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Chen F.-H.,National Tsing Hua University | Chiang C.-S.,National Tsing Hua University | Wang C.-C.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou | Wang C.-C.,Chang Gung University | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: To investigate vasculatures and microenvironment in tumors growing from preirradiated tissues (pre-IR tumors) and study the vascular responses of pre-IR tumors to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Methods and Materials: Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate C1 tumors were implanted into unirradiated or preirradiated tissues and examined for vascularity, hypoxia, and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltrates by immunohistochemistry. The origin of tumor endothelial cells was studied by green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM) transplantation. The response of tumor endothelial cells to radiation and antiangiogenic agent was evaluated by apoptotic assay. Results: The pre-IR tumors had obvious tumor bed effects (TBE), with slower growth rate, lower microvascular density (MVD), and more necrotic and hypoxic fraction compared with control tumors. The vessels were dilated, tightly adhered with pericytes, and incorporated with transplanted GFP-BM cells. In addition, hypoxic regions became aggregated with TAM. As pre-IR tumors developed, the TBE was overcome at the tumor edge where the MVD increased, TAM did not aggregate, and the GFP-BM cells did not incorporate into the vessels. The vessels at tumor edge were more sensitive to the following ionizing radiation and antiangiogenic agent than those in the central low MVD regions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vasculatures in regions with TBE are mainly formed by vasculogenesis and resistant to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor bed effects could be overcome at the edge of larger tumors, but where vasculatures are formed by angiogenesis and sensitive to both treatments. Vasculatures formed by vasculogenesis should be the crucial target for the treatment of recurrent tumors after radiotherapy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Hsu S.-H.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Wen C.-J.,Animal Molecular Imaging Center | Al-Suwayeh S.A.,King Saud University | Chang H.-W.,Chang Gung University | And 3 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2010

Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared to investigate whether the duration of brain targeting and accumulation of drugs in the brain can be improved by intravenous delivery. NLCs were developed using cetyl palmitate as the lipid matrix, squalene as the cationic surfactant, and Pluronic F68, polysorbate 80 and polyethylene glycol as the interfacial additives. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and lipid emulsions (LEs) were also prepared for comparison. An anti-Parkinson's drug, apomorphine, was used as the model drug. Nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry showed possible interactions between the solid and liquid lipids in the inner core. The lipid nanoparticles with different compositions were characterized by mean size, zeta potential, apomorphine encapsulation and in vitro drug release. NLCs were 370-430 nm in size, which was between the sizes of the SLNs and LEs. A cationic surfactant was used to produce a positive surface charge of 42-50 mV. The base form of apomorphine was successfully entrapped by NLCs with an entrapment percentage of >60%. The loading of apomorphine in nanoparticles resulted in a slower release behavior compared to the aqueous solution, with LEs showing the lowest release. In vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging of the rat brain revealed that NLCs could be targeted, through certain vessels, to selected brain regions. This effect was further confirmed by imaging the entire brain and brain slices. The results indicated that NLCs with moderate additives are a promising controlled-release and drug-targeting system. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Yang H.-W.,Chang Gung University | Yang H.-W.,National Tsing Hua University | Hua M.-Y.,Chang Gung University | Hwang T.-L.,Chang Gung University | And 15 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The combination of chemo-thermal therapy is the best strategy to ablate tumors, but how to heat deep tumor tissues effectively without side-damage is a challenge. Here, a systemically delivered nanocarrier is designed with multiple advantages, including superior heat absorption, highly efficient hyperthermia, high drug capacity, specific targeting ability, and molecular imaging, to achieve both high antitumor efficacy and effective amplification of hyperthermia with minimal side effects. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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