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Borghese A.,General Secretary International Buffalo Federation | Boselli C.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions | Rosati R.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

The buffalo Mediterranean Italian breed was very much studied for lactation curve. Data on lactation curves after the first, the second and the third calving are reported. In all the 3 lactations we have similar curves, with the production peak on the 40th day, in the second and third lactations, while in the first lactation it is shown on the 50th day and with a longer duration. Lactation curves were different for the first and later parities with lactations of different duration also in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Milk production and milk flow profiles are important parameters to be recorded and evaluated. In fact they give various advices on milking management. The milk flow curve is typical for each animal and must be recorded singly. Buffaloes are characterized by longer teat and teat canal, and particularly by stronger muscular resistance of teat wall, than in cow: it is necessary a high vacuum level for opening the teat canal and beginning milk ejection. A recent trial is reported, where the manual stimulation at different times provoked the increasing of released oxytocin and of the intra-mammary pressure and finally the increasing of cisternal teat largeness and the reduction of teat canal length. Buffalo is characterized by smaller cisternal fraction than in cattle. The cisternal milk fraction is immediately available while the alveolar fraction needs an oxytocin stimulation to release. In Mediterranean Italian buffaloes it has been observed a higher cisternal fraction of total milk than in Murrah breed. In buffalo management, the milking room and the milking machine are really a critical point and the characteristics of milking vacuum and milking pulsations are strictly connected with milk flow observations. Different curves obtained in recent trials during the milking with normal milking machine and with Automatic Milking System are reported and discussed. A recent study on Mediterranean Italian buffaloes from 104 different herds showed that 88.86% of milk is ejected in 4.24 min (main milking time), as 8.49% is ejected in 1.98 min (milk let-down) corresponding to the cisternal milk fraction. Only 2.65% is the milk ejected in the stripping phase. These results suggest toapply a premilking udder stimulation to reduce milk let-down time increasing the average milk flow and reducing total milking time. These results suggest to the detachment of milking cluster to reduce the blind phase with the following advantages: a) reducing the total milking time and consequently worker's time, b) improving the farmer's income and the milk quality thought the mastitis incidence decreasing. Source

Boselli C.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions | Campagna M.C.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions | Amatiste S.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions | Rosati R.,Animal Prophylaxis Research Institute for Lazio and Toscana Regions | Borghese A.,General Secretary International Buffalo Federation
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Eitgheen Mediterranean Italian buffalo cows were used to demonstrate a relationship between teat anatomy and milk ejection after three different pre-milking treatments (manual pre-stimulation or exogenous oxytocin administration). Teat wall thickness, teat diameter, cisternal diameter and teat canal length were evaluated before and after each treatment. Teat cisternal diameter and teat diameter incresead their lengths while teat wall thickness and teat canal length decreased. The reduction in the teat canal length was observed with all the three treatments with reductions ranging from a minimum of 23.1% (2 min) to a maximum of 29.4% (oxytocin administration). Although, main milking phase was similar among treatments, plateau phase increased (p = 0.01) the duration passing from manual stimulation to the administration of exogenous oxytocin (2.84 min). Lag time decreased significantly with the administration of exogenous oxytocin: 0.74 vs. 2.55 min of 2 min pre-stimulation. Even if exogenous oxytocin showed some advantages on some productive parameters, the study showed that 2 min of manual prestimulation are enough for the removal of the alveolar milk fraction. © Medwell Journals, 2014. Source

Conto G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Terramoccia S.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Carfi F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Mazzi M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 5 more authors.
Buffalo Bulletin | Year: 2013

Sixteen Mediterranean homogenous lactating buffaloes were divided into low protein (LP) and high protein (HP) groups of eight animals each. Groups were fed for 120 days two isoenergetic diets (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM) with different crude protein (CP) contents and rumen protected methionine (RPM) supplement. Milk yield and quality were determined. Faecal, blood, and urine samples were collected for the detection of urea and insulin in plasma; total-N, urea-N, and creatinine in urine; and total-N and N-digestibility in the faeces. To investigate rumen microbial diversity four cannulated Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed LP and HP diets according to a cross over design. Rumen samples, were analyzed for pH, microbial population quantity and diversity using classical and molecular techniques including DGGE and Q-PCR. Milk yield, protein, casein and fat content were similar in the two groups. Milk urea level was significantly lower in LP group. Both urea level in plasma and urea-N in urine were significantly higher in the HP. The total organic nitrogen excreted detected in urine and manure was higher in the HP group. The protein level reduction in diet supplemented with RPM seems to negatively affect the growth fungi and protozoa and methane production can be reduced by reducing rumen ciliate protozoa. Moreover these results indicate that the use of a low CP, RPM supplemented diet did not negatively affect milk production or quality, and reduced the nitrogen quantity excreted with urine and faeces, thus contributing to reduce the impact of buffalo herds on the environment. Source

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