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Khatri B.,Animal Health Veterinary Laboratories Weybridge | Fielder M.,Kingston University | Jones G.,Animal Health Veterinary Laboratories Weybridge | Newell W.,Animal Health Veterinary Laboratories Weybridge | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis is a major human and animal disease of major importance worldwide. Genetically, the closely related strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which cause disease are well-characterized but there is an urgent need better to understand their phenotypes. To search rapidly for metabolic differences, a working method using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis was developed. Of 380 substrates surveyed, 71 permitted tetrazolium dye reduction, the readout over 7 days in the method. By looking for ≥5-fold differences in dye reduction, 12 substrates differentiated M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. H37Rv and a Beijing strain of M. tuberculosis could also be distinguished in this way, as could field strains of M. bovis; even pairs of strains within one spoligotype could be distinguished by 2 to 3 substrates. Cluster analysis gave three clear groups: H37Rv, Beijing, and all the M. bovis strains. The substrates used agreed well with prior knowledge, though an unexpected finding that AF2122/97 gave greater dye reduction than H37Rv with hexoses was investigated further, in culture flasks, revealing that hexoses and Tween 80 were synergistic for growth and used simultaneously rather than in a diauxic fashion. Potential new substrates for growth media were revealed, too, most promisingly N-acetyl glucosamine. Osmotic and pH arrays divided the mycobacteria into two groups with different salt tolerance, though in contrast to the substrate arrays the groups did not entirely correlate with taxonomic differences. More interestingly, these arrays suggested differences between the amines used by the M. tuberculosis complex and enteric bacteria in acid tolerance, with some hydrophobic amino acids being highly effective. In contrast, γ-aminobutyrate, used in the enteric bacteria, had no effect in the mycobacteria. This study proved principle that Phenotype MicroArrays can be used with slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria and already has generated interesting data worthy of further investigation. © 2013 Khatri et al. Source

Drapal M.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Drapal M.,Animal Health Veterinary Laboratories Weybridge | Perez-Fons L.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Wheeler P.R.,Animal Health Veterinary Laboratories Weybridge | Fraser P.D.,Royal Holloway, University of London
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2014

In order to decipher the complex biological networks underlying biochemical and physiological processes, cellular regulation at all levels must be studied. The metabolites determined by metabolomics represent the end-point of cellular regulation and thus vital components of any integrative network. In the case of pathogenic agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis metabolomics offers an ideal opportunity to gain a better understanding of how this species adapts to environmental conditions and antimicrobial treatments. In the present study a metabolite profiling protocol for Mycobacterium including optimised quenching, extraction and analysis has been devised. These methods have been applied to three different Mycobacterium spp. demonstrating potential translation across the genus. Steady-state levels of metabolites during growth have been determined for Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin). The changes of designated biomarkers emphasised phenotypical differences (e.g. nitrogen metabolism) and similarities (e.g. cysteine biosynthesis) between the bacteria. Each time point showed distinguishable metabolic characteristics from early lag to late stationary phase/beginning of non-replicating phase. The combination of the metabolic results with published "omics" data indicated that transcription appeared to be the most predominant mode of cellular regulation utilised by these bacteria studied. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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