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Mohammed K.M.E.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Al-Mutairi S.E.,Camel Research Center
Journal of Camel Practice and Research | Year: 2012

To evaluate the reproductive performance of the camel herd at the Camel Research Centre, records over 20 years were collected and analysed. The effects of camel breeds and ages on the reproductive performance were included in the study. The results revealed that, the overall mean values of ages at first mating, conception and calving were 39.75±0.61; 41.82±0.64 and 54.39±0.64 months, respectively. The overall means of the corresponding body weights were 437.17±6.75, 450.16±7.57 and 519.03+6.86 kg, respectively. Camel breeds have a significant effect (P<0.05) on the body weight at first calving. The overall mean of the interval between services was 19.32±0.26 days, with no significant effects of camel breeds and ages. The overall period of post-partum heat was 45.39±2.57 days and was influenced significantly by camel breeds. The overall means of the service period and open days were 74.58±3.62 and 317.61±4.54 days, respectively, and both of camel breeds and ages had a significant effect on these criteria. Camel ages had significant effect on the number of services/conception and this indicated that medium ages (5-11 years) needs less service for conception than other ages. Service period and number of services/conception were significantly less during November to January mating months than that during February to April. The overall mean of calving interval was 19.70±0.34 months. Camel breeds and successive calving seasons had no significant effect on the calving interval. In conclusion, reproductive performance of Dromedary camels depends essentially on the camel breeds and ages. Source

Abd El-Razik K.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Hafez S.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Shell W.S.,Biologics | Ghazi Y.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was vaccinated once subcutaneously with RB51 vaccine. The third (control) group was injected similarly with sterile saline. Concerning the S19 vaccinated group, significant TAT titers were seen 1 week post vaccination (WPV) till the maximum at the 2 nd WPV. After that it was gradually decreased till the 7 WPV, then sharply before it completely disappeared at the 13 WPV. On the other hand, the LPS-ELISA showed an antibody titer as early as one WPV reached its peak at 2 WPV and persisted steadily till the 6 th WPV and decreased slowly when it reached minimal level at the 16 WPV till the end of the experiment. While in RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves using the PPA-ELISA, the antibody titer began and reach the maximum as early as the first WPV, still steady till 2 WPV, fluctuating till the 6th WPV, then dropped sharply when it disappeared at 11WPV till the end of the experiment. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Mohammed K.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Khalil M.H.,Benha University | Al-Saef A.M.,Qassim University
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

A crossbreeding program between Aradi Saudi breed (A) of goats with Syrian Damascus breed (D) was practiced for six years in two experiments (dairy experiment in Jouf and meat experiment in Qassim) applying bio-techniques of estrous synchronization and artificial insemination. The breeding plan permitted to produce four genetic groups of AA, DD, 1/2D1/2A and 3/4D1/4A in each experiment separately. A total number of 1800 ejaculates collected from 298 bucks were evaluated for volume of ejaculate (EV), pH, sperm concentration (SC), total motile sperm (TMS), total sperm output (TSO), percentages of motile (MS), live (LS), abnormal (AS) and dead sperms (DS). Animal models were used to estimate the heritabilities and permanent environmental effects, while a generalized least square procedure was used to estimate individual additive genetic effects, individual heterosis, maternal heterosis and individual recombination effects. Heritabilities for most semen characteristics were low or somewhat moderate and ranging from 0.08 to 0.23, while the permanent environmental effects were slightly higher than the respective heritabilities since the estimates ranged from 0.10 to 0.29. Estimates of individual additive effects for SC, TMS and TSO were in favour of Damascus bucks relative to Aradi bucks by 0.2, 0.43 and 0.44×109 per ml in the dairy experiment and by 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11×109 per ml in the meat experiment, respectively. Significant individual heterotic improvements (with a range of 4.9-26.5%) were recorded in the dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.075ml vs. 0.085ml), SC (0.25×109 per ml vs. 0.11×109 per ml), TMS (0.275×109 per ml vs. 0.125×109 per ml), and TSO (0.33×109 per ml vs. 0.155×109 per ml), associated with significant reduction in percentage of DS (5.5% vs. 1.55%). Crossbred dams showed significant maternal heterotic improvements in semen of their crossbred bucks in both dairy and meat experiments for EV (0.058ml vs. 0.055ml; P<0.05), SC (0.15×109 per ml vs. 0.09×109 per ml; P<0.05), TMS (0.225×109 per ml vs. 0.085×109 per ml; P<0.05), and TSO (0.58×109 per ml vs. 0.115×109 per ml; P<0.01), associated with favourable significant increases in MS (3.3% vs. 4.05%; P<0.05) and LS (3.7% vs. 2.25%; P<0.05) along with a reduction in percentage of DS (4.3% vs. 2.25%; P<0.05); the estimates ranging from 3.3 to 34.1%. The estimates of individual recombination losses for most semen parameters were favourable and non-significant. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Darwish S.F.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI | Asfour H.A.E.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

A total of 40 S. aureus and 68 coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis were investigated for their ability to form biofilm as one of the most important virulence factors.Using Congo Red Agar (CRA) method, 32.5%, 35%, and 32.5% of S. aureus strains were strong, intermediate, and negative biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 29.5%, 42.6%, and 27.9%, respectively. By microtiter plate (MTP) method, 52.5%, 27.5%, and 20% of S. aureus isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm producers, while in CNS the percentages were 44%, 30.9%, and 19.2%, respectively. Indian ink staining was used to detect the EPS layer of biofilm producers. All isolates were screened for presence of biofilm related genes, eno, icaA, icaD, and bap. In S. aureus isolates, the positive rates of eno, icaA, icaD, and bap genes were 75%, 15%, 62.5%, and 2.5% while in CNS were 92.6%, 5.9%, 47.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. The eno gene had the highest rate while the bap gene had the lowest rate. Presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm production. This study demonstrated high prevalence of Staphylococcus biofilm producers among bovine mastitis in Egypt. Therefore, attention must be paid toward implementation of new ways for effective treatment of such infections. © 2013 Samah F. Darwish and Hanaa A. E. Asfour. Source

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