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Ānand, India

Shelke S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shelke S.K.,Animal Nutrition Group | Thakur S.S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shete S.M.,National Dairy Research Institute
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

In high producing dairy animals, especially during early lactation, the amount of energy and protein required for maintenance of body tissues and milk production often exceeds the amount of energy available from diet which results in a negative energy balance. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to increase the energy density of diet in the ration of high producing dairy cattle, which adversely affect the dry matter intake, depresses fiber digestion and results in milk fat depression syndrome. Another viable option is to supplement protected fat in the diet of lactating cows and buffaloes which positively affect efficiency of these animals through a combination of caloric and non-caloric effects. Caloric effects are attributable to greater energy content and energetic efficiency of lipids as compared to that of carbohydrates or proteins with the overall benefit being increased milk production. The non-caloric effects include improved reproductive performance and altered fatty acid profile of milk. Whereas, the supplementation of protected protein in the diets of lactating animals increases the milk yield due to proportionate increase in the supply of amino acids to the host postruminally. Feeding protected protein in diets containing supplemental fat may alleviate the decrease in milk protein percentage associated with fat supplementation. Therefore, there is need to avoid negative energy balance during early lactation and to enhance the milk productivity with desirable composition, which will have far reaching benefits on their reproductive performance by supplementation of protected nutrients in the ration of medium and high yielding lactating animals. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Shelke S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shelke S.K.,Animal Nutrition Group | Thakur S.S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Amrutkar S.A.,National Dairy Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre partum rumen protected fat and protein supplementation on the performance of Murrah buffaloes. Eighteen Murrah buffaloes (2 nd - 4th lactation) were divided into 2 groups (9 each) on the basis of most probable production ability (MPPA). Buffaloes in group 1 (control group; MPPA 2204.17 kg) were fed chaffed wheat straw, chopped green maize fodder and concentrate mixture as per requirements; buffaloes in group 2 (treatment group; MPPA 2210.64 kg) were fed same ration as control group plus 2.5% rumen protected fat (on DM intake basis) and concentrate mixture containing formaldehyde treated mustard and groundnut oil cake (1.2 g HCHO/100 g CP) in place of normal mustard and groundnut oil cakes. Group 2 buffaloes were supplemented rumen protected fat and protein 60 days pre partum. Average DM intake was 11.13 and 11.69 (kg/d) in groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was significantly higher in group 2. The average CP and TDN intakes were higher in group 2 than that of group 1. During last fortnight, group 2 buffaloes showed higher body weight gain than that of group 1. Average birth weights of the calves were higher by 10.8% in group 2 (35.38 kg) than that of group 1 (31.94 kg). The calving percentage was 100% in both groups. There was no effect on plasma glucose, NEFA, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations among 2 groups, whereas BUN concentration was lower in group 2 during. Incidence of retention of foetal membranes, still births and premature births were reduced in group 2 buffaloes. It may be concluded that rumen protected fat and protein supplementation during pre partum period to advanced pregnant buffaloes increased the calf weight, decreased the incidences of retention of foetal membranes and premature birth in high yielding buffaloes. Source

Gunness P.,University of Queensland | Williams B.A.,University of Queensland | Gerrits W.J.J.,Animal Nutrition Group | Bird A.R.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2016

Scope: Soluble dietary fibres have shown to have lipid reducing properties. However, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. The present study investigated how a soluble wheat arabinoxylan-rich fraction (AXRF) fed to pigs used as a human model reduced blood triglycerides. Methods and results: After 4 weeks on the experimental diets, blood from the jugular (JV) and hepatic portal (HPV) veins, bile from the gall bladder, and digesta samples from four sites of the small intestine (SI) and cecum were collected. The results showed that the AXRF significantly decreased the concentrations of total bile acid (BA) in the HPV (p < 0.01), JV (p < 0.01), bile (p < 0.05) and SI (p < 0.05), but with no effect on ileal BAs excretion flux. Furthermore, blood triglyceride (TAG) levels were also lower with AXRF (p < 0.01) but with no significant effects on LDL-, HDL- or total cholesterol levels. The lower plasma TAG concentration was consistent with the reduced/delayed digestion and absorption of TAG with the AXRF (total fatty acid and MUFA p < 0.01; unsaturated fatty acid p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that AXRF reduced the levels of circulating BAs which slowed down the digestion of TAG and absorption of free fatty acids, with consequent reduction in blood TAG. Reduction in circulating bile acids by arabinoxylan causes reduction in lipids digestion and absorption. Wheat arabinoxylan in the diet masks the presence of lipids in the small intestine. This results in a decrease in bile acids secretion by the gall bladder after an adaption period. The rate of lipids digestion and absorption is thus reduced with a subsequent reduction in blood trigycerides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Teekens A.M.,Vilentum Hogeschool | Bruins M.E.,Agrotechnology and Food Science Group | van Kasteren J.M.,Vilentum Hogeschool | Hendriks W.H.,Animal Nutrition Group | Sanders J.P.,Agrotechnology and Food Science Group
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio-based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio-based industry and creates synergy between bio-based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Garg M.R.,Animal Nutrition Group | Phondba B.T.,Animal Nutrition Group | Sherasia P.L.,Animal Nutrition Group | Makkar H.P.S.,Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations FAO
Animal Production Science | Year: 2016

In recent years, the concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) has proven to be useful because of its potential to assess the integral environmental impacts of agricultural products. Developing countries such as India are good candidates for LCA research because of the large contribution of smallholder dairy system to the production of agricultural products such as milk. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the carbon footprint of milk production under the multi-functional smallholder dairy system in Anand district of Gujarat state, western India. A cradle-to-farm gate LCA was performed by covering 60 smallholder dairy farms within 12 geographically distinct villages of the district. The average farm size was 4.0 animals per farm, and the average number of each category of animal was 2.5 lactating cows, 1.4 lactating buffaloes, 1.8 replacement cows, 1.6 replacement buffaloes, 2.0 retired cows, 1.3 retired buffaloes and 1.0 ox per farm. The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) on CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) basis from feed production, enteric fermentation and manure management were allocated to fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) on the basis of mass balance, price and digestibility. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from cattle contributed 11.0%, 75.4% and 13.6%, respectively, to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The contribution of CO2, CH4 and N2O from buffalo was 8.2%, 80.5% and 11.3%, respectively, to the total GHG emissions of farms. The average carbon footprint (CF) of cow milk was 2.3, 1.9 and 2.0 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM on mass, economic and digestibility basis, respectively, whereas for buffalo, milk CF was 3.0, 2.5 and 2.7 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, respectively. On the basis of digestibility allocation, emissions from retired (>10 years of age and incapable of or ceased producing milk) cows and buffaloes were 1571.3 and 2556.1 kg CO2-eq/retirement year, respectively. Overall, the CF of milk production under the smallholder dairy system in Anand district was 2.2 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, which reduced to 1.7 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM when milk, manure, finance and insurance were considered as economic functions of the smallholder system. The CF was lower by 65% and 22% for cow and buffalo milk, respectively, than were the estimates of FAO for southern Asia, and this was mainly attributed to difference in the sources of GHG emissions, manure management systems, feed digestibility and milk production data used by FAO. © CSIRO 2016. Source

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