveyor belt, a NIR imaging scanner (QV500, Tomra Sorting Solutions, Asker, Norway), a flow weigher and grader (both Marel hf, Iceland) and a host computer containing synchronising software and a sorting algorithm. The sorting algorithm is based on desirability functions, which makes it flexible when it comes to selecting number of categories, target values, limits for deviations and other restrictions. The results showed that the sorting algorithm works when the fat measurements are accurate, giving deviations from target lower than the selected ±1 percentage point limits. In reality there are some inaccuracies in the on-line fat measurements due to inhomogeneous meat trimmings. This leads to a systematic under-estimation of the fat percentage in low-fat categories and over-estimation in the high-fat categories. These biases can be reduced by e.g. improving the on-line fat measurement technology. However, simulations showed that the bias for either category was generally low (below 2 percentage points) and the current system therefore has potential for on-line implementation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haseth T.T.,Animalia |
Haseth T.T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Sorheim O.,Nofima Materials |
Hoy M.,Nofima Materials |
Egelandsdal B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Meat Science | Year: 2012
Varying salt content in hams of equal brand is a major challenge for Norwegian dry-cured ham producers. This study was thus undertaken to test existing computed tomography (CT) calibration models for salt on entire hams, regarding predictability of salt content at different processing times including final ham and to study salt distribution during processing of dry-cured ham. Twenty-six hams were scanned by computed tomography (CT) 11 times during dry-curing for this purpose. However, previously established calibration models had to be adjusted as they overestimated salt in dry samples. Prediction of ultimate salt content was more accurate approaching the end of the dry-curing process (RMSEP = 0.351-0.595% salt). Inclusion of remaining weight loss improved the prediction accuracy in un-dried samples by approximately 0.1% NaCl. The prediction errors were sufficiently low to be of practical interest. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Johansen T.B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Agdestein A.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Lium B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute |
Jorgensen A.,Animalia |
Djonne B.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding. © 2014 Tone Bjordal Johansen et al.
Gangsei L.E.,Animalia |
Kongsro J.,Norsvin SA
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2016
A 3D expansion of Dijkstra's algorithm used for automatic segmentation and identification of the bones in CT images of live pigs was developed and validated. The major bones in the skeletons of 208 out of 485 live pigs (43%) were segmented and identified from the images without major errors. The segmentation and identification is executed through 8 main operations: (1) identify the full bone structure by a threshold of Hounsfield units, (2) identify forelimbs by voxel connectivity and set landmarks, (3-8) segment out and identify the individual bones in different main parts of the bone structure by the 3D expansion of Dijkstra's algorithm. The algorithms described will constitute an important basis for further work applying CT in pig breeding and management. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Fredriksen B.,Animalia |
Johnsen A.M.S.,Animalia |
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2011
From three in-depth focus group studies and an internet based study concerning consumers attitudes towards surgical castration of piglets and alternatives, it can be concluded that Norwegian consumers are content with the current practice of castration using local anaesthesia. They accept castration as a necessary means to prevent the risk of boar taint in meat and thereby secure meat quality. Even though castration using anaesthesia is not a perfect solution, it is considered sufficient, and the consumers do not ask for alternatives. Most consumers were sceptical of immunocastration. The scepticism was mainly based on the fear of residuals in meat and unknown long-term consequences for the consumers. On the other hand the confidence in Norwegian control authorities is considerable, and will probably contribute to the maintenance of purchase habits even if immunocastration is to be introduced in Norwegian pig production. Castration without anaesthesia was characterized as completely unacceptable. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Gangsei L.E.,Animalia |
Gangsei L.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Kongsro J.,Norsvin SA |
Olstad K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2016
Currently, a growing gap is observed between the enormous amount of genomic information generated from genotyping and sequencing and the scale and quality of phenotypes in animal breeding. In order to fill this gap, new technologies and automated large-scale measurements are needed. Body composition is an important trait in animal breeding related to growth, feed efficiency, health, meat quality and market value of farmed animals. In vivo anatomical atlases from CT will aid large-scale and high-throughput phenotyping in order to reduce some of the gap between genotyping and phenotyping in animal breeding. We demonstrated that atlas segmentation was able to predict major parts and organs of the pig with a numerical test applied to the primal commercial cuts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Animalia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2011
From three in-depth focus group studies and an internet based study concerning consumers attitudes towards surgical castration of piglets and alternatives, it can be concluded that Norwegian consumers are content with the current practice of castration using local anaesthesia. They accept castration as a necessary means to prevent the risk of boar taint in meat and thereby secure meat quality. Even though castration using anaesthesia is not a perfect solution, it is considered sufficient, and the consumers do not ask for alternatives. Most consumers were sceptical of immunocastration. The scepticism was mainly based on the fear of residuals in meat and unknown long-term consequences for the consumers. On the other hand the confidence in Norwegian control authorities is considerable, and will probably contribute to the maintenance of purchase habits even if immunocastration is to be introduced in Norwegian pig production. Castration without anaesthesia was characterized as completely unacceptable.
News Article | February 22, 2017
There are very few scenarios where I could see myself considering the flesh of a fellow human being as food, and the ultimatum "eat today or die tomorrow" comes up in all of them. Most people are probably with me on this. But Bill Schutt's newest book, Cannibalism: A Perfectly Natural History, reveals that from a scientific perspective, there's a predictable calculus for when humans and animals go cannibal. And far more humans — and animals — have dipped into the world of cannibalism than you might have imagined. Schutt, a vertebrate zoologist at LIU Post and the American Museum of Natural History, dives into cannibalism's history, its place in the kingdom Animalia and the source of its taboo. The book encompasses a range of stories far wider than the usual canon of gruesome reports. He makes no secret of his distaste for these over-sensationalized accounts, not because of the gore but because there's just so much more to cannibalism. Instead, he opts for a keenly scientific approach. "I'm taking things that seem grotesque and misunderstood and horrify people and putting it through the eyes of zoologist," he says. And what does a zoologist see, exactly? He sees the perfect, natural sense of cannibalism, the evolutionary biology of eating one's own kind and, oddly, the wonder of it all. Macabre summaries of men eating men are present, too, but by far the most interesting section on human cannibalism in the book is Schutt's description of the long history of European aristocrats eating human parts as medicine. "Upper-class types and even members of the British Royalty 'applied, drink or wore' concoctions prepared from human body parts, and they continued to do so until the end of the 18th century," Schutt writes in the book. We caught up with Schutt to chat about the book. The interview below has been edited for length and clarity: I hadn't heard of the medicinal cannibalism you described in Europe, starting with the Ancient Greek physician Galen of Pergamon and continuing to the 20th century. That was one thing that really surprised me. Yeah, especially given the Western taboo around cannibalism, which has been around since the time of the Greeks, to find out that for hundreds of years, for many countries in Europe, pretty much every body part you can think of was used to cure something or the other. That was a complete shock. I don't even know where some of these [purported cures] came from. That blood was going to cure epilepsy or how human fat could cure skin diseases? The most interesting one to me was mummies, and I think that was a mistranslation. To the Arabs ... the word mumia meant this stuff they used to bind wounds and prep mummies. In the translations, the Europeans thought they meant real mummies had medicinal values, so they started grinding [mummies] up. How did you get to seeing cannibalism as something that was really, very natural? Cannibalism as a behavior has various functions – from parental care to a reproductive strategy to foraging. If you look at insects, snails, crustaceans, fish, toads, salamanders, there's plenty of cannibalism. When you're talking about cob fish and the million eggs they lay, they're not looking at [their eggs] like juniors. They're like a handful of raisins. It's just food. My favorite is these legless amphibians, or caecilians. The mother provides her skin to the young hatchlings, and they peel her skin like a grape. That to me was wild and amazing, and I'd never heard of it. When you get to mammals, it's rarer because you're dealing with less offspring and [more] parental care. The cannibalism you do see sometimes takes place because of environmental stresses. Seems like the decision to cannibalize is a pretty simple calculus. You do it when the need for food outweighs the risk of getting a disease. Yup. Though when you're starving, I don't know if you're thinking, 'This person might have a disease I could catch.' No, you're just at the end of your rope, and you're going to die. It's natural behavior. Scientists have looked at starvation. At a certain point, one of the predictable behaviors that you'll see is cannibalism. It could start with dead bodies and then get to the extreme where you kill somebody and eat them. Then there's the case where some people will just not eat dead bodies and starve to death. There's plenty of mammals and animals that don't practice the kind of parental care, or sexual cannibalism or that lifeboat strategy. But if you stress any creature out enough, I think the odds are that they'll eat their own kind. In the book, you describe getting invited over for dinner by one of your sources to eat her placenta. How was that? Was it good? Yeah, it was really the prep that made it taste good. Granted, the [husband] was a chef and so he knew how to prepare it osso bucco style and used a really nice wine I had brought. It smelled great. It didn't taste bad. I wouldn't do it again. I don't have any regrets I did this. She said that after birth, she had all sorts of ups and downs, baby blues and stuff like that. Somebody turned her onto this and she tried and it she said she felt a lot better. She readily acknowledged that it was probably a placebo effect. Which is a real thing. Would you eat another human – not a placenta? Not because of overcrowding, predation, competition or hunger. Just ... because? No. If I was put into a life or death situation like the guys who got stranded in the Andes, or in a besieged city with no alternatives, then I can't say that I wouldn't consume human flesh. Would I do it again, just for kicks? Why would I? There's no need for that. Not unless it really came down to a real horror situation where there was nothing else to eat. I try not to think about that as a possibility.