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Tohno M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kitahara M.,RIKEN | Irisawa T.,RIKEN | Masuda T.,Animal Industry Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Two bacterial strains, designated IWT246T and IWT248, were isolated from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) silage from Iwate prefecture, Japan, and examined for a taxonomic study. Both organisms were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic and homofermentative. The cell wall did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acids were C18: 1ω9c and C19 cyclo 9,10/:1. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences revealed that these strains were novel and belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the isolates were most closely related to the type strains of the following members of the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis (96.7% similarity), L. coryniformis subsp. torquens (96.6 %), L. bifermentans (95.5 %) and L. rennini (94.1 %). However, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of both IWT246T and IWT248 were 99.7% similar to that of 'Lactobacillus backi' JCM 18665; this name has not been validly published. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that these novel strains occupy a unique taxonomic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated genotypic separation of the novel isolates from related Lactobacillus species. The name Lactobacillus iwatensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates, with strain IWT246T (=JCM 18838T5DSM 26942T) as the type strain. Our results also suggest that 'L. backi' does represent a novel Lactobacillus species. The cells did not contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major fatty acids were C16: 0, C19 cyclo 9,10/:1 and summed feature 10 (one or more of C18: 1ω11c, C18: 1ω9t, C18: 1ω6t and unknown ECL 17.834). We therefore propose the corrected name Lactobacillus backii sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 18665T (=LMG 23555T=DSM 18080T=L1062T). © 2013 IUMS.

Miyashita N.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Kubo Y.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Yonai M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Kaneyama K.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Dolly, the first mammal cloned from a somatic cell, had shorter telomeres than age-matched controls and died at an early age because of disease. To investigate longevity and lifetime performance in cloned animals, we produced cloned cows with short telomeres using oviductal epithelial cells as donor cells. At 5 years of age, despite the presence of short telomeres, all cloned cows delivered multiple healthy offspring following artificial insemination with conventionally processed spermatozoa from noncloned bulls, and their milk production was comparable to that of donor cows. Moreover, this study revealed that the offspring had normal-length telomeres in their leukocytes and major organs. Thus, cloned animals have normal functional germ lines, and therefore germ line function can completely restore telomere lengths in clone gametes by telomerase activity, resulting in healthy offspring with normal-length telomeres. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

Sasaki K.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Motoyama M.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Yasuda J.,Animal Industry Research Institute | Yamamoto T.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

'Tenderness' has been an important sensory characteristic for beef, although 'tenderness' has not been commonly defined. On the other hand, ISO5492:1992 provides internationally established vocabularies for sensory analysis with simple definition. The aim of this study was texture characterization for three beef muscles cooked to four end-point temperatures using ISO5492:1992 texture terms in Japanese to develop objective sensory evaluation terms for beef texture other than 'tenderness.' Longissimus, semitendinosus, and psoas major muscles harvested from three Holstein steers were cooked to 45, 60, 72, and 92°C end-point temperatures and evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Correspondence analysis indicated that the 'chewiness' and 'hardness' defined in ISO5492 were distinguished in each muscle. Changes in the 'chewiness' and 'hardness' qualities during cooking were different from each other. These findings suggest that both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' as defined in ISO5492:1992 should be evaluated simultaneously to determine the sensory texture of beef.Warner-Bratzler shear force values (WBSFVs) were also correlated with ISO5492 'chewiness.' This finding suggests that WBSFV indicates ISO5492 'chewiness' rather than undefined 'tenderness'. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.

Watanabe N.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Animal Industry | Satoh Y.,Animal Industry Research Institute | Fujita T.,Oita Prefectural Institute of Animal Industry | Ohta T.,Niigata University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. Our previous study detected 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.231054C > T, g.3109537C > T and c.*188G > A, respectively, in the 5' flanking region of the titin (TTN), the 5' flanking region of the ribosomal protein L27a (RPL27A) and the 3' untranslated region of the akirin 2 genes (AKIRIN2), which have been considered as positional functional candidates for the genes responsible for marbling, and showed association of these SNPs with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. In the present study, we investigated the allele frequency distribution of the 3 SNPs among the 5 cattle breeds, Japanese Black, Japanese Brown, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds. Findings. We genotyped the TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, using 101 sires and 1,705 paternal half sib progeny steers from 8 sires for Japanese Black, 86 sires and 27 paternal half sib progeny steers from 3 sires for Japanese Brown, 79 sires and 264 paternal half sib progeny steers from 14 sires for Japanese Shorthorn, 119 unrelated cows for Holstein, and 118 unrelated cows for Brown Swiss breeds. As compared to the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T, g.3109537C > T T and c.*188G > A A alleles, associated with high marbling, in Japanese Black breed that has been subjected to a strong selection for high marbling, those in the breeds, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds, that have not been selected for high marbling were null or lower. The Japanese Brown breed selected slightly for high marbling showed lower frequency than Japanese Black breed in the g.3109537C > T T allele, whereas no differences were detected between the 2 breeds in the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T and c.*188G > A A alleles. Conclusions: Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the pressure of the strong selection for high marbling in Japanese Black breed has increased the frequencies of the T, T and A alleles at the TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A SNPs, respectively. This study, together with the previous association studies, suggested that the 3 SNPs may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling. © 2011 Yamada et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Komatsu M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sato Y.,Animal Industry Research Institute | Sato Y.,Iwate Agricultural Junior College | Negami T.,University of Tokyo | And 10 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2015

Ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) are involved in growth hormone secretion, food intake, and several other important functions. Ghrelin acts on GHSR1a and induces signal transduction via the Gαq subunit. In our previous study, we identified the DelR242 (3R) allele, a truncated 3-arginine residue (3R) [major type: 4 arginine residues (4R)] of the third intracellular loop of GHSR1a, with a high frequency in Japanese Shorthorn bulls (0.43) but with a low frequency in other cattle breeds (0.00-0.09). To further investigate the reasons for the higher frequency of the 3R allele, we performed several experiments. In this study, we found a significant sex difference in the frequency of the 3R allele. Statistical analysis revealed a significant overdominance effect of the DelR242 locus on growth in Japanese Shorthorn weaner bulls. However, additive/dominance/overdominance effects of the 3R allele on carcass traits in adult steers and dams were not significant. The mode of the overdominance effect was estimated to be solely controlled by the single DelR242 locus without any other linked loci using linkage disequilibrium analysis in GHSR1a. These results indicated that 4R/3R heterozygotes had a selective advantage in weaner bulls because of their higher average daily gain than homozygotes. We discussed possible molecular mechanisms involved in the overdominance effect of the DelR242 locus on these traits in weaner bulls using a structural model of the complex consisting of a GHSR1a dimer and Gαq. © 2015 Komatsu et al.

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