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San Diego, CA, United States

Ridgway S.H.,National Marine Mammal Foundation | Elsberry W.R.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Blackwood D.J.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Kamolnick T.,Animal Training Consultants | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America. Source


Cranford T.W.,San Diego State University | Elsberry W.R.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Van Bonn W.G.,The Marine Mammal Center | Jeffress J.A.,U.S. Navy | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2011

Indirect evidence for multiple sonar signal generators in odontocetes exists within the published literature. To explore the long-standing controversy over the site of sonar signal generation, direct evidence was collected from three trained bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) by simultaneously observing nasal tissue motion, internal nasal cavity pressure, and external acoustic pressure. High-speed video endoscopy revealed tissue motion within both sets of phonic lips, while two hydrophones measured acoustic pressure during biosonar target recognition. Small catheters measured air-pressure changes at various locations within the nasal passages and in the basicranial spaces. Video and acoustic records demonstrate that acoustic pulses can be generated along the phonic fissure by vibrating the phonic labia within each set of phonic lips. The left and right phonic lips are capable of operating independently or simultaneously. Air pressure in both bony nasal passages rose and fell synchronously, even if the activity patterns of the two phonic lips were different. Whistle production and increasing sound pressure levels are generally accompanied by increasing intranarial air pressure. One acoustic "click" occurred coincident with one oscillatory cycle of the phonic labia. Changes in the click repetition rate and cycles of the phonic labia were simultaneous, indicating that these events are coupled. Structural similarity in the nasal apparatus across the Odontoceti suggests that all extant toothed whales generate sonar signals using the phonic lips and similar biomechanical processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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