Garg M.R.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Sherasia P.L.,Animal Nutrition Group
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2016
In recent years, the share of developing countries in global milk production has increased significantly. Despite the breakthroughs in milk production, average productivity of livestock is quite low in the region, mainly because of imbalanced feeding in terms of protein, energy and minerals. Farmers do not have adequate knowledge, resources and skills to formulate a least cost balanced ration. Feed shortages notwithstanding in the region, considerable potential exists for improving livestock productivity and reducing the carbon footprint of milk by ration balancing with available feed resources. The National Dairy Development Board of India has developed a user-friendly ration balancing software for preparing a least cost balanced ration, using available feed resources and area-specific mineral mixtures. To educate farmers, a large-scale ration balancing programme has been implemented in different states of India. Various studies indicate that ration balancing has resulted in an increase in farmers' net daily income by increasing milk yield or milk fat, while reducing feeding costs. Ration balancing has also helped improve feed conversion efficiency and microbial protein synthesis, while reducing enteric methane emissions. A study on the cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment of lifetime milk production indicated that enteric methane is the largest contributor to the carbon footprint of milk. A significant reduction in the carbon footprint of milk has been observed when feeding a balanced ration. The present review summarizes the application of ration balancing approach at the farmers' doorstep that could serve as a climate-smart strategy for achieving sustainable increases in livestock productivity in developing countries. © 2016 CAB International.
PubMed | University of Queensland, University of Adelaide, CSIRO and Animal Nutrition Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2016
Soluble dietary fibres have shown to have lipid reducing properties. However, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. The present study investigated how a soluble wheat arabinoxylan-rich fraction (AXRF) fed to pigs used as a human model reduced blood triglycerides.After 4 weeks on the experimental diets, blood from the jugular (JV) and hepatic portal (HPV) veins, bile from the gall bladder, and digesta samples from four sites of the small intestine (SI) and cecum were collected. The results showed that the AXRF significantly decreased the concentrations of total bile acid (BA) in the HPV (p < 0.01), JV (p<0.01), bile (p<0.05) and SI (p<0.05), but with no effect on ileal BAs excretion flux. Furthermore, blood triglyceride (TAG) levels were also lower with AXRF (p<0.01) but with no significant effects on LDL-, HDL- or total cholesterol levels. The lower plasma TAG concentration was consistent with the reduced/delayed digestion and absorption of TAG with the AXRF (total fatty acid and MUFA p<0.01; unsaturated fatty acid p<0.05).The results suggest that AXRF reduced the levels of circulating BAs which slowed down the digestion of TAG and absorption of free fatty acids, with consequent reduction in blood TAG. Reduction in circulating bile acids by arabinoxylan causes reduction in lipids digestion and absorption.
Garg M.R.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Phondba B.T.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Sherasia P.L.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Makkar H.P.S.,Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations FAO
Animal Production Science | Year: 2016
In recent years, the concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) has proven to be useful because of its potential to assess the integral environmental impacts of agricultural products. Developing countries such as India are good candidates for LCA research because of the large contribution of smallholder dairy system to the production of agricultural products such as milk. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the carbon footprint of milk production under the multi-functional smallholder dairy system in Anand district of Gujarat state, western India. A cradle-to-farm gate LCA was performed by covering 60 smallholder dairy farms within 12 geographically distinct villages of the district. The average farm size was 4.0 animals per farm, and the average number of each category of animal was 2.5 lactating cows, 1.4 lactating buffaloes, 1.8 replacement cows, 1.6 replacement buffaloes, 2.0 retired cows, 1.3 retired buffaloes and 1.0 ox per farm. The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) on CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) basis from feed production, enteric fermentation and manure management were allocated to fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) on the basis of mass balance, price and digestibility. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from cattle contributed 11.0%, 75.4% and 13.6%, respectively, to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The contribution of CO2, CH4 and N2O from buffalo was 8.2%, 80.5% and 11.3%, respectively, to the total GHG emissions of farms. The average carbon footprint (CF) of cow milk was 2.3, 1.9 and 2.0 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM on mass, economic and digestibility basis, respectively, whereas for buffalo, milk CF was 3.0, 2.5 and 2.7 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, respectively. On the basis of digestibility allocation, emissions from retired (>10 years of age and incapable of or ceased producing milk) cows and buffaloes were 1571.3 and 2556.1 kg CO2-eq/retirement year, respectively. Overall, the CF of milk production under the smallholder dairy system in Anand district was 2.2 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, which reduced to 1.7 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM when milk, manure, finance and insurance were considered as economic functions of the smallholder system. The CF was lower by 65% and 22% for cow and buffalo milk, respectively, than were the estimates of FAO for southern Asia, and this was mainly attributed to difference in the sources of GHG emissions, manure management systems, feed digestibility and milk production data used by FAO. © CSIRO 2016.
Effects of feeding nutritionally balanced rations on animal productivity, feed conversion efficiency, feed nitrogen use efficiency, rumen microbial protein supply, parasitic load, immunity and enteric methane emissions of milking animals under field conditions
Garg M.R.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Sherasia P.L.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Bhanderi B.M.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Phondba B.T.,Animal Nutrition Group |
And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013
Milking animals produce milk commensurate with their genetic potential only when they are fed a nutritionally balanced ration in an amount that provides nutrients to express their genetic potential. As animals kept by smallholder farmers are rarely fed a balanced ration, a programme to feed balanced rations to animals of such farmers was launched in India. Based on their milk yield, the animals were categorized as: low (<8kg/d), medium (8-12kg/d) and high (>12kg/d) yielders. Milk yield, milk fat and net daily income to milk producers were recorded before and after feeding a balanced ration. Nutritional status of animals showed that, for 71% of animals', crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy intakes were higher and, for 65% of animals', calcium and phosphorus intakes were lower than requirements. Ration balancing improved milk yield by 2-14% and its milk fat proportion by 0.2-15%. Feed conversion efficiency, as kg of fat corrected milk (FCM)/kg of dry matter intake of buffaloes (n=1131) before and after feeding balanced rations was 0.6 and 0.7, respectively, and in cows (n=540) the values were 0.6 and 0.8. Dietary N secreted into milk increased from 0.16 to 0.25 and 0.16 to 0.19 in low and medium yielding cows and buffaloes, respectively. Rumen microbial CP synthesis also increased (P<0.05) by 36 and 38% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. On feeding balanced rations, levels (mg/ml) of plasma immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA increased from 14.48 to 22.11, 2.69 to 3.29 and 0.48 to 0.67, and the parasitic load was reduced from 168 to 81eggs/g of faeces. Enteric CH4 emissions (g/kg milk yield) was reduced by 15-20% (P<0.05) in these lactating animals. Results demonstrate that feeding nutritionally balanced rations increased milk production and reduced enteric CH4 emissions and N excretion from lactating cows and buffaloes. While implementation of a ration balancing programme under small holding systems is challenging, large scale use of this programme in tropical countries can help improve productivity of milking animals with available feed resources in an environmentally sustainable manner. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
News Article | December 8, 2016
TOKYO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Ajinomoto Co., Inc. (TOKYO:2802) and its consolidated subsidiary of Ajinomoto Animal Nutrition Group, Inc. were awarded EcoProducts Grand Prize “The Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Prize”, one of the highest honor in Japan to commend the products for environmental protection, for their long time business efforts of L-Lysine amino acid for animal nutrition. “The award evaluating our animal nutrition business from the view point of sustainability is quite meaningful to the entire Ajinomoto Group. Since the foundation in 1909, we have been engaging in initiatives to resolve social issues through its business. By improving economic value through the creation of shared value with local communities and society as a whole, these initiatives have contributed to the Group’s growth. We are very much encouraged by the award for the evaluation of the social value of our animal nutrition business over 51 years of history. Keeping the aspiration of our founding in our hearts, we will continue to contribute to a healthy future for the humanity and the earth through products and services supported by science and technology through our overall business activities,” said Tamotsu Iwamoto, Executive Deputy President of Ajinomoto Co., Inc. and in charge of sustainability of the group. Suppression of greenhouse gas: Among the major compound feeds used in the livestock sector, corn and wheat provide high levels of energy to animals but are deficient in amino acids such as lysine and others, limiting livestock production performances. Soybean is the main protein source used for animal feeding providing all amino acids but only lysine can be fully utilized by the animals, the other amino acids being wasted, excreted as nitrogen compounds. The utilization of industrial lysine has opened the way to the reduction of the use of soybean through amino acid balancing practices all over the world. Excessive nitrogen content leads to a burden being imposed on soil, air and water quality. Nitrogen compounds from livestock waste are oxidized/reduced by soil and air, with some nitrogen being released into the atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N O). The greenhouse effect of N O is about 300 times that of CO . N O has the next largest impact on total global warming after CO and methane. Supplementing the deficient amino acids with feed-use amino acids improves the efficiency with which the livestock’s bodies utilize amino acids. The use of lysine and other feed-use amino acids leads to a lower amount of livestock waste and can contribute to the prevention of global warming. (*1) Reduction of eutrophication and acidification: The use of lysine and other amino acids drastically reduce the impact of animal productions such as swine and poultry on eutrophication and acidification, other key indicators of the environmental performances. Prevention of deforestation: Common compound feeds for livestock (high-protein feed) are composed of ingredients such as corn and soybean meal. The yield per unit of land for corn is about three times higher than that of soybeans. Therefore, when soybean meal is switched to the same amount of corn and lysine, the land surface used can be reduced by about 70%. As there are fears that the development of new areas for cultivation due to the predicted increase in land demand for feed and food may lead to deforestation, the introduction of lysine can be regarded as effective in both meeting demand for meat and protecting the global environment. (*2) About Ajinomoto Co. Ajinomoto Co. is a global manufacturer of high-quality seasonings, processed foods, beverages, amino acids, pharmaceuticals and specialty chemicals. For many decades Ajinomoto Co. has contributed to food culture and human health through wide-ranging application of amino acid technologies. Today, the company is becoming increasingly involved with solutions for improved food resources, human health and global sustainability. Founded in 1909 and now operating in 27 countries and regions, Ajinomoto Co. had net sales of JPY 1,185.9 billion (USD 9.87 billion) in fiscal 2015. For more about Ajinomoto Co. (TOKYO:2802), visit www.ajinomoto.com.
Shelke S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Shelke S.K.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Thakur S.S.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Amrutkar S.A.,National Dairy Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011
The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre partum rumen protected fat and protein supplementation on the performance of Murrah buffaloes. Eighteen Murrah buffaloes (2 nd - 4th lactation) were divided into 2 groups (9 each) on the basis of most probable production ability (MPPA). Buffaloes in group 1 (control group; MPPA 2204.17 kg) were fed chaffed wheat straw, chopped green maize fodder and concentrate mixture as per requirements; buffaloes in group 2 (treatment group; MPPA 2210.64 kg) were fed same ration as control group plus 2.5% rumen protected fat (on DM intake basis) and concentrate mixture containing formaldehyde treated mustard and groundnut oil cake (1.2 g HCHO/100 g CP) in place of normal mustard and groundnut oil cakes. Group 2 buffaloes were supplemented rumen protected fat and protein 60 days pre partum. Average DM intake was 11.13 and 11.69 (kg/d) in groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was significantly higher in group 2. The average CP and TDN intakes were higher in group 2 than that of group 1. During last fortnight, group 2 buffaloes showed higher body weight gain than that of group 1. Average birth weights of the calves were higher by 10.8% in group 2 (35.38 kg) than that of group 1 (31.94 kg). The calving percentage was 100% in both groups. There was no effect on plasma glucose, NEFA, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations among 2 groups, whereas BUN concentration was lower in group 2 during. Incidence of retention of foetal membranes, still births and premature births were reduced in group 2 buffaloes. It may be concluded that rumen protected fat and protein supplementation during pre partum period to advanced pregnant buffaloes increased the calf weight, decreased the incidences of retention of foetal membranes and premature birth in high yielding buffaloes.
Singh D.,Animal Nutrition Group |
Garg A.K.,Animal Nutrition Group
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2013
Eight beet varieties were evaluated for fodder yield and quality parameters. The green and dry fodder yield obtained from beet varieties ranged from 84.23 to 106.04 t/ha and 7.11 to 15.00 t/ha, respectively. Sugar beet variety Mangnolia recorded the highest green fodder yield (106 t/ ha) and dry matter yield (15 t/ha). Sugar beet varieties recorded significantly higher dry fodder yields than the fodder beet varieties. High crude protein and low soluble sugar content was observed in roots of fodder beet than sugar beet varieties. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, silica and oxalic acid contents were recorded higher in beet varieties leaves portion compared to roots. Oxalic acid content was found low in beet roots (0.5 to 0.8 %). Higher minerals content (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sodium) was observed in fodder beet variety JK Kuber.
PubMed | Head Productivity Enhancement and Animal Nutrition Group
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2016
Deficiency of macro and micro-minerals in the ration of dairy cows adversely affects growth, milk production and reproduction efficiency. It is essential to examine mineral concentrations in feeds offered to dairy cows in practical farms.Two villages from each taluka were selected at random for taking representative samples of feeds, forages and hair. Within the village, help was sought from village milk producers and district animal husbandry officer for identification of 4 to 5 farmers and collection of representative samples. All the samples were processed and analyzed for chemical composition as well as major macro and micro-minerals, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer.Ca content in wheat straw (0.29%), crushed maize (0.02%) and wheat bran (0.12%) was found to be below the critical level (0.30%). The P content in concentrate ingredients was high (0.26-0.96%), but low in dry roughages (0.06-0.12%). Cereal straws (0.14%) and grains (0.12%) were deficient in Mg. Feeds and forages were found to be adequate in K (1.50%). Cereals straws were found to be deficient in S (0.11%). Greens were good source of Cu (12.02ppm). Wheat straw was found to be low in Zn (18ppm), but high in Mn (225ppm) and Fe (509ppm). Local grasses and azolla green were found to be rich source of Co (>1.00ppm). Se (0.63ppm) was present in appreciable quantities in most of the feedstuffs.From the present study, it was apparent that the feeds and forages available in the state of Jharkhand may not meet the requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co in order to sustain a milk production of ~10kg/day. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement these deficient minerals through area specific mineral mixture in the ration of dairy cows for improving productivity and reproduction efficiency.
PubMed | National Dairy Research Institute and Animal Nutrition Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016
Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride) during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes.The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits.The concentrations of calcium (8.760.08-12.110.11 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorus (6.560.13-14.724.50 mg/dl), magnesium (2.270.14-5.790.15 mg/dl), sodium (139.470.31-159.621.22 mmol/L), potassium (12.400.22-26.851.22 mmol/L), and chloride (109.280.41-137.070.68 mmol/L) varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01) higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001) related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001) negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma.These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.
PubMed | Wageningen University and Animal Nutrition Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growth patterns and dietary crude protein levels during rearing in broiler breeder females on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, and offspring performance. A 23 factorial arrangement of treatments was used, with 2 growth patterns to reach a target body weight at 20wk of age of 2,200 g (standard=standard growth pattern) or 2,400 g (high=high growth pattern), and 3 dietary protein levels (high=crude protein, high), (medium=crude protein, medium), and low=crude protein, low). Fresh egg composition and organ development in hatchlings were determined. Offspring of the different groups were reared until an age of 34 d and feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, and carcass composition were determined. In 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders compared to standard growth pattern breeders, fertility and hatchability of set eggs were increased; embryonic mortality between d 1 and 9 was decreased whereas hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected. Breeders fed the medium crude protein diet showed a decreased hatchability of fertile eggs caused by an increased embryonic mortality between d 18 and 21 compared to breeders fed the high crude protein and low crude protein diets. Offspring of 29-wk-old high growth pattern breeders tended (P=0.059) to have a higher body weight at d 34 than offspring of standard growth pattern breeders, which was achieved by a tendency to a higher body weight gain (P=0.057). Offspring of breeders fed the medium and low crude protein diet showed a higher feed intake between d 18 and 27 and during the total growth period, as compared to offspring of high crude protein breeders. Male broilers of low crude protein breeders had higher breast meat yield than male broilers of high crude protein breeders, while breast meat yield of female broilers was not affected by dietary protein levels. This experiment showed that a higher growth pattern during the rearing period increased fertility, decreased embryonic mortality, and improved offspring performance in young breeders, whereas decreased dietary protein level had no or less pronounced effects on these traits.