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Sawiress F.A.R.,Cairo University | Ziada M.S.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Bebawy W.S.F.,General Organization of Veterinary Services | Amer H.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
Endocrine Regulations | Year: 2011

Objective. It was aimed to investigate the effect of standardized ginseng extract on fertility parameters in diabetic rats. Methods. Thirty male rats were randomly allocated into three groups of 10 rats each: 1. controls, 2. diabetes (D) and 3. diabetes + ginseng (DG). The latter two groups were rendered diabetic by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg). Standardized ginseng extract (Dansk Droge A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) was administered per os (100 mg/kg BW) by stomach tube daily for 90 days starting one week after STZ. Ninety days post STZ the rats were sacrificed, and testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles were weighed and subjected to histological examination. In addition, spermiogram, testicular enzyme markers, intratesticular steroid hormonal profile and testicular antioxidant status were estimated. Results. The administration of ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement of fertility parameters and testicular antioxidants together with a decrease in malondialdehyde and testicular pathological signs including degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion. Ginseng extract may be a beneficial adjuvant therapy for diabetics suffering from infertility as a complication.

Shehab-El-Deen M.A.M.M.,Ghent University | Shehab-El-Deen M.A.M.M.,Suez Canal University | Leroy J.L.M.R.,University of Antwerp | Fadel M.S.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

High yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) early post-partum and it was hypothesized that this may be aggravated under summer heat stress (HS) conditions. In this study, which was performed in Egypt, 20 Holstein cows were followed during summer (n = 10) and winter (n = 10) seasons. All cows were multiparous and kept at the same herd. Blood was sampled from each cow starting 1 week before the expected calving date and then at 1-week intervals until week 6 post-partum. From week 2 to 6 post-partum follicular fluid was collected through transvaginal follicular fluid aspiration at 6 days intervals. Ambient air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea and total cholesterol (TC) were measured in each blood and follicular fluid sample. All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT in summer (95.5 ± 1.1 and 39.88 ± 0.06, respectively) than in winter (43.89 ± 0.61 and 38.94 ± 0.07, respectively) (P < 0.001). Body condition score loss during the early post-partum period was higher in summer than in winter (1.1 ± 0.07 vs. 0.85 ± 0.06 point, respectively) (P < 0.001). The average dominant follicle diameter was significantly lower in summer than in winter during the period of negative energy balance (11.6 ± 0.7 mm vs. 15.3 ± 1.2 mm, respectively) (P < 0.01). Under summer heat stress, the concentrations of glucose (2.98 ± 0.07 and 2.19 ± 0.04 mmol/L), IGF-1 (106.7 ± 2.9 and 99.0 ± 3.4 ng/ml) and TC (137.3 ± 5.3 and 62.2 ± 5.1 mg/dl) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly lower than winter concentrations by (0.17 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.001 and 0.26 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P < 0.001), (12.3 ± 3.6 ng/ml, P < 0.001 and 9.0 ± 2.7 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and (20.7 ± 1.8 mg/dl, P < 0.001 and 7.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl, P < 0.01), respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA (0.68 ± 0.14 and 0.22 ± 0.02 mmol/L) and urea (9.27 ± 0.34 and 9.96 ± 0.25 mmol/L) in blood and FF, respectively, were significantly higher in summer compared to winter (0.50 ± 0.08 mmol/L, P < 0.001 and 0.20 ± 0.02 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and (8.77 ± 0.23 mmol/L, P < 0.05 and 8.96 ± 0.29 mmol/L, P < 0.001), respectively, throughout the experimental period. The results of the present study indicate that heat stress early post-partum aggravates NEB in high yielding dairy cows, reduces BCS, dominant follicle diameter and alters the biochemical concentrations in the follicular fluid of the dominant follicle which may result in inferior oocyte and granulosa cell quality and hence poorer fertility. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Radwan M.M.,Arab Poultry Breeders Co. OMMAT | Darwish S.F.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | El-Sabagh I.M.,Cairo University | El-Sabagh I.M.,King Faisal University | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2013

The current study was conducted to isolate and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from recent outbreaks affecting poultry farms in Egypt between 2011 and 2012. Trachea, spleen, liver, proventriculus and caecal tonsils were collected from clinically infected NDV ten different vaccinated broiler farms in Fayoum, Behira and Giza Provinces. Inoculation of all the collected samples in 10-day-old embryonated chicken specific-pathogen-free eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating agents in three samples. These haemagglutinating agents were confirmed as NDV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt RT-PCR) using matrix (M) gene-specific primers. The deduced amino acid sequences of the fusion protein revealed that one isolate possessed the motif 112RRQKRF117 at the cleavage site, indicating that this isolate is velogenic genotype, whereas the other two isolates carries the motif 112GRQGRL 117 indicating they are lentogenic genotype. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the velogenic genotype isolate clustered with published class II genotype VII sub genotype d NDVs and closely related to Middle East isolates, whereas the other two isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The spread of velogenic genotype strain to Egypt via Middle Eastern countries is likely to be the source of infection. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Shaapan R.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abo-ElMaaty A.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Razik K.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Abd El-Hafez S.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

A total of 240 serum samples collected from horses of different ages, breeds, sexes and reproductive conditions used for sporting purposes and located at main horse farms in Cairo, Egypt, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. PCR and serological assays revealed that, PCR showed the higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis (53.8%) followed by LAT (52.1%), MAT (50.8%) and lowest prevalence by ELISA (39.2%). Prevalence of T. gondii infection in relation to breed, sex and reproductive condition was determined. Prevalence was higher (73.1%) in imported breeds followed by native (58.5%) and lowest prevalence in Arabian breeds (44.4%). Higher prevalence (60.8%) was detected in females represented by 10.8, 12.4 and 29.9% in fillies, pregnant and repeat breeders, respectively. On other hand, lower prevalence (23.9%) was detected in males represented by 0, 8.7 and 15.2% in colts, stallions and racers, respectively. When the data of the serological tests were compared with that of the PCR, as a reference test for toxoplasmosis, MAT had the highest sensitivity (93.8%) followed by LAT (91.5%) and the lowest sensitivity by ELISA (71.3%). On the other hand ELISA had the highest specificity (92.8%) followed by MAT (91.9%) and the lowest specificity was by LAT (88.3%). The present study is the first time to adopt PCR and serological survey of T. gondii antibodies in sport horses in Egypt and suggests that MAT alone or with LAT can be used as a highly sensitive screening test followed by PCR as a specific confirmatory test for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in Equines. Also, the high prevalence observed indicate that the risk of infection from horses to people or other animals is very high. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Osman K.M.,Cairo University | Hassan H.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Ibrahim I.M.,Cairo University | Mikhail M.M.S.,Ministry of Agriculture
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Mammary gland secretions derived from secretory cows infected with coagulase +ve Staphylococcus spp. was examined for the expression of IL-6, production of lysozyme and NOx. The examined cows reflected 25 cases of subclinical mastitis and 15 cases of clinically mastitic animals. The IL-6 concentration in the subclinical animals was significantly higher (30.8 ng/ml) than the clinically manifested animals (18.0 ng/ml) and the normal cows (5.2 ng/ml). On the other hand the level of lysozyme although significantly higher than the normal cows (6.9 μg/ml) yet its level in the subclinical animals (11.2 μg/ml) was lower than that estimated in the clinical animals (15.6 μg/ml). Similarly, the level of NOx in the normal animals was found to be 5.6 μM/ml to increase to 6.2 μM/ml in the subclinical mastitic animals and to significantly increase further to 11.5 μM/ml in the clinically affected cows. These results suggest the promising use of whey IL-6, lysozyme or/and NO concentration variabilities as prognostic parameters on the degree of the commencement of mastitis in cows. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Abdel-Kafy E.M.,Egyptian Animal Production Research Institute | Darwish S.F.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Elkhishin D.,Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute
World Rabbit Science | Year: 2016

The Myostatin (MSTN), or Growth and Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8), gene has been implicated in the double muscling phenomenon, in which a series of mutations render the gene inactive and unable to properly regulate muscle fibre deposition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MSTN gene have been correlated to production traits, making it a candidate target gene to enhance livestock and fowl productivity. This study aimed to assess any association of three SNPs in the rabbit MSTN gene (c.713T>A in exon 2, c.747+34C>T in intron 2, and c.∗194A>G in 3'-untranslated region) and their combinations, with carcass, production and reproductive traits. The investigated traits included individual body weight, daily body weight gain, carcass traits and reproductive traits. The 3 SNPs were screened using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based analysis and the effects of the different SNP genotypes and their combinations were estimated in a rabbit population. Additionally, additive and dominance effects were estimated for significant traits. The results found no significant association between the c.713 T>A SNP and all the examined traits. Allele T at the c.747+34C>T SNP was only significantly associated (P<0.05) with increased body weight at 12 wk of age. However, for the SNP residing in the 3' untranslated region (c.∗194A>G), allele G was significantly associated (P<0.05) with increased body weight and high growth rate. Genotype GG at the c.∗194A>G SNP also had positive effects on most carcass traits. The estimated additive genetic effect for the c.∗194A>G SNP was significant (P<0.05) with most body weight, daily gain and carcass traits. No significant association was obtained between any MSTN SNPs and reproductive traits. In the combinations analysis, regardless of the genotypes of SNPs at c.713T>A and c.747+34C>T, GG at the c.∗194A>G SNP correlated with highest values in body weight and daily weight gain. In conclusion, the 'G' allele at the c.∗194A>G SNP had positive effects on growth and carcass traits and so could be used as a favourable allele in planning rabbit selection. Further population-wide studies are necessary to test the association of the c.∗194A>G SNP with carcass traits. We also recommend evaluation of the potential effects of the c.∗194A>G SNP on MSTN gene expression. © WRSA, UPV, 2003.

Mahmoud K.G.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | Scholkamy T.H.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Ahmed Y.F.,National Research Center of Egypt | Seidel Jr. G.E.,Colorado State University | Nawito M.F.,National Research Center of Egypt
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: This study was designed to evaluate effects of different combinations of cryoprotectants on the ability of vitrified immature buffalo oocytes to undergo in vitro maturation. Straw and open-pulled straw (OPS) methods for vitrification of oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage also were compared. The immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries of slaughtered animals and were divided into three groups: (i) untreated (control); (ii) exposed to cryoprotectant agents (CPAs); or (iii) cryopreserved by straw and OPS vitrification methods. The vitrification solution (VS) consisted of 6 m ethylene glycol (EG) as the standard, control vitrification treatment, and this was compared with 3 m EG + 3 m dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3 m EG + 3 m glycerol, and 3 m DMSO + 3 m glycerol. Cryoprotectants were added in two steps, with the first step concentration half that of the second (and final) step concentration. After warming, oocyte samples were matured by standard methods and then fixed and stained for nuclear evaluation. Rates of MII oocytes exposed to CPAs without vitrification were lower (54.3 ± 1.9% in EG, 47.5 ± 3.4% in EG + DMSO, 36.8 ± 1.2% in EG + glycerol and 29.9 ± 1.0% in DMSO + glycerol; p < 0.05) than for the control group (79.8 ± 1.3%). For all treatments in each vitrification experiment, results were nearly identical for straws and OPS, so all results presented are the average of these two containers. The percentages of oocytes reaching telophase-I or metaphase-II stages were lower in oocytes cryopreserved using all treatments when compared with control. However, among the vitrified oocytes, the highest maturation rate was seen in oocytes vitrified in EG + DMSO (41.5 ± 0.6%). Oocytes cryopreserved in all groups with glycerol had an overall low maturation rate 19.0 ± 0.6% for EG + glycerol and 17.0 ± 1.1% for DMSO + glycerol. We conclude that the function of oocytes was severely affected by both vitrification and exposure to cryoprotectants without vitrification; the best combination of cryoprotectants was EG + DMSO for vitrification of immature buffalo oocytes using either straw or OPS methods. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Verlag.

Osman K.M.,Cairo University | Hassan H.M.,Animal Reproduction Research Institute | Orabi A.,Cairo University | Abdelhafez A.S.T.,Cairo University
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2014

Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n510/232) and cow (n535/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2014.

PubMed | McGill University, Cairo University and Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Cryobiology | Year: 2016

The cryopreservation of immature oocytes would generate a readily available, non-seasonal source of female gametes for research and reproduction. In domestic animals, the most promising results on oocyte cryopreservation have been reported in cattle, few studies have been conducted on buffalo. The aim of the present study was to compare the use of different vitrification solutions and various cryodevices on viability and developmental competence of buffalo oocytes vitrified at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Cumulus oocyte-complexes (COCs) obtained at slaughterhouse from mature buffalo ovaries were randomly divided into three main groups and vitrified by using either straw or open pulled-straw (OPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV) in a solution composed of either 20% ethylene glycol (EG)+20% glycerol (GLY); VS1 or 20% EG+20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); VS2, respectively. Following vitrification and warming, viable COCs were matured invitro for 22h. Some COCs were denuded and stained with 1.0% aceto-orcein to evaluate nuclear maturation, whereas the others were fertilized and cultured invitro for 7 days to determine the developmental competence. Although the recovery rate (64.9%) was the lowest in the oocytes vitrified by SSV using 20% EG+20% DMSO as compared to the other groups, the best survival rate of the COCs was achieved in the same treatment (96.7%), which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those vitrified using traditional straws (71.8% in VS1 and 73.6% in VS2) or those vitrified using OPS and VS1 (73.9%). Furthermore, in the nuclear maturation test, the highest maturation rate (75.5%) was achieved in SSV vitrified COCs using 20% EG+20% DMSO (VS2), which was similar to the controls (77.1%). Post IVF and embryo culture, the highest cleavage and blastocyst development rates were obtained in COCs vitrified in 20% EG+20% DMSO using SSV (47.1% and 24.0%, respectively), which showed no difference from the controls (61.2% and 46.9%, respectively). Our results clearly show that the combination of SSV and 20% EG+20% DMSO could be used effectively to vitrify GV stage buffalo COCs.

PubMed | National Research Center and Animal Reproduction Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

Cryopreservation and sexing of embryos are integrated into commercial embryo transfer technologies. To improve the effectiveness of vitrification of in vitro produced buffalo embryos, two experiments were conducted. The first evaluated the effect of exposure time (2 and 3 min) and developmental stage (morula and blastocysts) on the viability and development of vitrified buffalo embryos. Morphologically normal embryos and survival rates (re-expansion) significantly increased when vitrified morulae were exposed for 2 min compared to 3 min (P<0.001). On the other hand, morphologically normal and survival rates of blastocysts significantly increased when exposed for 3 min compared to 2 min (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two developmental stages (morulae and blastocystes) in the percentages of morphologically normal embryos and re-expansion rates after a 24 h culture. The second experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of viability on the sex ratio of buffalo embryos after vitrification and whether male and female embryos survived vitrification differently. A total number of 61 blastocysts were vitrified for 3 min with the same cryoprotectant as experiment 1. Higher percentages of males were recorded for live as compared to dead embryos; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, the post-thaw survival and development of in vitro produced morulae and blastocysts were found to be affected by exposure time rather than developmental stage. Survivability had no significant effect on the sex ratio of vitrified blastocysts; nevertheless, the number of surviving males was higher than dead male embryos.

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