Animal Reproduction Research Institute

Al Jīzah, Egypt

Animal Reproduction Research Institute

Al Jīzah, Egypt
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Scholkamy T.H.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | El-Badry D.A.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Mahmoud K.G.M.,National Research Center of Egypt
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to compare the in vitro fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa in order to standardize the semen preparation protocol for camel in vitro fertilization (IVF). Semen samples were collected from 7 Dromedary camels by means of artificial vagina (AV). Ten cauda epididymes were obtained from slaughtered adult camels, isolated, incised and rinsed for obtaining the sperm rich fluid. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were processed for cryopreservation. Fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, livability, membrane and acrosomal integrities. Frozen-thawed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa were used to fertilize camel mature oocytes in vitro. The results showed that, the progressive motility of freshly collected epididymal spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.05) higher than ejaculated spermatozoa (49.25 ± 1.75 vs. 38.50 ± 1.50%, respectively). The viability index of epididymal spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of ejaculated spermatozoa (96.63 ± 2.45 vs. 84.00 ± 4.08, respectively). The post-thaw acrosome and membrane integrities of epididymal spermatozoa were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of ejaculated spermatozoa. Morula and blastocyst rates of camel oocytes in vitro fertilized by frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa (59.4 ± 0.8, 19.12 ± 0.7 and 10.29 ± 0.7%), respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fertilized by frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa (48.27 ±3.1, 11.63 ± 1.1 and 5.43 ± 0.8%, respectively). In conclusion, the Dromedary camel frozen epididymal spermatozoa have the capacity to endure cryopreservation, fertilize oocytes and produce embryos in vitro better than ejaculated sperm.

El-Badry D.A.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Abo El-Maaty A.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | El Sisy G.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science | Year: 2017

Stallion semen cryopreservation is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars act as nonpermeating cryoprotectants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of trehalose on stallion sperm quality and field fertility rates subjected to cooling and freeze–thaw process. Semen samples were collected from six Arabian stallions, divided into five different treatments in a final concentration of 100 × 106 sperm/mL by using INRA-82 extender containing 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM of trehalose then subjected to both cold storage and cryopreservation. Sperm motility, acrosome, plasmatic membrane, and DNA integrity were analyzed, and 57 mares were used to evaluate the field fertility of chilled and frozen-thawed semen. Results showed that the extender containing 100 mM trehalose only increased the functional acrosomal, plasma membrane, and DNA integrities. The inclusion of 50 mM trehalose in semen extender resulted in significantly (P < .05) increased post-thaw total motility compared to the control group, and chilled semen achieved higher pregnancy rates compared to the frozen-thawed one. Pregnancy rate of mares inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (P < .05; 46.15% vs. 36.36%, respectively) was lower than those inseminated with chilled semen (76.47% vs. 68.75%, respectively) but higher than control. In conclusion, addition of 50 mM trehalose yielded the highest quality stallion semen after cooling and post-thawing in terms of motility, integrities of acrosome, membrane, and DNA as well as improved field fertility. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Ibrahim A.K.,Cairo University | Abdelall A.A.,Cairo University | Amin A.S.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Global Veterinaria | Year: 2012

Five diagnostic techniques [Milk Ring Test (MRT); Isolation; ELISA; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Dot Blot Hybridization Assay (DBH)] in detection of Brucella spp. in milk samples collected from cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels were evaluated. A total number of 1685 serum samples were collected from the different species in the period between 2001to 2009 and examined by Rose Bengal agglutination assays (RBT) and revealed an overall incidence of 52.3%. A total number of 881 milk samples examined by different assays that showed an incidence of 47.8% by MRT, 42.8% by ELISA; 33.8% by isolation, 50.2% by PCR assays and 45.3% by DBH assays. Molecular diagnosis including both PCR and DBH assays found to be more sensitive with maintaining reliable specificity when compared with conventional techniques. In conclusion, molecular diagnosis (PCR and DBH) proved to be more suitable tools for brucella diagnosis than the other conventional techniques (MRT and isolation). A combination between molecular techniques and conventional techniques found to be a good reliable policy for controlling the disease. Nomadic habits concerning drinking of raw milk from camels and goats is incriminated in human cases. Avoid mixing between cattle and buffaloes especially dairy farms with sheep flocks. © IDOSI Publications, 2012.

Fathi M.,Cairo University | Ashry M.,Michigan State University | Salama A.,Cairo University | Badr M.R.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Zygote | Year: 2017

The objectives of the present studies were to investigate the developmental capacity of dromedary camel oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and to investigate the expression of select transcripts in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. These transcripts included BMP15 and GDF9 as important transcripts for folliculogenesis and oocyte development, Zar1 and Mater as maternal transcripts required for embryonic development, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 as cell cycle regulators and Oct4 and STAT3 as transcription factors. Dromedary camel oocytes were retrieved from ovaries collected at a local slaughterhouse. After exposure to BCB staining, cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from BCB+, BCB− and control (selected based on morphological criteria) groups were subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture. For gene expression studies, after BCB staining cumulus cells were stripped off and the completely denuded GV stage oocytes were used for RT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts. BCB+ oocytes showed higher maturation, and fertilization rates compared with BCB− and control groups. Indices of early embryonic development, namely, cleavage at 48 hours post insemination (hpi), and development to morula at day 5 and day 7 blastocyst rates were also significantly higher in the BCB+ group. RT-PCR revealed a higher expression of BMP15, GDF9, Zar1, Mater, Cyclin B1, CDK1, OCT4 and STAT3 in good quality oocytes that stained positively for BCB (BCB+). Collectively, results provide novel information about the use of BCB screening for selecting good quality oocytes to improve in vitro embryo production in the dromedary camel. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017

Sawiress F.A.R.,Cairo University | Ziada M.S.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Bebawy W.S.F.,General Organization of Veterinary Services | Amer H.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
Endocrine Regulations | Year: 2011

Objective. It was aimed to investigate the effect of standardized ginseng extract on fertility parameters in diabetic rats. Methods. Thirty male rats were randomly allocated into three groups of 10 rats each: 1. controls, 2. diabetes (D) and 3. diabetes + ginseng (DG). The latter two groups were rendered diabetic by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg). Standardized ginseng extract (Dansk Droge A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) was administered per os (100 mg/kg BW) by stomach tube daily for 90 days starting one week after STZ. Ninety days post STZ the rats were sacrificed, and testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles were weighed and subjected to histological examination. In addition, spermiogram, testicular enzyme markers, intratesticular steroid hormonal profile and testicular antioxidant status were estimated. Results. The administration of ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement of fertility parameters and testicular antioxidants together with a decrease in malondialdehyde and testicular pathological signs including degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion. Ginseng extract may be a beneficial adjuvant therapy for diabetics suffering from infertility as a complication.

Shehab-El-Deen M.A.M.M.,Ghent University | Shehab-El-Deen M.A.M.M.,Suez Canal University | Leroy J.L.M.R.,University of Antwerp | Fadel M.S.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

High yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) early post-partum and it was hypothesized that this may be aggravated under summer heat stress (HS) conditions. In this study, which was performed in Egypt, 20 Holstein cows were followed during summer (n = 10) and winter (n = 10) seasons. All cows were multiparous and kept at the same herd. Blood was sampled from each cow starting 1 week before the expected calving date and then at 1-week intervals until week 6 post-partum. From week 2 to 6 post-partum follicular fluid was collected through transvaginal follicular fluid aspiration at 6 days intervals. Ambient air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea and total cholesterol (TC) were measured in each blood and follicular fluid sample. All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT in summer (95.5 ± 1.1 and 39.88 ± 0.06, respectively) than in winter (43.89 ± 0.61 and 38.94 ± 0.07, respectively) (P < 0.001). Body condition score loss during the early post-partum period was higher in summer than in winter (1.1 ± 0.07 vs. 0.85 ± 0.06 point, respectively) (P < 0.001). The average dominant follicle diameter was significantly lower in summer than in winter during the period of negative energy balance (11.6 ± 0.7 mm vs. 15.3 ± 1.2 mm, respectively) (P < 0.01). Under summer heat stress, the concentrations of glucose (2.98 ± 0.07 and 2.19 ± 0.04 mmol/L), IGF-1 (106.7 ± 2.9 and 99.0 ± 3.4 ng/ml) and TC (137.3 ± 5.3 and 62.2 ± 5.1 mg/dl) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly lower than winter concentrations by (0.17 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.001 and 0.26 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P < 0.001), (12.3 ± 3.6 ng/ml, P < 0.001 and 9.0 ± 2.7 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and (20.7 ± 1.8 mg/dl, P < 0.001 and 7.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl, P < 0.01), respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA (0.68 ± 0.14 and 0.22 ± 0.02 mmol/L) and urea (9.27 ± 0.34 and 9.96 ± 0.25 mmol/L) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly higher in summer compared to winter (0.50 ± 0.08 mmol/L, P < 0.001 and 0.20 ± 0.02 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and (8.77 ± 0.23 mmol/L, P < 0.05 and 8.96 ± 0.29 mmol/L, P < 0.001), respectively, throughout the experimental period. The results of the present study indicate that heat stress early post-partum aggravates NEB in high yielding dairy cows, reduces BCS, dominant follicle diameter and alters the biochemical concentrations in the follicular fluid of the dominant follicle which may result in inferior oocyte and granulosa cell quality and hence poorer fertility. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shaapan R.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abo-ElMaaty A.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Razik K.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Hafez S.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

A total of 240 serum samples collected from horses of different ages, breeds, sexes and reproductive conditions used for sporting purposes and located at main horse farms in Cairo, Egypt, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. PCR and serological assays revealed that, PCR showed the higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis (53.8%) followed by LAT (52.1%), MAT (50.8%) and lowest prevalence by ELISA (39.2%). Prevalence of T. gondii infection in relation to breed, sex and reproductive condition was determined. Prevalence was higher (73.1%) in imported breeds followed by native (58.5%) and lowest prevalence in Arabian breeds (44.4%). Higher prevalence (60.8%) was detected in females represented by 10.8, 12.4 and 29.9% in fillies, pregnant and repeat breeders, respectively. On other hand, lower prevalence (23.9%) was detected in males represented by 0, 8.7 and 15.2% in colts, stallions and racers, respectively. When the data of the serological tests were compared with that of the PCR, as a reference test for toxoplasmosis, MAT had the highest sensitivity (93.8%) followed by LAT (91.5%) and the lowest sensitivity by ELISA (71.3%). On the other hand ELISA had the highest specificity (92.8%) followed by MAT (91.9%) and the lowest specificity was by LAT (88.3%). The present study is the first time to adopt PCR and serological survey of T. gondii antibodies in sport horses in Egypt and suggests that MAT alone or with LAT can be used as a highly sensitive screening test followed by PCR as a specific confirmatory test for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in Equines. Also, the high prevalence observed indicate that the risk of infection from horses to people or other animals is very high. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Osman K.M.,Cairo University | Hassan H.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Ibrahim I.M.,Cairo University | Mikhail M.M.S.,Ministry of Agriculture
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Mammary gland secretions derived from secretory cows infected with coagulase +ve Staphylococcus spp. was examined for the expression of IL-6, production of lysozyme and NOx. The examined cows reflected 25 cases of subclinical mastitis and 15 cases of clinically mastitic animals. The IL-6 concentration in the subclinical animals was significantly higher (30.8 ng/ml) than the clinically manifested animals (18.0 ng/ml) and the normal cows (5.2 ng/ml). On the other hand the level of lysozyme although significantly higher than the normal cows (6.9 μg/ml) yet its level in the subclinical animals (11.2 μg/ml) was lower than that estimated in the clinical animals (15.6 μg/ml). Similarly, the level of NOx in the normal animals was found to be 5.6 μM/ml to increase to 6.2 μM/ml in the subclinical mastitic animals and to significantly increase further to 11.5 μM/ml in the clinically affected cows. These results suggest the promising use of whey IL-6, lysozyme or/and NO concentration variabilities as prognostic parameters on the degree of the commencement of mastitis in cows. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mahmoud K.G.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Scholkamy T.H.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Ahmed Y.F.,National Research Center of Egypt | Seidel Jr. G.E.,Colorado State University | Nawito M.F.,National Research Center of Egypt
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: This study was designed to evaluate effects of different combinations of cryoprotectants on the ability of vitrified immature buffalo oocytes to undergo in vitro maturation. Straw and open-pulled straw (OPS) methods for vitrification of oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage also were compared. The immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries of slaughtered animals and were divided into three groups: (i) untreated (control); (ii) exposed to cryoprotectant agents (CPAs); or (iii) cryopreserved by straw and OPS vitrification methods. The vitrification solution (VS) consisted of 6 m ethylene glycol (EG) as the standard, control vitrification treatment, and this was compared with 3 m EG + 3 m dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3 m EG + 3 m glycerol, and 3 m DMSO + 3 m glycerol. Cryoprotectants were added in two steps, with the first step concentration half that of the second (and final) step concentration. After warming, oocyte samples were matured by standard methods and then fixed and stained for nuclear evaluation. Rates of MII oocytes exposed to CPAs without vitrification were lower (54.3 ± 1.9% in EG, 47.5 ± 3.4% in EG + DMSO, 36.8 ± 1.2% in EG + glycerol and 29.9 ± 1.0% in DMSO + glycerol; p < 0.05) than for the control group (79.8 ± 1.3%). For all treatments in each vitrification experiment, results were nearly identical for straws and OPS, so all results presented are the average of these two containers. The percentages of oocytes reaching telophase-I or metaphase-II stages were lower in oocytes cryopreserved using all treatments when compared with control. However, among the vitrified oocytes, the highest maturation rate was seen in oocytes vitrified in EG + DMSO (41.5 ± 0.6%). Oocytes cryopreserved in all groups with glycerol had an overall low maturation rate 19.0 ± 0.6% for EG + glycerol and 17.0 ± 1.1% for DMSO + glycerol. We conclude that the function of oocytes was severely affected by both vitrification and exposure to cryoprotectants without vitrification; the best combination of cryoprotectants was EG + DMSO for vitrification of immature buffalo oocytes using either straw or OPS methods. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Verlag.

Osman K.M.,Cairo University | Hassan H.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Orabi A.,Cairo University | Abdelhafez A.S.T.,Cairo University
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2014

Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n510/232) and cow (n535/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

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