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North Logan, UT, United States

Rosypal A.C.,Johnson C. Smith University | Smith T.,Johnson C. Smith University | Alexander A.,Johnson C. Smith University | Weaver M.,Pennsylvania Game Commission | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Trypanosoma cruzi is a zoonotic parasite of humans and other mammalian hosts with distribution throughout the Americas. Domestic and wild canine species are reservoirs for human T. cruzi infections. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi in wild canids from the United States. Sera from 13 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 263 coyotes (Canis latrans), originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee, were assayed for antibodies to T. cruzi with immunochromatographic tests. Antibodies to T. cruzi were found in 2 of 276 (0.72%) of all wild canids tested. Both T. cruzi-positive wild canids were coyotes and represented 2 of 21 (9.52%) wild canids assayed from Tennessee. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in red fox. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies were not found in any wild canids from Pennsylvania. These results suggest that coyotes are exposed to T. cruzi in Tennessee but not in Pennsylvania. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Rosypal A.C.,Johnson C. Smith University | Alexander A.,Johnson C. Smith University | Byrd D.,Johnson C. Smith University | Weaver M.,Pennsylvania Game Commission | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Washburn B.E.,National Wildlife Research Center | Swearingin R.M.,Animal Plant Health Inspection Service | Pullins C.K.,Animal Plant Health Inspection Service | Rice M.E.,Animal Plant Health Inspection Service
Environmental Management

Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird–aircraft collisions. During 2007–2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04–1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird–aircraft collisions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) Source

Carlson D.A.,Utah State University | Gese E.M.,Animal Plant Health Inspection Service
Animal Reproduction Science

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are seasonally monestrous and form perennial pair-bonds. Breeding is dominated by each pack's alpha male and female, and both sexes share responsibility for territory defense and pup-rearing. They are also opportunistic predators on domestic livestock and pets. But while dominant adults have been implicated as primary killers, depredation is reduced when coyotes are without pups. Contraception, therefore, may represent a non-lethal solution for conflicts between coyotes and humans. Steroid hormones successfully control fertility in some species, but have been considered contraindicated in wildlife and canids in particular; specific concerns include possible induction of aberrant behavior, or uterine and hematopoietic pathologies. Herein we describe a study examining the physiological effectiveness, health safety, and behavioral consequences following treatment of estrous coyotes with exogenous estrogen. We treated captive adult female coyotes in estrus with 0.01 mg/kg estradiol benzoate (EB), either before (n = 5) or immediately after ovulation (n = 6), then documented reproductive outcome, physiological variables and behavioral responses, during and after treatment. Pregnancy was averted in six females treated after ovulation, suggesting that appropriate timing of treatment proved crucial. A transient suppression of sexual behavior was observed, and in some cases, estrus appeared slightly lengthened. However, neither ovulation nor mating behavior was fully suppressed. Importantly, non-pregnant females (and their mates) displayed diestrous socio-sexual behavior similar to pregnant coyotes (behavioral pseudopregnancy). Furthermore, non-pregnant coyotes did not mate again until the next native breeding season, and we observed no deleterious physiological effects during diestrus or subsequent ovarian cycles. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source

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