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Sharifi S.D.,University of Tehran | Dibamehr A.,University of Tehran | Lotfollahian H.,Animal Science Research Institute | Baurhoo B.,McGill University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study was conducted with broilers to evaluate the effects of growth-promoting antibiotic (flavomycin) and probiotic (7 bacterial species) supplementation in diets containing soybean oil or free fatty acids (FFA) on performance, morphological parameters of the small intestine, apparent digestibility of gross energy (GE) in the ileum, and apparent digestibility of fat in the ileum and total intestinal tract. Eight-hundred and sixty 4-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments that comprised 3 additives (without additive, flavomycin, and probiotic) and 3 fat sources (without fat, 30 g/kg of FFA, and 30 g/kg of soybean oil) with 4 pen replicates per treatment. All diets contained chromic oxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly over 40 d. Flavomycin interacted positively with soybean oil and FFA causing improvements (P < 0.05) in BW gain. Among the different fat sources, soybean oil significantly increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and jejunal villi height, whereas flavomycin improved (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the remaining dietary additives. However, the probiotic negatively affected (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed conversion despite increased (P < 0.05) villi heights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. At 21 and 38 d of age, fat and GE digestibility were higher (P < 0.05) in the ileum and total intestinal tract of birds fed diets containing soybean oil than those of birds fed FFA. Fat and GE digestibility were highest (P < 0.05) among birds fed flavomycin but lowest (P < 0.05) among probiotic-fed birds. Flavomycin addition to soybean oil or FFA diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) fat and GE digestibility when compared with the same diets containing the probiotic. Therefore, soybean oil is a better energy source than FFA, as indicated by increased growth, nutrient digestibility, and jejunal villi height. However, probiotic supplementation to fat-rich diets caused detrimental effects on nutrient digestibility and growth. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Mousavi S.N.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin | Afsar A.,Evonik Industries | Lotfollahian H.,Animal Science Research Institute
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) addition to diets containing different levels of ME on the growth performance, energy efficiency, and carcass yield of broiler chickens. A total of 1,536 straight-run Cobb 500 broilers were allocated to 24 floor pens (64 birds/pen). The dietary treatments consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with different levels of ME [100% (2,988 kcal/kg of starter from 0 to 10 d, 3,083 kcal/kg of grower from 11 to 22 d, and 3,176 kcal/kg of finisher from 23 to 40 d), 95%, and 90% of the Cobb recommendation], with or without GAA (0.06%). Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improved FCR from 23 to 40 d and 0 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.05) and reduced feed intake from 23 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.09), with no significant effects on BW gain. Body weight gain was significantly reduced when dietary energy was reduced by 10% from 11 to 22 d, 23 to 40 d, and 0 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.05). The energy reduction affected feed intake from 0 to 10 d and 11 to 22 d of age, with no effect during other periods. An interaction was found between energy level and GAA for FCR during the 0 to 40 d of the experiment. Addition of GAA improved the FCR of treatments with higher energy concentrations (100 and 95% of the management guide recommendation). The main effects of GAA supplementation and energy levels on carcass traits were not significant, except that addition of GAA reduced the percentage of liver significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The weight of the small intestine was reduced in the low-energy (90%) diets supplemented with GAA. Supplementation with GAA decreased caloric intake per kilogram of BW gain and per kilogram of carcass weight. It was concluded from the current experiment that GAA has the potential to improve FCR and energy efficiency. © Poultry Science Association, Inc. Source

Azizi-Shotorkhoft A.,University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Ramin | Rezaei J.,Tarbiat Modares University | Fazaeli H.,Animal Science Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013

A 28-d experiment was performed to evaluate the influence of replacing dietary corn/barley with molasses at levels of 0 (M0), 50 (M50) and 100 (M100) g/kg dietary dry matter (DM), as energy sources, in the diets containing heat-processed broiler litter (HBL) (240. g/kg DM) in male Moghani sheep. Digestibility, microbial protein supply (MPS), ruminal parameters and blood metabolites were measured. The digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP) in experimental sheep linearly increased (L, P=0.01) as level of molasses enhanced in the diets. Addition of molasses to diet linearly increased MPS (L, P=0.01) compared to sheep fed the control diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations linearly declined (L, P<0.05) as level of molasses increased in the diet. There was no difference (P>0.05) in ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, except a linear increase in the molar proportion of butyrate (L, P=0.02) among the molasses supplemented groups. Blood urea-N linearly decreased (L, P=0.02) in sheep fed molasses compared to the control group. It can be concluded that replacing corn/barley with molasses in sheep diet improved the utilization of the diet containing HBL. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ansari-Renani H.R.,Animal Science Research Institute
Pastoralism | Year: 2015

Iran together with Afghanistan is the third largest producer and exporter of cashmere in the world, after China and Mongolia. Nomads have a big share in producing Iranian cashmere. This study reviews the status of cashmere production, harvesting, marketing and processing by nomads of Iran in order to evaluate sustainability and to identify some constraints limiting productivity. The quality of Iranian cashmere, being long and highly curved, ranks third after China and Mongolia. The principal centres for the gathering and rough sorting of raw cashmere produced by nomads are Baft, Sirjan, Mashad and Birjand, with Mashad continuing as the centre of the Iranian cashmere industry. Nearly all the cashmere produced is bought directly from the nomads by middlemen and is dehaired and exported to Europe and China without major value addition. © 2015, Ansari-Renani. Source

Golzar Adabi S.H.,Ankara University | Cooper R.G.,University of Zimbabwe | Kamali M.A.,Animal Science Research Institute | Hajbabaei A.,University of Pretoria
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

Reported was an investigation of the effect of vitamin E (Vit.E) and corn oil on semen traits of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). From 8 to 20 wk of age, birds were raised on corn-based diets supplemented with corn oil (0 and 3%) and Vit.E (National Research Council (NRC) recommended 25 mg/kg/day/dry matter and 150 mg/kg/day/dry matter) in a 2. ×. 2 factorial manner. The diet was supplemented with corn oil and Vit.E (E2C2) which provided additional n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of 20:4 n-6 and 22:4 n-6 in spermatozoa phospholipid. The left testes weights were increased (P<. 0.01) in groups that received Vit.E in the diet (3.95 and 4.12 g, respectively) (P= 0.03) and combined testes weight was the greatest in E2C2 group (7.57 g) (P= 0.02). Semen volume increased throughout the experiment in the E2C2 group. E2C1 and E2C2 birds had the greatest (90.05% and 92.1%, respectively) live sperm percent by comparison with other groups. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation in vitro was increased in quail fed E1C1 and E1C2, but was reduced when 150 mg Vit.E kg/day/dry matter feed was provided in the diet. The amount of Vit.E in the seminal plasma of E1C1 and E1C2 groups was (P<. 0.01) less than that in the other two groups (E2C1 and E2C2). From this study, it may be concluded that increasing diet n-6/. n-3 ratio can be beneficial for semen traits, however, this application increased sperm peroxidation sensitivity but it can be controlled by inclusion of antioxidant such as Vit.E (150 mg/kg/day/dry matter) to diet. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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