Ahmed B.M.,Nile Valley University |
Taha K.M.,Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory |
Enan K.A.,Central Laboratory |
Elfahal A.M.,Central Laboratory |
El Hussein A.R.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Vaccine | Year: 2013
Malignant ovine theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi is an economically important disease infecting small ruminants in the Sudan. The disease causes massive losses among sheep in many regions of Northern Sudan. The present studies were done to isolate lymphoblastiod cells infected with malignant ovine theileriosis and attenuate them by passage using culture media to develop and produce schizonts candidate vaccine, then test its efficacy and safety by exposing immunized lambs to field challenge in an area endemic with T. lestoquardi. In the present experiments we isolated and established an in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoblast cell line. Long-term culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoplastoid cells was shown to result in attenuation of their virulence and lambs inoculated with different doses of such cells at passage 105 exhibited very mild reactions with fever that lasted for 1-5 days and parasitaemia of <0.2%. The experimental lambs immunized with this candidate vaccine were immune and protected when exposed to field challenge in an area endemic of ovine theileriosis, while morbidity and mortality among non-immunized animals reached 76.9% and 46.15%, respectively, and they exhibited the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis that included, high fever, loss of appetite, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice, loss of weight and death. The present study demonstrates the efficacy and the safety of this attenuated cell line as a live attenuated candidate vaccine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Taha K.M.,Atbara Veterinary Research Laboratory AVRL |
Salih D.A.,Kassala Veterinary Research Laboratory KVRL |
Ali A.M.,University of Khartoum |
Omer R.A.,Veterinary Research Institute |
El Hussein A.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013
Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Beadell J.S.,Yale University |
Hyseni C.,Yale University |
Abila P.P.,National Livestock Resources Research Institute |
Azabo R.,National Livestock Resources Research Institute |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010
Background: Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the main vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in Uganda. Successful implementation of vector control will require establishing an appropriate geographical scale for these activities. Population genetics can help to resolve this issue by characterizing the extent of linkage among apparently isolated groups of tsetse. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted genetic analyses on mitochondrial and microsatellite data accumulated from approximately 1000 individual tsetse captured in Uganda and neighboring regions of Kenya and Sudan. Phylogeographic analyses suggested that the largest scale genetic structure in G. f. fuscipes arose from an historical event that divided two divergent mitochondrial lineages. These lineages are currently partitioned to northern and southern Uganda and co-occur only in a narrow zone of contact extending across central Uganda. Bayesian assignment tests, which provided evidence for admixture between northern and southern flies at the zone of contact and evidence for northerly gene flow across the zone of contact, indicated that this structure may be impermanent. On the other hand, microsatellite structure within the southern lineage indicated that gene flow is currently limited between populations in western and southeastern Uganda. Within regions, the average FST between populations separated by less than 100 km was less than ∼0.1. Significant tests of isolation by distance suggested that gene flow is ongoing between neighboring populations and that island populations are not uniformly more isolated than mainland populations. Conclusions/Significance: Despite the presence of population structure arising from historical colonization events, our results have revealed strong signals of current gene flow within regions that should be accounted for when planning tsetse control in Uganda. Populations in southeastern Uganda appeared to receive little gene flow from populations in western or northern Uganda, supporting the feasibility of area wide control in the Lake Victoria region by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign. © 2010 Beadell et al.
PubMed | Sudan University of Science and Technology, University of Bonn, Animal Resources Research Corporation and University of Nottingham
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016
In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity.This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old) from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins) and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+), n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+) and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf). Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis.Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1 were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis.Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1 as potential diagnostic markers in order to distinguish patent from non-patent individuals.
El Hussein A.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation |
Hassan S.M.,University of Khartoum |
Salih D.A.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012
Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. © Springer-Verlag 2012.
PubMed | Health Science University, University of Khartoum and Animal Resources Research Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of parasitology | Year: 2016
Malignant Ovine Theileriosis (MOT) caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered a major constraint for sheep production in many areas of the world including Sudan. Pulmonary oedema is thought to be the main cause of animal death, but the mechanism, the cell types involved and/or the probable cause of this pneumonia has yet to be defined. The present study was carried out to investigate the pulmonary involvement post T. lestoquardi infection and to identify the cell types involved in pneumonia. Apparently healthy sheep were exposed to ticks challenge in T. lestoquardi endemic area. Lungs impression smears and tissue sections for histopathology were processed. At necropsy, fifteen infected sheep revealed severe pneumonia associated with oedema and accumulation of creamy-grayish frothy exudates. The microscopic findings of examined lungs showed emphysema, congestion, collapse and proliferation of immense amount of different kinds of cells. The current study indicates that T. lestoquardi infections are accompanied with remarkable pulmonary involvements and may lead to respiratory failure and death.
El Imam A.H.,Health Science University |
Taha K.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015
Malignant Ovine Theileriosis (MOT) is a tick borne disease of sheep and goats, caused by Theileria lestoquardi and is considered a major constraint for sheep production in many areas of the world. It has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro and the schizonts differentiate into macro-schizonts and micro-schizonts. To date, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the disease pathogenesis, but its high mortality is likely to be linked to the ability of T. lestoquardi to stimulate uncontrolled proliferation of the infected leukocyte. Consequently, severe tissue destruction and pulmonary oedema leading to respiratory failure are thought to be the cause of death. Despite an immense amount of small ruminant research, MOT remains an important disease of sheep and goats. Therefore, the present review outlines the current knowledge covering T. lestoquardi transmission, distribution, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control. The information may assist in filling the gaps in our knowledge about the economic impact of the disease and new research initiatives. We conclude that the development of a simple, affordable and applicable diagnostic test for an early detection at the field level, and the production of an effective vaccine could have a significant impact on the control of the disease. © 2015 Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences.
Omer M.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation |
Musa M.T.,Animal Resources Research Corporation |
Bakhiet M.R.,Animal Resources Research Corporation |
Perrett L.,World Health Organization
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2010
Brucellosis was studied in 2,225 camels, 20 camel nomads and 33 abattoir workers in certain nomadic localities in Sudan, using serum and milk samples. Lymph nodes, testicular tissues and udder tissues from positive camels and hygroma aspirates from three affected cows were used for isolation of Brucella. Serum samples were examined by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and milk by the milk ring test. Overall seroprevalence in camels (milk and serum samples) was 37.5%. The seroprevalence in males was 28.2% and in females 40.1%. Twelve (60%) of the 20 nomads and three (9%) of the 33 abattoir workers had positive antibody titres. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from two camels and three cows. Two isolates, one from each species, were atypical. The bacteriological findings suggested that camels were infected from cattle, the primary hosts of B. abortus. The mRBPT was suitable for screening camel sera for brucellosis, but the cELISA detected 2.1% more positives. The SAT antibody concentrations ranged between <13 and 3,282 IU/ml.
Ibrahim K.E.,King Saud University |
Khan H.A.,King Saud University |
Omer F.A.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014
Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) is a prototype nitrile compound that produces excitation, chorea and circling (ECC) syndrome in rodents. Previous studies have implicated vestibular hair cell degeneration in IDPN-induced behavioral abnormalities. Although the pathological changes in vestibular labyrinth of IDPN-treated rats are well documented, the effects of IDPN on other organ systems are not clearly understood. We therefore examined the histopathological alterations in inner ear, brain, liver and kidneys of rats exposed to IDPN. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of six animals each. Control rats received normal saline whereas the IDPN group was treated with IDPN (100. mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 days. All the animals were carefully observed for any behavioral abnormality and the dyskinetic movements including the vertical and horizontal head weaving, circling and backward walking were quantified. The animals were sacrificed on day 9 and the samples of cochlea, brain, liver and kidney were collected for histopathology. The results showed a direct correlation between the severity of behavioral deficits and the cellular damage in crista ampullaris in IDPN-treated rats. Histopathology of liver was severely influenced by IDPN treatment, leading to vacuolization of cytoplasm, distorted sinusoids, infiltration of mononuclear cells and necrotic zones. However, the severity of hepatic damage in IDPN-treated rats was independent of the magnitude of vestibular hair cell degeneration as well as the severity of behavioral deficits. Administration of IDPN in the vestibulotoxic doses did not produce any histological changes in the brain cortex and kidneys of rats. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.
Elhussein A.M.,Animal Resources Research Corporation
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010
Theileria-free Hyalomma anatolicum larvae were fed on a naturally infected sheep with Theileria lestoquardi. Resulting flat nymphs of the tick were able to transmit T. lestoquardi infection upon feeding to 3/3 susceptible sheep. Adults emerging from the same batch of larvae were also infective to 3/3 susceptible sheep when they had the infection during their larval feeding. Transmission of T. lestoquardi to sheep was confirmed through clinical monitoring, examination of blood and lymph node biopsy smears, serology using indirect immunoflourescent test, and molecular using polymerase chain reaction technique. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.