Animal Science Research Center

Columbia, MO, United States

Animal Science Research Center

Columbia, MO, United States
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Airuungowa,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Wang J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Uyhan,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Uliaas,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2016

Gamete cells passing through the genital tracts of both male and female lose some specific structural component to acquire a new one and finish fertilization successfully. It has been identified that some molecules localized either on gamete cells or in the genital tract tissues involved in particular events of fertilization. Tetraspanin CD9 is considered to be a serious candidate molecule participating in these events. The aim of this study was to investigate-whether the molecule CD9 is expressed on sheep oocytes during their oogenesis and maturation as well as on the early embryos and in sheep reproductive organs. The expression of sheep CD9 was examined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Sperm binding and penetration of oocytes treated with CD9 antibody were examined by fertilization in vitro. The immunofluorescence studies using an anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody showed strong staining on the plasma membrane of oocytes at different developmental stages and early embryonic blastomeres. Intensive tissue staining was observed in primary follicles and mature follicles. The Western blot analysis showed the 24 kDa molecule exists in immature and mature oocytes and early embryos protein obtained from 2-cells, 4-cells, and 8-cells of embryos. Both sperm binding to ooplasma and sperm penetration into oocytes were significantly reduced in anti-CD9 antibody-treated oocytes (4.4 ± 0.1/oocytes and 41.5% respectively) as compared with oocytes in the controls (6.0 ± 0.3/oocytes and 81.4% respectively) (P < 0.01). The obtained ata could be considered in the interpretation of the role of CD9 in oogenesis, early embryonic growth and that it participates in sperm-oocyte interactions during fertilization. © 2016, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.


Kendall N.R.,University of Leeds | MacKenzie A.M.,University of Leeds | MacKenzie A.M.,Animal Science Research Center | Telfer S.B.,University of Leeds | Telfer S.B.,Telsol Ltd.
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

Zinc, cobalt and selenium are essential trace elements for ruminants and all have roles in immune function. The delivery of these elements to grazing livestock can be problematical. The aim of this trial is to determine the effect of the administration of an intraruminal soluble glass bolus to supply zinc, cobalt and selenium to growing lambs at pasture and to determine the effect on humoral immune response via the administration of a novel keyhole limpet haemacyanin (KLH) antigen. On days 0, 17 lambs each had a zinc (15.1% w/w), cobalt (0.52% w/w) and selenium (0.15% w/w) soluble glass bolus (~33. g) administered (bolused), whilst the 17 lambs received no bolus (control). All of the lambs were grazed together throughout the trial. Trace element status (selenium-erythrocyte glutathione peroxidise activity; cobalt-serum vitamin B12 concentration; zinc-plasma zinc concentration) and live weights were assessed on days 0, 20, 42 and 63, with immunisation with KLH on day 34 and assessment of IgG response by direct ELISA on days 20, 42, 49, 63. Lambs were slaughtered when commercially fit on either day 86 or 121 and livers analysed for copper and zinc concentrations and boluses recovered from the bolus group to assess dissolution rates. The bolused lambs had significantly increased serum vitamin B 12 concentrations (p<0.001) and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities (p<0.001) on all post-bolusing samplings. The bolused lambs had higher plasma zinc concentrations on day 42 (p<0.05) and day 63 (p<0.01). The humoral immune response was enhanced with the bolused lambs having significantly greater anti-KLH IgG levels on day 42 (p<0.05) and day 63 (p<0.01), although the two groups had a similar maximal value at day 49. There was no significant effect of the bolus on live-weight or liver zinc concentrations. The average bolus dissolution rate of the recovered boluses was 326mgglass/d (s.d.±30mg/d) giving a mean daily release of 49.3mg zinc, 1.7mg cobalt and 0.5mg selenium. The pasture mineral status was not assessed, but the bolus alone was able to fulfil recommended intake requirements for the elements. In conclusion, administration of a zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus resulted in an increased antibody response and fulfilled the daily requirements for cobalt, selenium and zinc with an elevated status of these elements compared to unsupplemented controls grazing the same pasture. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Spate L.D.,Animal Science Research Center | Brown A.N.,Animal Science Research Center | Redel B.K.,Animal Science Research Center | Whitworth K.M.,Animal Science Research Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The ability to mature oocytes in vitro provides a tool for creating embryos by parthenogenesis, fertilization, and cloning. Unfortunately the quality of oocytes matured in vitro falls behind that of in vivo matured oocytes. To address this difference, transcriptional profiling by deep sequencing was conducted on pig oocytes that were either matured in vitro or in vivo. Alignment of over 18 million reads identified 1,316 transcripts that were differentially represented. One pathway that was overrepresented in the oocytes matured in vitro was for Wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling. In an attempt to inhibit the WNT pathway, Dickkopf-related protein 1 was added to the in vitro maturation medium. Addition of Dickkopfrelated protein 1 improved the percentage of oocytes that matured to the metaphase II stage, increased the number of nuclei in the resulting blastocyst stage embryos, and reduced the amount of disheveled segment polarity protein 1 protein in oocytes. It is concluded that transcriptional profiling is a powerful method for detecting differences between in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes, and that the WNT signaling pathway is important for proper oocyte maturation. © 2014 Spate et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Redel B.K.,Animal Science Research Center | Tessanne K.J.,Animal Science Research Center | Spate L.D.,Animal Science Research Center | Murphy C.N.,Animal Science Research Center | Prather R.S.,Animal Science Research Center
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2015

Culture systems promote development at rates lower than the in vivo environment. Here, we evaluated the embryo's transcriptome to determine what the embryo needs during development. A previous mRNA sequencing endeavour found upregulation of solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1 (SLC7A1), an arginine transporter, in in vitro- compared with in vivo-cultured embryos. In the present study, we added different concentrations of arginine to our culture medium to meet the needs of the porcine embryo. Increasing arginine from 0.12 to 1.69mM improved the number of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. These blastocysts also had more total nuclei compared with controls and, specifically, more trophectoderm nuclei. Embryos cultured in 1.69mM arginine had lower SLC7A1 levels and a higher abundance of messages involved with glycolysis (hexokinase 1, hexokinase 2 and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) 2) and decreased expression of genes involved with blocking the tricarboxylic acid cycle (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1) and the pentose phosphate pathway (transaldolase 1). Expression of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) genes PRMT1, PRMT3 and PRMT5 throughout development was not affected by arginine. However, the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) and DDAH2 message was found to be differentially regulated through development, and the DDAH2 protein was localised to the nuclei of blastocysts. Arginine has a positive effect on preimplantation development and may be affecting the nitric oxide-DDAH-PRMT axis. © CSIRO 2015.


Hifzan R.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Hifzan R.M.,Animal Science Research Center | Idris I.,University Putra Malaysia | Yaakub H.,University Putra Malaysia
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

The objective of this research was to examine the growth pattern for body weight, body length and height at withers of Kalahari Red goats using non-linear models. The body size measurement data were collected from 227 Kalahari Red female goats and fit into Gompertz and Brody growth model. The results revealed that Gompertz growth model had the best goodness of fit to describe the growth of Kalahari Red goats for body weight, body length and height at withers as shown by higher coefficient of determination (97.9, 98.9 and 99.1, respectively). The correlation coefficients between A and k for body weight, body length and height at withers were negative in both models, implying that goats of larger mature size tended to have a slower growth rate in relation to their mature size. Height at withers-body weight has the highest correlation coefficient (0.96). © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | Animal Science Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction, fertility, and development | Year: 2016

Culture systems promote development at rates lower than the in vivo environment. Here, we evaluated the embryos transcriptome to determine what the embryo needs during development. A previous mRNA sequencing endeavour found upregulation of solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1 (SLC7A1), an arginine transporter, in in vitro- compared with in vivo-cultured embryos. In the present study, we added different concentrations of arginine to our culture medium to meet the needs of the porcine embryo. Increasing arginine from 0.12 to 1.69mM improved the number of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. These blastocysts also had more total nuclei compared with controls and, specifically, more trophectoderm nuclei. Embryos cultured in 1.69mM arginine had lower SLC7A1 levels and a higher abundance of messages involved with glycolysis (hexokinase 1, hexokinase 2 and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) 2) and decreased expression of genes involved with blocking the tricarboxylic acid cycle (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1) and the pentose phosphate pathway (transaldolase 1). Expression of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) genes PRMT1, PRMT3 and PRMT5 throughout development was not affected by arginine. However, the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) and DDAH2 message was found to be differentially regulated through development, and the DDAH2 protein was localised to the nuclei of blastocysts. Arginine has a positive effect on preimplantation development and may be affecting the nitric oxide-DDAH-PRMT axis.


PubMed | Animal Science Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular reproduction and development | Year: 2016

Most in vitro culture conditions are less-than-optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional-profiling database to identify culture-induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo-produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P=0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria-related transcripts did not differ between control and 10mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro-produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246-258, 2016. 2016 The Authors.

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