Time filter

Source Type

Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

Economic progress along with conservation of the environment is the major development policy of Bhutan: the concept of Gross National Happiness. How do we stive to increase our production levels at the same time giving due consideration to the environment? Cattle are the predominant livestock in smallholder livestock production systems of Bhutan. However cattle farming in such production systems are usually labelled as the prime causes of forest degradation and soil erosion. Livestock interact with the environment within the confines of a production system. These production systems are usually the result of evolutionary processes such as human population pressure, resource endowment and marketing opportunities. Among the various livestock development interventions in Bhutan, crossbreeding has been the most important. While such interventios have been in vogue for over three decades, no detailed studies have done on assessing their impact and the sustainability prospects of smallholder livestock production systems. The hypothesis of this study is that livestock breeding interventions have had a major impact on the sustainability of smallholder livestock production systems in Bhutan. In relation to this hypothesis, the objectives of the study are as follows: (1) To evaluate the impact of the exotic and indigenous livestock breeding interventions in smallholder livestock production (2) To identify suitable methodologies for quantification of sustainability in smallholder livestock production systems (3) To assess the sustainability prospects of smallholder livestock production systems and (4) To develop strategies to achieve sustainable livestock production systems in Bhutan.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2001

In rual areas of Indonesia, small ruminants play an important role in many aspects of a farmers life; they use the land around the house, utilise agricultural by-products, produce meat, act as live savings in case of the farmers urgent cash requirements (e.g. school fees, land preparation costs), and they produce dung to fertilise the land. Small ruminants also play a key role in religious festiviteis, which has a major effect on marketing of sheep and goats. Small ruminants are found in all three agro-ecozones; lowland, middle land and highland areas. Each zone has different cropping patterns, land use maangement and production potentials, and consequently feed resources. Constraints to small ruminant production relate to the availability of feed resources and the limited access to grazing areas due to competition between crops and livestock and between snall and large ruminants. Population pressure, increasing human food requirements, goverment policies, changes in the political situation and the recent economic crisis are expected to be the drving forces for changes in small ruminant production systems. An understanding of the development pathways of small ruminant systems is needed to explore the prospects of small ruminant production systems. Such an understanding has to be based on participatory approaches involving all stakeholders. As a result of such understanding, one should be able to explore solutions, which production systems in the future seem to be technically feasible, economically viable and socio-culturally acceptable for the farmers, taking the different zones into account. In addition, it also allows us to understand factors affecting the change of production systems and it can be used to improve small ruminant development programmes in the future. it is hypothesised that small ruminants play a different role in different agro-ecozones in relation to land use, use of resources and contribution to the familys livelihood. The objectives of this study are to analyse the behaviour of small ruminant production systems in order to understand their development prospects in the three different agro-zones in Central Java, Indonesia. the specific objectives are:* to investigate the dynamics (small ruminant population dynamics and its changes in time) of small ruminant production systems in different agro-ecozones, specific attention is to be paid: - to the assessment of the role and contribution of small ruminants to the livelihood of farming households, - to the complex relation between demand and supply due to the peak demands for religious festivities and the occasionally urgent cash needs for school fees and preparation of paddy fields.* to explore the relevance and possibilities of sustainable development of small ruminant production in different agro-ecozones.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

None


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

None


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

The public concern for animal welfare in The Netherlands, and in Europe, stimulated the development of alternative, animal-friendly production systems, e.g. the deep litter and aviary system for laying hens and group housing for sows. The societal criticism resulted in new legislation, favoring application of animal-friendly production systems. National introduction of animal-friendly production systems, however, requires not only a comparison of welfare aspects among these systems. A comparison of economic, ecological and other societal aspects in necessary as well. The aims of this research is to develop a methodology to assess the contribution of various animal friendly production systems to sustainable development, based on the combined economic, ecological and societal performance of these systems. | As an illustration, this methodology will be applied to two cases, i.e. the laying hen and the sow. A methodology to assess the contribution of animal friendly production systems to sustainable development comprises the following four phases. | 1. Description of the problem situation (i.e. production systems and stakeholders) | 2. Identification and definition of relevant economic, ecological and societal issues. | 3. Selection and quantification of sustainable indicators. | 4. Aggregation of indicator information into an overall contribution to sustainable development. Results of this research are essential to support decisions on introduction of animal-friendly pig or poultry production systems in The Netherlands and future policy design for sustainable development in pig and poutry production. | [Results:] Participatory SWOT analysis was used to identify relevant issues. Issues resulting from this analysis were animal health and welfare, environmental performance, product quality, labor conditions, economy, image, and knowledge and innovation. | For selected issues quantifiable indicators are selected, according to four criteria: relevance, simplicity, and quality of the indicator and availability of data. Selected indicators are quantified on commercial farms with the most common housing systems (battery cage, alternative and free-range) in order to assess variation between as well as within different systems.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

The economy of Costa Rica is based on cropping (traditional products including , coffee sugar, banana and cocoa), cattle husbandry and traditional and ecological tourism. Threelivestosck production systems can be distinguished: milk, meat and double purpose. The Poas Region is important for livestock production and comprising different agro-ecological zones and mangement systems. In recent years land use has changed to include ornamentals, flowers and strawberries, with harmful environmental effects because of the use of agro-chemicals, leading to deterioration of the natural resource base. Moreover, employement opportunities have decreased with the associated undesirable social effects. These development activities may lead to irreversible changes in the quality of the natural resource base. To assist the various actors in setting explicity priorities and goals aimed at sustainable regional development, tools are required that allow explicit formulation of desired development pathways. They should take into account the various, often conflicting, objectives and the effects of different types of land use on socio-economic parameters, the environmental and the quality of the natural resource base. The present study therfore aims at exploring the possibilities for regional development, with the explicit objectives of: 1. Development of analytical tools that enable exploration of the possibilities and constraints for alternative land use plans at regional level 2. Application of the analytical tools to the Poas Region in Costa Rica, to arrive at alternative regional development plans 3. Evaluation of the various development plans and identification of the degree of realization of the various development objectives, including explicit identification of trade-offs among these objectives


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

In the Netherlands agriculture as a whole is not environmentally sustainable. Dairy farming constributes to about 55% of the nitrogen losses. These losses are primarily associated with low nutrient utilization efficiencies at the animal level. The conversion of nutrients into animal products remains rather low. A major part is excreted in faeces and urine. There is an urgent need for a more sustainable and efficient use of the nutrients. Nutrient efficiencies have to increase in all compartments of the farming system, i.e. from forages by animals to manure by the soil/plant system. The project is focused on: 1. The development of mechanic models describing the nutrient cycles for N, P and K. 2. In specialized dairy farming systems on peat soils, 3. That present solutions towards environmentally sustainable systems, 4. Both in relation to nutriet emissions and fossil energy use, 5. With a level of production sufficient to fill its proportional share of the national milk quota, 6. and that under various policy options are economically viable.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

The aim of this project is to investigate the need for knowledge in organic farming, the way to obtain knowledge and how to make it available for the farmer. This is realized with smaller projects in Animal Production Systems MSc-theses. At this moment 1 project is finished (Marre Loefs: Knowledge market in Dutch organic farming) en 1 project is still running (Birgit Boogaard: Need for knowledge of Dutch dairy farmers).


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Agriculture | Award Amount: | Year: 2002

Because of increasing demand, aquaculture is becoming an important activity in the Mekong Delta and Vietnam. Farmers integrate fishponds with livestock and crop activities to increase production to get more income for improving their livelihood. As a result, the farming systems gradually intensify which has led to environmental imbalances in the Mekong Delta. This study is a part of the project for Optimization of Nutrient Dynamics and Animals for Integrated Farming (IREF-POND), which aims at the quantification and optimization of nutrient dynamics in integrated fish-livestock-crop farming systems and the improvements/changes that can result from introducing selected breeds. My study aims at fine-tuning the fish, livestock and crop compartments of the Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA) farming systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. the existing IAA systems with different levels of pond input in this region will be screened through agro-ecological zonification. The research will focus on driving forces for changes of IAA systems, the characterisitics and role of IAA systems in livelihood strategies as well as on the environmental issues related to the farming systems, i.e. productivity of the terrestrial and aquatic systems, the nutrient flows and balances of integrated systems, and environmental impacts. The role of the fish pond will also be analyzed to match the aquatic and terrestrial systems in the IAA systems. Therefore, different ecological, economic, and social indicators will be determined and quantified, and from that the match of sustainability indicators for introducing new technologies will be realized. Further, the perception and adoption by farmers in the use of new technologies, and the prospects for exploiting sustainable development of IAA systems will be evaluated.


PubMed | Wageningen University and Animal Production Systems group
Type: | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) can improve the energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation through a decrease in milk yield after calving. Little is known about the effect of a short or no DP on milk yield over multiple lactations. Our objectives were (1) to assess the effect of DP length over multiple lactations on milk yield, and (2) to assess if the prediction of milk yield in response to DP length could be improved by including individual cow characteristics before calving. Lactation data (2007 to 2015) of 16 Dutch dairy farms that apply no or short DP were used to compute cumulative milk yield in the 60 d before calving (additional yield) and in the 305 d after calving (305-d yield), and the mean daily yield over the interval from 60 d before calving to 60 d before next calving (effective lactation yield). The DP categories were no (0 to 2 wk), short (3 to 5 wk), standard (6 to 8 wk), and long (9 to 12 wk). The effect of current DP and previous DP on yields was analyzed with mixed models (n = 1,420 lactations). The highest effective lactation yield of fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) was observed for cows with a standard current DP (27.6 kg per day); a daily decrease was observed of 0.6 kg for a long DP, 1.0 kg for a short DP, and 2.0 kg for no DP. Previous DP did not significantly affect the effective lactation yield. Thus, cows can be managed with short or no DP over consecutive lactations without a change in quantity of milk losses. Cows that received no DP for consecutive lactations had a lower additional yield before calving (-172 kg of FPCM), but a higher 305-d yield (+560 kg of FPCM), compared with cows that received no DP for the first time. This could lessen the improvement of the energy balance in early lactation when no DP is applied a second time compared with the first time. For the second objective, a basic model was explored to predict effective lactation yield based on parity, DP length, and first-parity 305-d yield (n = 2,866 lactations). The basic model was subsequently extended with data about recent yield, days open, and somatic cell count. Extending the model reduced the error of individual predictions by only 6%. Therefore, the basic model seems sufficient to predict the effect of DP length on effective lactation yield. Other individual cow characteristics can still be relevant, however, to make a practical and tailored decision about DP length.

Loading Animal Production Systems Group collaborators
Loading Animal Production Systems Group collaborators