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Jiang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Shi D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhou X.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

A 76-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of Lysine and Methionine supplementation on growth and digestive capacity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed plant protein diets using high-level canola meal (CM). Fish with initial average weight 103.9 ± 0.6 g were fed three extruded diets. Fish meal (FM) diet was formulated as the normal control with 40 g kg-1 FM and 300 g kg-1 CM; CM diet was prepared by replacing all FM with CM (total 340 g kg-1) without Lys or Met supplementation; CM supplement (CMS) diet was similar to CM diet but was supplemented with essential amino acids (EAA) to ensure the levels of Lys and Met similar to those in the FM diet. Feed intake, feed efficiency and specific growth rate of the grass carp fed CMS and FM diets were similar (P > 0.05), but higher than those of the grass carp fed CM diet (P < 0.05). The hepatosomatic index, relative gut length, intestosomatic index and intestinal folds height were significantly improved in fish fed FM and CMS diets as compared to CM diet (P < 0.05). Lower activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase in hepatopancreas were observed in fish fed CM diet (P < 0.05). Three hundred and forty gram per kilogram CM without Lys or Met supplementation significantly decreased trypsin, lipase and amylase mRNA levels in hepatopancreas (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the high supply of CM (340 g kg-1) in plant protein (200 g kg-1 soybean meal and 100 g kg-1 cottonseed meal) diets decreased digestive ability through decreasing digestive enzyme activities and enzyme gene's expressions of grass carp, and these side effects can be reversed by supplementing Lys and Met. Therefore, CM could be high level used in a plant protein blend-based extruded diet for grass carp as long as EAA were supplemented. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Zeng Y.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

Growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities and target of rapamycin (TOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) gene expression in the hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed graded ratios of dietary alpha-linolenic acid/linoleic acid (ALA/LNA) (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days were investigated. The results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly improved (i) per cent weight gain (PWG) and feed efficiency, (ii) hepatopancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, amylase and intestinal creatine kinase (CK) activities, (iii) hepatopancreatic trypsinogen-2 and chymotrypsinogen mRNA levels. Meanwhile, fish fed with ALA/LNA ratio of 0.68 significantly enhanced, (iv) Na+/K+-ATPase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in whole intestine, and alkaline phosphatase activities in the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine, (v) amylase, intestinal Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-subunit isoform 1, Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-subunit isoform 8 and CK mRNA abundances, (vi) TOR and S6K1 gene expression in the hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile grass carp. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG, cholecystokinin and leptin contents in the PI, optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio of juvenile grass carp (8.78-72.00 g) was estimated to be 1.08, 1.19 and 1.05, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Zhang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

To investigate effects of iron (Fe) on growth, haematological parameters, flesh quality and antioxidant status in muscle, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (292.0 ± 3.2 g) were fed graded levels of Fe (20.7, 38.4, 52.8, 79.3, 98.0 and 120.0 mg kg-1 diet) for 8 weeks. Per cent weight gain (PWG) and feed intake were improved with Fe levels up to 52.8 mg kg-1 diet. Serum Fe, erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit and mean cell haemoglobin increased with optimal Fe levels (38.4-79.3 mg kg-1 diet) (P < 0.05). The muscle protein and lipid contents were increased by dietary Fe, whereas moisture, liquid loss, shear force and hydroxyproline contents followed opposite trends. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in muscle were the lowest in fish fed the 52.8 or 79.3 mg Fe kg-1 diet, respectively, while superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione content were increased by Fe levels up to 52.8-79.3 mg kg-1 diet. Results indicated that the optimal Fe improved growth, flesh quality and muscle antioxidant defence of young grass carp. Dietary Fe requirements for PWG, serum Fe and Hb of young grass carp (292-695 g) were 73.5, 72.8 and 69.0 mg kg-1 diet, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Li W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study investigated the effects of phenylalanine on growth, digestive and absorptive ability and antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Young grass carp were fed diets containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g phenylalanine kg-1 diet with a fixed of 10.7 g tyrosine kg-1 diet for 8 weeks. Percent weight gain (PWG), feed efficiency and feed intake of fish were the lowest in fish fed the basal diet (P < 0.05). Trypsin, lipase and amylase activities in the hepatopancreas, and antioxidants including glutathione contents and glutathione reducase activities in the hepatopancreas and intestine were all the highest in fish fed 11.5 g phenylalanine kg-1 diet (P < 0.05). Trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase activities in whole intestine, and creatine kinase, Na+, K+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the proximal intestine, and superoxide dismutase activities in the hepatopancreas and intestine were all the highest when phenylalanine at level of 9.1 g kg-1 diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, phenylalanine improved growth, digestive and absorptive ability, and antioxidant capacity of young grass carp. The phenylalanine requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) based on PWG was 10.4 g kg-1 diet or 3.44 g 100 g-1 protein. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Li S.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

To investigate the effects of niacin on growth, digestion and absorption capacity, and the potential mechanism for digestive and brush border enzyme activities, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (256 ± 0.41 g) were fed diets containing 3.95 (basal diet group), 14.92, 24.98, 35.03, 44.97 and 55.01 mg niacin kg-1 diet for 8 weeks. Results indicated that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency were the lowest in basal group (P < 0.05). Similarly, niacin deficiency decreased hepatopancreas trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and amylase activities (P < 0.05), intestinal Na+, K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase (CK) activities, the cholecystokinin (CCK) content in proximal intestine (PI) and growth hormone content in serum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, niacin deficiency downregulated gene expression of hepatopancreas trypsinogen 1, trypsinogen 2, chymotrypsinogen and amylase, intestinal Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit isoform 1, Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit isoform 8 and CK, and target of rapamycin (TOR) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) of hepatopancreas and intestine (P < 0.05), whereas upregulated eIF4E-binding protein (4EBP) gene expression (P < 0.05). The niacin requirement for young grass carp (256-689 g) based on PWG, hepatopancreas trypsin activity and Na+, K+-ATPase in PI was 34.01, 35.10 and 42.08 mg kg-1 diet, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Yuan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Feng L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Jiang W.-D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2014

A total of 1400 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (8.93 ± 0.03 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of vitamin K at 0.027 (basal diet), 1.52, 3.02, 4.51, 6.02 and 7.52 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days to investigate the effects of vitamin K on growth, enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were improved by vitamin K. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase in the intestine and hepatopancreas and Na+, K+-ATPase, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in the intestine were increased by vitamin K. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine were decreased with vitamin K supplements. Certain level of vitamin K increased antihydroxyl radical, antisuperoxide anion, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Intestinal Lactobacillus, E. coli and Aeromonas were changed with vitamin K supplements. Together, these results indicate that vitamin K improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability, and anti-oxidant capacity. The dietary vitamin K requirement of juvenile Jian carp (8.93-73.7 g) based on PWG was 3.13 mg kg-1 diet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Loading Animal Nutrition Institute Sichuan Academy of Animal Science Chengdu China collaborators
Loading Animal Nutrition Institute Sichuan Academy of Animal Science Chengdu China collaborators