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Grushina T.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Atshabar B.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Syzdykov M.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | Daulbaeva S.,Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases | And 19 more authors.

Combinations of conventional serological methods and new ELISA procedures were evaluated to develop the most efficient and effective diagnostics for the detection of brucellosis in humans and animals. Sera from humans (n= 249) and animals (n= 99) were collected from brucellosis endemic areas (Zhambyl district and Enbekshi-Kazakh district of Almaty region in Kazakhstan) for serologic analysis. Sera from the humans reacted positively in the RBT (38.5%), SAT (43.3%), iELISA (42.5%) while sera from the animals reacted positively in RBT (79.8%), SAT (89.9%), CF (87.8%), iELISA (100%). Greater seropositivity was detected in animals as compared to human samples. All positive sera were also evaluated on an indirect ELISA (iELISA). Bacterial isolation was attempted on seropositive human sera. Our data indicate that the combination of conventional serological tests (SAT and CF), combined with the iELISA is optimal for the processing of large numbers of samples and the most efficient detection of human and animal brucellosis. © 2010. Source

Bielanski A.,Animal Diseases Research Institute
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

This chapter summarizes pertinent procedures, data and opinions on the potential hazards of disease transmission through liquid nitrogen (LN)-cryopreserved and banked germplasm and tissues for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) The importance of applying internationally adopted sanitary washing procedures to germplasm as a crucial step towards their successful microbial-free cryopreservation and storage is emphasised. Special attention is given to the survival of pathogens in LN, variety of vitrification methods, sterility of LN, risks associated with the use of straws and cryovials, and LN Dewars including dry shippers. It was experimentally demonstrated that cross-contamination between LN and embryos may occur, when infectious agents are present in LN and if embryos are not protected by use of a sealed container. It is important, therefore, to prevent direct contact of germplasm and reproductive tissues with LN during cryopreservation and their storage as a mandatory measure for reducing the risk of contamination. This includes the usage of hermetically sealed high quality shatter proof freezing containers and/or the application of a secondary enclosure such as "double bagging or straw in straw". A periodic disinfection of cryo-Dewars should be considered as an additional precaution to diminish the potential for inadvertent cross-contamination. It would be advisable to use separate LN Dewars to quarantine embryos derived from infected donors of valuable genotypes or from unknown health status, extinction-threatened species. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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