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Ismael A.B.,Zagazig University | Ismael A.B.,Taif University | Swelum A.A.-A.,King Saud University | Swelum A.A.-A.,Zagazig University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, is considered the most-widespread zoonosis in the world, particularly in developing countries. This study was planned to develop an accurate test for diagnosis of ovine brucellosis using a specific hot saline extracted soluble Brucella melitensis periplasmic proteins (SBPPs). The efficacy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) using SBPPs compared to the Rose Bengal test (RBT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was evaluated in the field diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The test performance was evaluated by estimating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), disease prevalence (DP), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) using test agreement and bacteriological culture in 1777 samples. The false-positive result was significantly (P 1/20.05) lower in LAT than RBT, BPAT, SAT, and i-ELISA. With reference to test agreement, the Se, Sp, PPV, and PLR were highest (P 1/20.05) in LAT 99.33%, 99.88%, 98.68%, and 827.25%, respectively. With reference to bacteriological culture, the LAT and i-ELISA tests showed a significant difference in Se with SAT. However, no significant difference in specificity was detected. The DP was 8.44% in the five tests. In conclusion, LAT using SBPPs of B. melitensis could be a suitable serodiagnostic field test for ovine brucellosis, with high sensitivity and specificity. © The Author(s) 2015.


Ismael A.B.,Taif University | Ismael A.B.,Zagazig University | Mergani A.,Taif University | Mergani A.,University of Gezira | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Gestao e Desenvolvimento Regional | Year: 2016

Polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may not only increase susceptibility to some infectious diseases but also affect the course and prognosis of the disease. TNF-α is considered an important Th1 cytokines that plays critical roles in control of Brucella infection and in macrophage activation. In this study, we are going to analyze the relationship of two polymorphisms in TNF-α and the inherited susceptibility/resistance to brucellosis in population of Makkah region. A cases-control association study was conducted in 69 individuals with human Brucellosis and 112 healthy individuals. Genotyping of TNF-308G>A and-857C>T polymorphism in both patients and healthy controls was done by PCR-RFLP method and were assessed for potential associations with susceptibility for human brucellosis and their mode of penetrance. The findings indicate an increased risk of TNF-α-308 A allele for human brucellosis reliable with the recessive genetic model of penetrance (Odd Ratio: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.008-5.702, P = 0.018). There is no association between susceptibility of human brucellosis and TNF-α-857 C/T polymorphism was observed. The protective role of TNF-α-857 C/T polymorphism against human brucellosis in this study population could not be excluded. © 2016 Alaa B. Ismael, Adil Mergani, Salama A-H Mostafa and Abdelmoneim M. Salim.


Mohammed K.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Khalil M.H.,Benha University | Al-Saef A.M.,Qassim University
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

A crossbreeding program between Aradi Saudi breed (A) of goats with Syrian Damascus breed (D) was practiced for six years in two experiments (dairy experiment in Jouf and meat experiment in Qassim) applying bio-techniques of estrous synchronization and artificial insemination. The breeding plan permitted to produce four genetic groups of AA, DD, 1/2D1/2A and 3/4D1/4A in each experiment separately. A total number of 1800 ejaculates collected from 298 bucks were evaluated for volume of ejaculate (EV), pH, sperm concentration (SC), total motile sperm (TMS), total sperm output (TSO), percentages of motile (MS), live (LS), abnormal (AS) and dead sperms (DS). Animal models were used to estimate the heritabilities and permanent environmental effects, while a generalized least square procedure was used to estimate individual additive genetic effects, individual heterosis, maternal heterosis and individual recombination effects. Heritabilities for most semen characteristics were low or somewhat moderate and ranging from 0.08 to 0.23, while the permanent environmental effects were slightly higher than the respective heritabilities since the estimates ranged from 0.10 to 0.29. Estimates of individual additive effects for SC, TMS and TSO were in favour of Damascus bucks relative to Aradi bucks by 0.2, 0.43 and 0.44×109 per ml in the dairy experiment and by 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11×109 per ml in the meat experiment, respectively. Significant individual heterotic improvements (with a range of 4.9-26.5%) were recorded in the dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.075ml vs. 0.085ml), SC (0.25×109 per ml vs. 0.11×109 per ml), TMS (0.275×109 per ml vs. 0.125×109 per ml), and TSO (0.33×109 per ml vs. 0.155×109 per ml), associated with significant reduction in percentage of DS (5.5% vs. 1.55%). Crossbred dams showed significant maternal heterotic improvements in semen of their crossbred bucks in both dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.058ml vs. 0.055ml; P<0.05), SC (0.15×109 per ml vs. 0.09×109 per ml; P<0.05), TMS (0.225×109 per ml vs. 0.085×109 per ml; P<0.05), and TSO (0.58×109 per ml vs. 0.115×109 per ml; P<0.01), associated with favourable significant increases in MS (3.3% vs. 4.05%; P<0.05) and LS (3.7% vs. 2.25%; P<0.05) along with a reduction in percentage of DS (4.3% vs. 2.25%; P<0.05); the estimates ranging from 3.3 to 34.1%. The estimates of individual recombination losses for most semen parameters were favourable and non-significant. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Darwish S.F.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Asfour H.A.E.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections. © 2013 Samah F. Darwish and Hanaa A. E. Asfour.


Mohammed K.M.E.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Al-Mutairi S.E.,Camel Research Center
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

To evaluate the reproductive performance of the camel herd at the Camel Research Centre, records over 20 years were collected and analysed. The effects of camel breeds and ages on the reproductive performance were included in the study. The results revealed that, the overall mean values of ages at first mating, conception and calving were 39.75±0.61; 41.82±0.64 and 54.39±0.64 months, respectively. The overall means of the corresponding body weights were 437.17±6.75, 450.16±7.57 and 519.03+6.86 kg, respectively. Camel breeds have a significant effect (P<0.05) on the body weight at first calving. The overall mean of the interval between services was 19.32±0.26 days, with no significant effects of camel breeds and ages. The overall period of post-partum heat was 45.39±2.57 days and was influenced significantly by camel breeds. The overall means of the service period and open days were 74.58±3.62 and 317.61±4.54 days, respectively, and both of camel breeds and ages had a significant effect on these criteria. Camel ages had significant effect on the number of services/conception and this indicated that medium ages (5-11 years) needs less service for conception than other ages. Service period and number of services/conception were significantly less during November to January mating months than that during February to April. The overall mean of calving interval was 19.70±0.34 months. Camel breeds and successive calving seasons had no significant effect on the calving interval. In conclusion, reproductive performance of Dromedary camels depends essentially on the camel breeds and ages.


Abd El-Razik K.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Hafez S.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Shell W.S.,Biologics | Ghazi Y.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was vaccinated once subcutaneously with RB51 vaccine. The third (control) group was injected similarly with sterile saline. Concerning the S19 vaccinated group, significant TAT titers were seen 1 week post vaccination (WPV) till the maximum at the 2 nd WPV. After that it was gradually decreased till the 7 WPV, then sharply before it completely disappeared at the 13 WPV. On the other hand, the LPS-ELISA showed an antibody titer as early as one WPV reached its peak at 2 WPV and persisted steadily till the 6 th WPV and decreased slowly when it reached minimal level at the 16 WPV till the end of the experiment. While in RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves using the PPA-ELISA, the antibody titer began and reach the maximum as early as the first WPV, still steady till 2 WPV, fluctuating till the 6th WPV, then dropped sharply when it disappeared at 11WPV till the end of the experiment. © 2011 Academic Journals.


PubMed | Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI
Type: | Journal: TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2013

A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections.


PubMed | Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI, Mansoura University and Taif University
Type: | Journal: Reproductive biology | Year: 2017

The cryopreservation of germ cells is a major tool for the propagation of animals with desired genetic traits. Although cryopreservation of spermatozoa in some animals is effective, its effectiveness is variable. For example, cryopreservation efficiency of buffalo bull spermatozoa remains very poor. In this study, we evaluated sperm DNA damage and ultrastructure in buffalo bull spermatozoa vitrified in the presence or absence of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC). Our results showed that cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa had elevated levels of deteriorated plasma and mitochondrial membranes, which are the likely causes of DNA damage after vitrification. Accordingly, the levels of the activity of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) were also elevated following exposure of buffalo bull spermatozoa to a cycle of freezing-thawing. Importantly, supplementation of Tris-Egg Yolk-Glucose (TEYG) extender with (CLC) improved the quality of buffalo spermatozoa following cryopreservation. This protective effect of CLC is likely due to decreasing mitochondrial and plasma membrane deterioration with subsequent inhibition of DNA damage. These results suggest that cholesterol loss is the likely reason for poor semen quality in buffaloes following cryopreservation, and provide evidence that manipulating lipid content during cryopreservation is a promising strategy to improve the quality of buffalo semen.


PubMed | Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI, University of Wisconsin - Madison and Cairo University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbiology (Reading, England) | Year: 2015

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, or Johnes disease, in cattle, with potential involvement in cases of Crohns disease in humans. Johnes disease is found worldwide and is economically important for both beef and dairy industries. In an effort to characterize this important infection in Egypt, we analysed the ecological and genomic features of recent isolates of M. paratuberculosis. In this report, we examined 26 Holstein dairy herds distributed throughout Egypt, from 2010 to 2013. Using PCR analysis of faecal samples, we estimated a mean herd-level prevalence of 65.4%, with animal-level infection that reached a mean of 13.6% among animals suffering from diarrhoea. Whole genome sequencing of field isolates identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms among field isolates relative to the standard M. paratuberculosis K10 genome. Interestingly, the virulence of M. paratuberculosis isolates from Egypt revealed diverse virulence phenotypes in the murine model of paratuberculosis, with significant differences in tissue colonization, particularly during the chronic stage of infection. Overall, our analysis confirmed that Johnes disease is a newly identified problem in Egypt and indicated that M. paratuberculosis has potentially diverse genotypes that impact its virulence. Further ecological mapping and genomic analysis of M. paratuberculosis will enhance our understanding of the transmission and evolutionary dynamics of this pathogen under natural field conditions.

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