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Mousavi S.N.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin | Afsar A.,Evonik Industries | Lotfollahian H.,Animal Science Research Institute
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) addition to diets containing different levels of ME on the growth performance, energy efficiency, and carcass yield of broiler chickens. A total of 1,536 straight-run Cobb 500 broilers were allocated to 24 floor pens (64 birds/pen). The dietary treatments consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with different levels of ME [100% (2,988 kcal/kg of starter from 0 to 10 d, 3,083 kcal/kg of grower from 11 to 22 d, and 3,176 kcal/kg of finisher from 23 to 40 d), 95%, and 90% of the Cobb recommendation], with or without GAA (0.06%). Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improved FCR from 23 to 40 d and 0 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.05) and reduced feed intake from 23 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.09), with no significant effects on BW gain. Body weight gain was significantly reduced when dietary energy was reduced by 10% from 11 to 22 d, 23 to 40 d, and 0 to 40 d of age (P ≤ 0.05). The energy reduction affected feed intake from 0 to 10 d and 11 to 22 d of age, with no effect during other periods. An interaction was found between energy level and GAA for FCR during the 0 to 40 d of the experiment. Addition of GAA improved the FCR of treatments with higher energy concentrations (100 and 95% of the management guide recommendation). The main effects of GAA supplementation and energy levels on carcass traits were not significant, except that addition of GAA reduced the percentage of liver significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The weight of the small intestine was reduced in the low-energy (90%) diets supplemented with GAA. Supplementation with GAA decreased caloric intake per kilogram of BW gain and per kilogram of carcass weight. It was concluded from the current experiment that GAA has the potential to improve FCR and energy efficiency. © Poultry Science Association, Inc.


Sharifi S.D.,University of Tehran | Dibamehr A.,University of Tehran | Lotfollahian H.,Animal Science Research Institute | Baurhoo B.,McGill University
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

This study was conducted with broilers to evaluate the effects of growth-promoting antibiotic (flavomycin) and probiotic (7 bacterial species) supplementation in diets containing soybean oil or free fatty acids (FFA) on performance, morphological parameters of the small intestine, apparent digestibility of gross energy (GE) in the ileum, and apparent digestibility of fat in the ileum and total intestinal tract. Eight-hundred and sixty 4-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments that comprised 3 additives (without additive, flavomycin, and probiotic) and 3 fat sources (without fat, 30 g/kg of FFA, and 30 g/kg of soybean oil) with 4 pen replicates per treatment. All diets contained chromic oxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly over 40 d. Flavomycin interacted positively with soybean oil and FFA causing improvements (P < 0.05) in BW gain. Among the different fat sources, soybean oil significantly increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and jejunal villi height, whereas flavomycin improved (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the remaining dietary additives. However, the probiotic negatively affected (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed conversion despite increased (P < 0.05) villi heights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. At 21 and 38 d of age, fat and GE digestibility were higher (P < 0.05) in the ileum and total intestinal tract of birds fed diets containing soybean oil than those of birds fed FFA. Fat and GE digestibility were highest (P < 0.05) among birds fed flavomycin but lowest (P < 0.05) among probiotic-fed birds. Flavomycin addition to soybean oil or FFA diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) fat and GE digestibility when compared with the same diets containing the probiotic. Therefore, soybean oil is a better energy source than FFA, as indicated by increased growth, nutrient digestibility, and jejunal villi height. However, probiotic supplementation to fat-rich diets caused detrimental effects on nutrient digestibility and growth. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Azizi-Shotorkhoft A.,University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Ramin | Rezaei J.,Tarbiat Modares University | Fazaeli H.,Animal Science Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013

A 28-d experiment was performed to evaluate the influence of replacing dietary corn/barley with molasses at levels of 0 (M0), 50 (M50) and 100 (M100) g/kg dietary dry matter (DM), as energy sources, in the diets containing heat-processed broiler litter (HBL) (240. g/kg DM) in male Moghani sheep. Digestibility, microbial protein supply (MPS), ruminal parameters and blood metabolites were measured. The digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP) in experimental sheep linearly increased (L, P=0.01) as level of molasses enhanced in the diets. Addition of molasses to diet linearly increased MPS (L, P=0.01) compared to sheep fed the control diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations linearly declined (L, P<0.05) as level of molasses increased in the diet. There was no difference (P>0.05) in ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, except a linear increase in the molar proportion of butyrate (L, P=0.02) among the molasses supplemented groups. Blood urea-N linearly decreased (L, P=0.02) in sheep fed molasses compared to the control group. It can be concluded that replacing corn/barley with molasses in sheep diet improved the utilization of the diet containing HBL. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yaghobfar A.,Animal Science Research Institute
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola | Year: 2016

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feed intake, body weight gain, total energy (kJ), protein (g) intake, energy and protein efficiency ratio (EER, PER), net energy, and metabolic body weight, on two commercial broiler chickens (Arian and Ross 308 strains). Four treatmentsincluded diets formulated based onAMEn(kJ/g) Total Amino Acid (TAA) (T1), AMEn(kJ/g) Digestible Amino Acid (T2), TMEn (kJ/g) Total Amino Acid (T3), and TMEn (kJ/g) Digestible Amino Acid (DAA) (T4) for commercial broilers chickens. The findings of the study indicated that AMEn or TMEn treatments yielded improved utilization of net energy in 42 days, but did not affect the efficiency of dietary AMEn and TMEn for net energy, diet energy and protein efficiency ratio (EER, PER) in broilers. Findings indicated that NE is a better predictor of poultry feeds than AMEn or TMEn. This is attributed to the fact that AMEn had a significant effect on NE and efficiency of AMEn or TMEn and HI (Heat Increment) for NE value. Finally, NE is the final objective of energy evaluation of feed and feedstuffs for poultry nutrition. © 2016, Fundacao APINCO de Ciencia e Tecnologia Avicolas. All rights reserved.


Ansari-Renani H.R.,Animal Science Research Institute
Media Peternakan | Year: 2014

Iran together with Afghanistan is the third largest producer and exporter of cashmere in the world, after China and Mongolia. This paper assesses the status of cashmere marketing of Iran in order to evaluate sustainability, and to identify some constraints limiting the productivity and compa-tibility. In August to December 2011 structured questionnaires and interviews were used to compile information regarding market chains cashmere industry of Iran. Information compiled revealed that nearly all the cashmere was marketed by direct buying in Iran. The principle centers for the gathering and rough sorting raw cashmere in Iran were Baft, Sirjan, Mashad, and Birjand. The principle cashmere-importing countries of Iranian cashmere were China, England, Belgium and Italy. The price for Iranian cashmere has showed large fluctuations in the last forty years: it increased from 25 dollars in 1972 to 110 dollars in 1988 and decreased to 65 dollars in 2006 and again increased to 110 dollars in 2012. Given the present status of production and marketing there seems to be substantial scope to improve the value addition of Iranian cashmere.


Ansari-Renani H.R.,Animal Science Research Institute
Media Peternakan | Year: 2013

This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY) was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to weight of shorn fibre. Cashmere fiber diameter was analyzed using a projection microscope instrument. A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data and measure the relationships between different cashmere characteristics and fleece attributes. The overall means ± standard deviations were for cashmere yield (CY) 51.4%±1.5%, mean fiber diameter (MFD) 18.7±0.2 μ, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (CVFD) 19.1%±0.3% and staple length (SL) 42.8±1.6 mm. One year old goats had finer cashmere than older goats. CVFD were higher in males and CY and SL were higher in young animals. Iranian cashmere goat breeds have an excellent SL but are relatively coarse. Given the differences between goats there seems to be substantial scope to improve the commercial value of cashmere.


Ansari-Renani H.R.,Animal Science Research Institute
Pastoralism | Year: 2015

Iran together with Afghanistan is the third largest producer and exporter of cashmere in the world, after China and Mongolia. Nomads have a big share in producing Iranian cashmere. This study reviews the status of cashmere production, harvesting, marketing and processing by nomads of Iran in order to evaluate sustainability and to identify some constraints limiting productivity. The quality of Iranian cashmere, being long and highly curved, ranks third after China and Mongolia. The principal centres for the gathering and rough sorting of raw cashmere produced by nomads are Baft, Sirjan, Mashad and Birjand, with Mashad continuing as the centre of the Iranian cashmere industry. Nearly all the cashmere produced is bought directly from the nomads by middlemen and is dehaired and exported to Europe and China without major value addition. © 2015, Ansari-Renani.


Rezaei J.,Tarbiat Modares University | Rouzbehan Y.,Tarbiat Modares University | Fazaeli H.,Animal Science Research Institute | Zahedifar M.,Animal Science Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effect of dietary substitution of corn silage (CS) with amaranth silage (AS) on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility, microbial protein, nitrogen (N) retention and ruminal fermentation was evaluated using 50 Moghani male lambs (initial body weight 28.5 ± 1.9. kg). Five iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were randomly assigned to the five groups of 10 lambs each in a completely randomized design for a period of 98 days. The diets were offered ad libitum at a forage to concentrate ratio of 40-60 in which CS was replaced by different levels (0, 75, 150, 225 or 300. g/kg of dietary DM) of AS. Diets were offered twice daily (at 08:00 and 17:00 h). Daily feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), in vivo digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters, microbial N supply (MNS) and N retention in the lambs were determined. Increasing dietary level of AS improved feed intake and ADG (P<0.051), but there was no detectable effect on feed efficiency (FE) and diet digestibility. Increasing the proportion of AS in diet increased N retention, MNS and ruminal butyrate (P<0.05) but decreased branched-chain fatty acids. Dietary treatment tended to increase rumen content of total volatile fatty acids (P=0.09). It is concluded that partial substitution of AS for CS, up to 300. g/kg DM, in diet of Moghani lambs had positive effects on feed intake, growth performance, N balance and microbial N, without any effect on FE. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ghasemi V.,Tarbiat Modares University | Moharramipour S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Tahmasbi G.,Animal Science Research Institute
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC 50 = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC 50 = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC 50 = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC 50 = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Azizi-Shotorkhoft A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Rouzbehan Y.,Tarbiat Modares University | Fazaeli H.,Animal Science Research Institute
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

In a completely randomized design, fifteen male Moghani sheep were used to determine the influence of supplementing processed broiler litter (BL) with different carbohydrate sources (i.e., corn, barley or molasses) on the nutrients digestibility, microbial protein (MP) production, ruminal parameters and blood metabolites. The three dietary treatments, which were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous, were corn diet (alfalfa hay, wheat straw, processed BL, corn grain), barley diet (alfalfa hay, wheat straw, processed BL, barley grain) and molasses diet (alfalfa hay, wheat straw, processed BL, molasses). The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and MP in sheep fed molasses diet were higher (P<0.05) compared with those fed with diets containing corn or barley. However, sheep fed molasses diet had lower (P<0.05) ruminal pH ammonia concentration than those fed with other diets. Including various carbohydrate sources in the diets had no effect on volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P>0.05), except for total VFA and molar proportion of butyrate which increased (P<0.05) by molasses feeding. From blood metabolites only the blood urea-N concentration in sheep fed diet containing molasses was lower (P<0.05) than diet containing corn. In conclusion, adding molasses to processed BL-containing diet led to improved nutrient digestibility and MP production in sheep. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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