Animal Diseases Research Unit

Pullman, WA, United States

Animal Diseases Research Unit

Pullman, WA, United States
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Capelli-Peixoto J.,São Paulo State University | Carvalho D.D.,SD&W Modelagem e Solucoes Estrategicas Ltda. | Johnson W.C.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | Scoles G.A.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2017

Rhipicephalus microplus is an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale, the etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis. The knowledge of tick immune responses to control bacterial infections remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription factor Relish from the IMD signaling pathway has an important role in the control of A. marginale infection in ticks. We found that RNA-mediated silencing of Relish caused a significant increase in the number of A. marginale in the midgut and salivary glands of R. microplus. In addition, the IMD pathway regulates the expression of the gene that encodes the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) microplusin. Moreover, microplusin expression was up-regulated in the midgut (2×) and salivary glands (8×) of A. marginale infected R. microplus. Therefore, it is plausible to hypothesize that microplusin may be involved in the A. marginale control. This study provides the first evidence of IMD signaling pathway participation on the A. marginale control in R. microplus. © 2017


Ueti M.W.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | Ueti M.W.,Washington State University | Mealey R.H.,Washington State University | Kappmeyer L.S.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Arthropod-borne apicomplexan pathogens that cause asymptomatic persistent infections present a significant challenge due to their life-long transmission potential. Although anti-microbials have been used to ameliorate acute disease in animals and humans, chemotherapeutic efficacy for apicomplexan pathogen elimination from a persistently infected host and removal of transmission risk is largely unconfirmed. The recent re-emergence of the apicomplexan Theileria equi in U.S. horses prompted testing whether imidocarb dipropionate was able to eliminate T. equi from naturally infected horses and remove transmission risk. Following imidocarb treatment, levels of T. equi declined from a mean of 104.9 organisms/ml of blood to undetectable by nested PCR in 24 of 25 naturally infected horses. Further, blood transfer from treated horses that became nested PCR negative failed to transmit to naïve splenectomized horses. Although these results were consistent with elimination of infection in 24 of 25 horses, T. equi-specific antibodies persisted in the majority of imidocarb treated horses. Imidocarb treatment was unsuccessful in one horse which remained infected as measured by nested PCR and retained the ability to infect a naïve recipient via intravenous blood transfer. However, a second round of treatment eliminated T. equi infection. These results support the utility of imidocarb chemotherapy for assistance in the control and eradication of this tick-borne pathogen. Successful imidocarb dipropionate treatment of persistently infected horses provides a tool to aid the global equine industry by removing transmission risk associated with infection and facilitating international movement of equids between endemic and non-endemic regions.


Thumbi S.M.,Washington State University | Thumbi S.M.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Njenga M.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Marsh T.L.,Washington State University | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the incidence of human illness increased 1.31-fold for every 10 cases of animal illness or death observed (95% CI 1.16-1.49). Access and utilization of animal source foods such as milk and eggs were positively associated with the number of cattle and chickens owned by the household. Additionally, health care seeking was correlated with household incomes and wealth, which were in turn correlated with livestock herd size. Conclusion This study platform provides a unique longitudinal dataset that allows for the determination and quantification of linkages between human and animal health, including the impact of healthy animals on human disease averted, malnutrition, household educational attainment, and income levels.


Mudenda L.,Washington State University | Pierle S.A.,Washington State University | Turse J.E.,Washington State University | Scoles G.A.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2014

Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5. days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5. day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.


Mudenda L.,Washington State University | Pierle S.A.,Washington State University | Turse J.E.,Washington State University | Scoles G.A.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2014

Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.


PubMed | Animal Diseases Research Unit, Washington State University and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for parasitology | Year: 2014

Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.


Esquerra E.V.,Washington State University | Herndon D.R.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | Mendoza F.A.,Programa de Salud Animal | Mosqueda J.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Palmer G.H.,Washington State University
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2014

Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already infected with a primary strain. The selective pressures that drive strain divergence, which underlies superinfection, and allow penetration of a new strain into a host population are critical knowledge gaps relevant to shifts in infectious disease epidemiology. In regions of endemicity with a high prevalence of infection, broad population immunity develops against Anaplasma marginale, a highly antigenically variant rickettsial pathogen, and creates strong selective pressure for emergence of and superinfection with strains that differ in their Msp2 variant repertoires. The strains may emerge either by msp2 locus duplication and allelic divergence on an existing genomic background or by introduction of a strain with a different msp2 allelic repertoire on a distinct genomic background. To answer this question, we developed a multilocus typing assay based on high-throughput sequencing of non-msp2 target loci to distinguish among strains with different genomic backgrounds. The technical error level was statistically defined based on the percentage of perfect sequence matches of clones of each target locus and validated using experimental single strains and strain pairs. Testing of A. marginale-positive samples from tropical regions where A. marginale infection is endemic identified individual infections that contained unique alleles for all five targeted loci. The data revealed a highly significant difference in the number of strains per animal in the tropical regions compared to infections in temperate regions and strongly supported the hypothesis that transmission of genomically distinct A. marginale strains predominates in high-prevalence areas of endemicity. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Programa de Salud Animal, Animal Diseases Research Unit, Washington State University and Autonomous University of Queretaro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Infection and immunity | Year: 2014

Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already infected with a primary strain. The selective pressures that drive strain divergence, which underlies superinfection, and allow penetration of a new strain into a host population are critical knowledge gaps relevant to shifts in infectious disease epidemiology. In regions of endemicity with a high prevalence of infection, broad population immunity develops against Anaplasma marginale, a highly antigenically variant rickettsial pathogen, and creates strong selective pressure for emergence of and superinfection with strains that differ in their Msp2 variant repertoires. The strains may emerge either by msp2 locus duplication and allelic divergence on an existing genomic background or by introduction of a strain with a different msp2 allelic repertoire on a distinct genomic background. To answer this question, we developed a multilocus typing assay based on high-throughput sequencing of non-msp2 target loci to distinguish among strains with different genomic backgrounds. The technical error level was statistically defined based on the percentage of perfect sequence matches of clones of each target locus and validated using experimental single strains and strain pairs. Testing of A. marginale-positive samples from tropical regions where A. marginale infection is endemic identified individual infections that contained unique alleles for all five targeted loci. The data revealed a highly significant difference in the number of strains per animal in the tropical regions compared to infections in temperate regions and strongly supported the hypothesis that transmission of genomically distinct A. marginale strains predominates in high-prevalence areas of endemicity.


Albarrak S.M.,Washington State University | Brown W.C.,Washington State University | Noh S.M.,Animal Diseases Research Unit | Reif K.E.,Washington State University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and proteomic approaches have facilitated identification of minor components of the bacterial outer membrane that have previously been missed or ignored in immunological analyses. Immunization with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes or a cross-linked surface complex induces protection against bacteremia, however the components responsible for protection within these complex immunogens are unknown. Using outer membrane protein AM779 as a model, we demonstrated that this highly conserved but minor component of the A. marginale surface was immunologically sub-dominant in the context of the outer membrane or surface complex vaccines. Immunologic sub-dominance could be overcome by targeted vaccination with AM779 for T lymphocyte responses but not for antibody responses, suggesting that both abundance and intrinsic immunogenicity determine relative dominance. Importantly, immunization with AM779 supports that once priming is achieved by specific targeting, recall upon infectious challenge is achieved. While immunization with AM779 alone was not sufficient to induce protection, the ability of targeted immunization to prime the immune response to highly conserved but low abundance proteins supports continued investigation into the role of sub-dominant antigens, individually and collectively, in vaccine development for A. marginale and related bacterial pathogens. © 2012 Albarrak et al.

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